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ancient Clauda, which St. Paul past on his way to Rome. To the west is Pulo Gozzo, or little Gozzo, a very small island. Long, 23° 46' E., lat. 34° 48' N. GRAAF Rey NET, the most eastern district in the territory of the Cape of Good Hope, extending from Stellenbosch and Drakenstein to Kaffre Land, about 250 miles in length and 160 in breadth, and containing a surface of 40,000 square miles. The occupation here is entirely grazing, and the inhabitants have frequent skirmishes with the neighbouring Kaffers and Bosjesmans. In the centre of the district is the drosdy orchief town, about 500 miles E. S. E. of Cape Town. See Cape of Good Hope. §. (Regnier de), a celebrated physician, born at Schoonhaven, in Holland, in 1641. He studied physic in Prussia, and was educated at Leyden, where he acquired great honor by publishing a treatise De Succo Pancreatico. He also published three pieces upon the Organs of Generation, on which subject he had a controversy with Swammerdam. He died in 1673, aged thirty-two; and his works with his life prefixed were published at Leyden in 1677, in 8vo. GRABE (John Ernest), a very learned writer in the beginning of the eighteenth century, born at Koningsberg in Prussia. He was educated in the Lutheran religion; but the reading of the fathers led him into doubts. He presented to the electorial consistory at Sambia in Prussia a memorial containing his doubts. The elector ordered three eminent divines to answer them. Their answers shook him in his resolution of embracing the Roman Catholic religion; and one of them, Spener, advised him to go England. He went; and king William III. gave him a pension, which was continued by queen Anne. He was ordained a priest of the church of England, and honored with the degree of D. D. by the university of Oxford; upon which occasion Dr. George Smalridge pronounced two Latin orations, which were afterwards printed. He wrote, 1. Specilegium S.S. Patrum, ut et Hereticorum, saeculi t Christum natum, 8vo. 2. An edition of the eptuagint, from the Alexandrian MS. in St. James's library. 3. Notes on Justin, &c.; and other works, which are much and justly esteemed. GRABBLE, v. n. & v.a. Belg. grabbelen. See GRApple. To grope, feel eagerly with the hands: Dr. Johnson says after Ainsworth “to lie prostrate on the ground, but supplies no instance of the use of the word. My blood chills about my heart at the thought of these rogues, with their bloody hands grabbling in my guts, and pulling out my very entrails. Arbuthnot's John Bull. GRACCHUS (Sempronius), the father of Tiberius and Caius. He was proconsul in Spain, subdued the Celtiberians, and rebuilt or repaired Gracchuris. GRAcchus (Tiberius and Caius). Tiberius, being tribune of the Roman people, demanded in their name the execution of the Agrarian law; by which all persons possessing above 200 acres of land were to be deprived of the surplus, for the benefit of the poor citizens, amongst whom an equal distribution of them was to be made.

Having carried his plan into execution by violent measures, he fell a victim to his zeal, being assassinated, A. A. C. 133. Caius his brother, pursuing the same steps, was killed by the consul Opimius, A.A. C. 121. See Rome. GRACIAS A Dros, a city of Honduras, situated on a river which communicates with the bay of that name. It has two convents; and is 140 miles east of Guatimala. Long. 90°6'W., lat. 14° 30' N. It is also the name of a point of land on the coast of Costa Rica. GRACE, n.s. & v. a. Fr. grace; Belgic.

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GRA'ciously, adv. form: applied also to

GRA'ciousness, n.s. J various expressions or effects of favor or goodness, as mercy, pardon, privilege : and used emphatically, in a theological sense, for the unmerited favor of God and its consequences. To grace is to favor, adorn, or dignify: the graces were female goddesses supposed to bestow beauty: gracious is favorable, benignant, merciful. The meaning of the other compounds appears plain.

For what grace is it if ye synnen and ben buffeted and suffren? but if ye doon well and suffres pacientli, this is grace anentis god, for to this thing ye ben clepid. Wiclif. 1 Peter 2. My hosbond had a legend of his wif Eriphile, that for an ouche of gold Hath prively unto the Greeks told Whir that hire hosbond hidde him in a place, For which he had at Thebes sory grace. Chaucer. Cant. Tales. Where justice grows, there grows the greater grace, The which doth quench the brand of hellish smart. . enger. Doctrine is much more profitable and gracious by example than by rule. This graceless man, for furtherance of his guile, Did court the handmaid of my lady dear. Id. This they study, this they practise, this they grace with a wanton superfluity of wit. Hooker. It doth grieve me, that things of principal excellency should be thus bitten at by men whom God hath endued with graces both of wit and learning, for better purposes. Id. The grievous abuse which hath been of councils, should rather cause men to study how so gracious a thing may again be reduced to that first perfection. Id. He might at his pleasure grace or disgrace whom he would in court. Knolles. To some kind of men, Their graces serve them but as enemies. *c. In his own grace he doth exalt himself More than in your advancement. I do not think a braver gentleman, More daring, or more bold is now alivo, To grace this latter age with noble deeds. Here come I from our princely general To know your griefs; to tell you from his grace, That he will give you audience. Id. Henry IV. Your soldiers use him as the grace 'fore meat, Their talk at table, and their thanks at end. Shakspeare.

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0, mickle is the powerful grace that lies In plants, herbs, stones, and their true qualities. Id. The king-becoming graces, As justice, verity, temperance, stableness, Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude, I have no relish of them. Id. Macbeth. Kings are no less unhappy, their issue not being gracious, than they are in losing them when they have approved their virtues. Id. Winter's Tale. Whose hap shall be to have her, Will not so graceless be, to be ingrate. Shakspeare. By their hands this grace of kings must die, If hell and treason hold their promises. Id. He writes How happily he lives, how well beloved, And daily graced by the emperor. Our women's names are more gracious than their Rutilia, that is, red head. Camden. High and mighty king, your grace, and those your nobles here present, may be pleased to bow your ears. Bacon's Henry VII. There is due from the judge to the advocate some commendation and gracing, where causes are well handled. Bacon. Unblamed Ulysses' house, In which I finde receipt so gracious. Chapman. Who would have looked for tears from Esau ? Or dare trust tears, when he sees them fall from so grace less eyes? Bp. Hall. The desire of more and more rises by a natural gradation to most, and after that to all. L’Estrange. He received all the graces and degrees, the proctorship and the doctorship could be obtained there. Clarendon. The graciousness and temper of this answer made no impression on them. Id. Goring, who was now general of the horse, was no more gracious to prince Rupert than Wilmot had been. Id. Yet those removed, Such grace shall one just man find in his sight, *hat he relents, not to blot out mankind. Milton Prevenient grace descending had removed The stony from their hearts, and made new flesh Regenerate grow instead. Id.

If the highest love in no base person may aspire to grace, then may I hope your beauty will not be without pity. Sidney.

He saw this gentleman, one of the properest and best graced men that ever I saw, being of a middle age and a mean stature. Id.

Within the church, in the publick profession and external communion thereof, are contained persons truly good and sanctified, and hereafter saved ; and together with them other persons void of all saving grace, and hereafter to be damned. Pearson.

Noble pity held His hand a while, and to their choice gave space Which they would prove, his valour or his grace. - Waller. Have I reason or good grace in what I do? Temple. His neck, his hands, his shoulders, and his breast, Did next in gracefulness and beauty stand To breathing figures. Dryden's Ovid. Rich crowns were on their royal scutcheons placed, With sapphires, diamonds, and with rubies graced. Dryden. Or each, or all, may win a lady's grace; Then either of you knights may well deserve A princess born. Id. Fubles.

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To write and speak correctly gives a grace, and gains a favourable attention to what one has to say. Locke. Common sense and reason could not but tell them, that the good and gracious God could not be pleased, nor consequently worshipped, with any thing barbarous or cruel. South. I should therefore esteem it great favour and grace, Would you be so kind as go in my place. Prior. From now reveal A gracious beam of light; from now inspire My tongue to sing, my hand to touch the lyre. Id. The grace-cup served, the cloth away, Jove thought it time to show his play ld. This forehead, where your verse has said The loves delighted and the graces played. Id. The graces of his religion prepare him for the most useful discharge of every relation in life. Rogers. With secret joy she sees her little race Hang on her breast and her small cottage grace. Gay. Now deep in Taylor and the book of Martyrs, Now drinking citron with his grace and Chartres. Pope. To theatres, and to rehearsal throng, And all our grace at table is a song. Id. For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight, His can't be wrong whose life is in the right By both his parents of descent divine ; Great Jove and Phoebus graced his nobler line. . Id. Though triumphs were to generals only due, Crowns were reserved to grace the soldiers too. - Id. While grace is saying after meat, do you and your brethren take the chairs from behind the company. Swift. Through nature and through art she ranged, And gracefully her subject changed. If hearers are amazed from whence Proceeds that fund of wit and sense, Which, though her modesty would shroud, Breaks like the sun behind a cloud; While gracefulness its art conceals, And yet through every motion steals. Id. If her majesty would but graciously be pleased to think a hardship of this nature worthy her royal consideration. Id. Walking is the mode or manner of man, or of a beast; but walking gracefully implies a manner or mode superadded to that action. Watts's Logiot. Graceful to sight, and elegant to thought, The great are vanquished, and the wise are taught Young.

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One lilac only, with a statelier grace, Presumed to claim the oaks and cedar's place;

And, looking round him with a monarch's care, Spread his exalted boughs to wave in air. Harte. But now let other themes our care engage, For lo with modest yet majestic grace, To curb imagination’s lawless rage And trom within the cherished heart to brace, Philosophy appears. Beattie. Such was Zulicka—such around her shone The nameless charms unmarked by her alone— The light of love—the purity of grace The mind, the music breathing from her face; The heart whose softness harmonised the whole And oh! that eye was in itself a soul. Byron. The Bride of Abydos. GRAcES, GRATIAE, or Charities, in the heathen theology, were fabulous deities, three in number, who attended on Venus. Their names are Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne; i.e. shining, flourishing, and gay; or, according to some authors, Pasithea, Euphrosyne, and Ægiale. They were said by some to be the daughters of Jupiter, by Eurynome the daughter of Oceanus; and by others, of Bacchus and Venus.--Some will have the Graces to have been four; and make them the same with the Horae, Hours, or rather with the four seasons of the year. A marble in the king of Prussia's cabinet represents the three Graces in the usual manner, with a fourth seated and covered with a large veil, with the words underneath, Ad Sorores IIII. But this group we may understand to be the three Graces, and Venus, who was their sister, being daughter of Jupiter by Dione. The Graces are always supposed to have hold of each other's hands, and never parted. They were painted naked, to show that the Graces borrow nothing from art, and that they have no other beauties but those of nature. Yet in the first ages they were not represented naked, as appears from Pausanias (lib. vi. and ix.), who describes their temple and statues. They were of wood, all but their head, feet, and mands, which were white marble. Their robe or gown was gilt; one of them held in her hand a rose, another a dye, and the third a sprig of myrtle. GRACULA, the grakle, in ornithology, a genus belonging to the order of pica. The bill is convex, cultrated, and bare at the point; the tongue is not cloven, but is fleshy and sharpish; it has three toes before and one behind. The most remarkable species are the following:— G. barita, the boat-tailed grakle, is about the size of a cuckow. The bill is sharp, black, and an inch and a half in length; the general color of the plumage is black, with a gloss of purple, especially on the upper parts; the legs and claws are black, the latter hooked. There is a singularity in the folding up of the tail-feathers, which, instead of forming a plain surface at top, sink into a hollow like a deep gutter. It always carries its tail expanded i. on the ground, folding it up in the above singular manner only when perched or flying. It inhabits Jamaica, and feeds on maize, beetles, and other insects, as well as on the fruit of the banana. It is likewise common in North America. They breed in swamps, and migrate in September. G. cristatella, the Chinese starling, is a little bigger than a blackbird. The bill is yellow or "range: and the general color of the plumage

blackish, with a tinge of blue; the legs are dull yellow. These birds talk and whistle very well, and are common in China, where they are much esteemed; and the figures of them are seen frequently in Chinese paintings. Their food is rice, insects, worms, and such like. G. quiscula, the purple jack-daw, or Barbadoes blackbird, is about the size of a blackbird, and is black, but most beautifully and richly glossed with purple, especially on the head and neck. The female is wholly brown, but deepest on the wings and tail. This species inhabits Jamaica, Carolina, Mexico, and other parts of North America. These birds generally feed on maize, whence they are named maize thieves; but this is not their only food. In spring, soon after the maize seed is put into the ground, they scratch it up again; and, as soon as the leaf comes out, they take it up with their bills, root and all; but when it is ripe they do still more damage, for at that time they come by thousands, and are so bold, that if disturbed in one part of a field they only go to another. In New Jersey and Pennsylvania 3d. per dozen was once given for the dead birds, and by means of this premium they were nearly extirpated in 1750; when the persecution of them was abated on account of the great increase of worms which had taken place in the meadows, and which in the preceding year had left so little hay in New England as to occasion an importation from other parts. The grakles were therefore again tolerated, as it was observed that they fed on these worms till the maize was ripe. These birds build in trees. They pass the winter in swamps, which are quite overgrown with wood, only appearing in mild weather; and, after the maize is got in, are content to feed on the aquatic tare-grass, and if pressed by hunger, buck-wheat and oats, &c.: they are said also to destroy that pernicious insect the bruchus pisi. Their note is pretty agreeable; but their flesh is not good to eat. G. religiosa, the smaller grakle, or Indian stare, is about the size of a blackbird, the bill an inch and a half long, and of an orange color. The general color of the plumage is black, glossed

with violet, purple, and green, in different reflec

tions of light: on the quills is a bar of white : the feathers and legs are orange yellow, and the claws of a pale brown. This species, which is found in several parts of the East Indies, in the Isle of Hainan, and almost every isle beyond the Ganges, is remarkable for whistling, singing, and talking well, much better and more distinct than any of the parrot genus. Its food is of the vegetable kind. Those kept in this climate are observed to be very fond of cherries and grapes: if cherries are offered to one, and it does not immediately get them, it cries and whines like a child, till it has obtained them. It is very tame and

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degree in the university; to mark with degrees as a thermometer; to raise higher in the scale of metals; to heighten and improve: an academician who has taken his degree; steps from cloisters into the church are called the graduatory. Ther nis no thing in gree superlatif (As saith Senek) above an humble wif. Chaucer. The Merchantes Tale. Concerning columns and their adjuncts, architects make such a noise, as if the terms of architraves, frizes, and cornices, were enough to graduate a master of this art. Wotton. John Tregonwel, graduated a doctor, and dubbed a knight, did good service. Carew's Survey of Cornwall. Amongst those gradient automata, that iron spider is especially remarkable, which, being but of an ordimary bigness, did creep up and down as if it had been alive. Wilkins. Nobler birth Of creatures animate with gradual life, Of growth, sense, reason, all summed up in man. Milton. Of greater repugnancy unto reason is that which he delivers concerning its graduation, that heated in fire, and often extinguished in oyl of mars or iron, the loadstone acquires an ability to extract a nail fastened in a wall. Browne. This some ascribe unto the mixture of the elements, others to the graduality of opacity and light. Id. Not only vitriol is a cause of blackness, but the salts of natural bodies; and dyers advance and graduate their colours with salts. Id. Vulgar Errours. The tincture was capable to transmute or graduate as much silver as equalled in weight that gold. Boyle. Before the gradual prostrate they adored, The pavement kissed, and thus the saint implored. Dryden. The graduation of the parts of the universe is likewise necessary to the perfection of the whole. Grew. Men still suppose a gradual natural progress of things; as that, from great things and persons should grow greater, 'till at length, by many steps and ascents, they come to be at greatest. South. Human creatures are able to bear air of much greater density in diving, and of much less upon the tops of mountains, provided the changes be made gradually. Arbuthnot. The places were marked where the spirits stood at the severest cold and greatest heat, and according to these observations he graduates his thermometers. Derham. That there is a gradation I doubt not, upwards, as our senses inform us that there is one downwards. But such a gradation, by which finite approaches nearer and nearer to infinite, is inconceivable. Bolingbroke. The author of our being weans us gradually from our fondness of life the nearer we approach towards the end of it. Swift. The best of men have ever loved repose; They hate to mingle in the filthy fray Where the soul sours, and gradual rancour grows Imbittered more from peevish day to day. Thomson. All up the craggy cliffs that towered to heaven Green waved the murmuring pines on every side, Save where opening to the beam of even A dale sloped gradual to the valley wide. Beattie. His manly brow Consents to death, but conquers agony, And his drooped head sinks gradually low. Byron. Childe Harold. GRECIA, Magna, in ancient geography,

part of the outermost coast of Italy, originally inhabited by Greeks. See ITALY. GRAEME (John), a Scottish poet, born at Carnwath in Lanarkshire, in 1748, whose thumous poems have been much admired. His father was a farmer, and he was taught grammar at Lanark, under Mr. R. Thomson, brother-inlaw of the celebrated poet of that name, and his progress was rapid. In 1766 he went to the university of Edinburgh, where he soon surpassed the most industrious. He also acquired considerable knowledge in mathematics, natural Fo metaphysics, and the belles lettres. n 1769 he gave the first specimens of his poetical genius. In 1770 he was admitted into the theological class; but the fatal disease, which cut him off, now began to appear in the form of a gradual decline, and soon ended in a deep consumption. He died July 26th, 1772. His poems, consisting of fifty elegies and other miscellaneous pieces, were collected and printed at Edinburgh in 1773, in 8vo. GRAEVIUS (John George), one of the most learned writers in the seventeenth century. In the twenth-fourth year of his age the elector of Brandenburg made him professor at Duisbourg. In 1658 he was invited to Deventer to succeed his former master Gronovius. In 1661 he was appointed professor of eloquence at Utrecht; and, in 1673, professor of politics and history. He fixed here, and refused several advantageous offers. He had the satisfaction to be sought after by divers princes, and to see several of them come from Germany to study under him. He died in 1703, aged seventy-one. His Thesaurus Antiquitatum et Historiarum Italiae, &c., and other works are well known. GRAFF, n.s. A ditch; a moat. See GRAve. Though the fortifications were not regular, yet the walls were good, and the graff broad and deep. Clarendon.

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serted into the stock of another tree, and nourished by its sap, but bearing its own fruit; a young cion: to propagate, by insertion into a body, to which it did not originally belong; to practise incision: used in a figurative sense with respect to the heart, and implying the communication of dispositions which are not natural to it. And they also, if they bide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in ; for God is able to gruff them in again. Romans. Graft in our hearts the love of thy name. Common Prayer. In March is good graffing the skilful do know, So long as the wind in the East do not blow : From moon being changed, 'till past be the prime, For graffing and cropping is very good time. Tusser. We've some old crab-trees here at home, that will not Be grafted to your relish. Shakspeare. Coriolanus. The noble isle doth want her proper limbs; Her royal stock graft with ignoble plants. Id. God gave unto man all kinds of seeds and graffs of life: as the vegetative life of plants, the sensual of beasts, the rational of man, and the intellectual of angels. Raleigh. To have fruit in greater plenty the way is to graft, not only upon young stocks, but upon divers boughs

of an old tree; for they will bear great numbers of
fruit; whereas if you graft but upon one stock, the
tree can bear but few. Bacon.
It is likely, that as in fruit-trees the graft maketh
a greater fruit, so in trees that bear no fruit it will
make the greater leaves. Id.
With his pruning hook disjoin
Unbearing branches from their head,
And graft more happy in their stead.
These are the Italian names which fate will join
With ours, and graff upon the Trojan line. Id.
Now let me graff my pears, and prune the *.
His growth is but a wild and fruitless plant;
I'll cut his barren branches to the stock,
And graft you on to bear. Id. Don Sebastian.
'Tis usual now an inmate graff to see
With insolence invade a foreign tree.
Id. Virgil.
If you cover the top with clay and horse-dung, in
the same manner as you do a graff, it will help to
heal the sooner. Mort.
May one kind grave unite each hapless name,
And graft my love immortal on thy fame. Pope.
Now the cleft rind inserted graffs receives,
And yields an offspring more than nature gives.
This resolution against any peace with Spain is a
new incident grafted upon the original quarrel, by the
intrigues of a faction among us. Swift.
GRAFIGNY (Frances), a French lady, au-
thoress of the celebrated Peruvian Letters, which
have been translated into all the languages in
Europe. She was born in 1693, and married to
the duke of Lorrain's chamberlain: after whose
death she went to Paris with Mademoiselle De
Guise, where her talents were much admired.
She died at Paris in 1758, aged sixty-five.
GRAFTING, or ENGRAFTING, in gardening,
is the taking a shoot from one tree and inserting
it into another, in such a manner, that both may
unite close and become one tree. By the ancient
writers on husbandry and gardening, this opera-
tion is called incision, to distinguish it from
inoculation or budding, which they call inserere
oculos. -
The grafts, or cions, with which the grafting
is effected, are young shoots of last summer's
growth; for they must not be more than one year,
and such as grow on the outside branches, and
robust but moderate shooters; such also as are
firm and well-ripened should always be chosen
from healthful trees: observing, that the middle
part of each shoot is always the best graft, cut at
the time of grafting to five or six inches in
length, or so as to have four or five good buds;
but should be preserved at full length till grafting
time, and then prepared as follows:—They should
be cut from the trees in February, in mild wea-
ther, before the buds begin to swell, or advance
much for shooting: in collecting them choose
such as have not made lateral or side shoots:
cut them off at full length; and, if they are not
to be used as soon as they are collected, lay their
lower ends in some dry earth in a warm border
till grafting time; and, if severe weather should
happen, cover them with dry litter.
he season for performing the operation of
grafting is February and March. When per-
formed in February, it is generally most success-

ful, especially for cherries, plums, and pears; but March is best adapted for o

There are different methods of grafting practised; termed whip-grafting, cleft-grafting, crowngrafting, cheek-grafting, side-grafting, root-grafting, and grafting by approach, or inarching: but the first two are most commonly used; and whip-grafting most of all, as being most expeditious and successful. 1. Cheek-grafting. Cut the head of the stock of horizontally, and pare the top smooth; then cut one side sloping one and a o or two inches deep, and cut the lower part of the graft sloping the same length, making a sort of shoulder at top of the sloped part. Then place it upon the sloped part of the stock, resting the shoulder upon the crown of it: bind the parts closely together with astring of bass, bringing it in a neat manner several times round the stock and graft; then clay the whole over nearly an inch thick on every side, from about half an inch or more below the bottom of the graft, to an inch over the top of the stock, finishing the whole coat of clay in a kind of oval globular form, rather longwise, up and down, closing it effectually about the cion, and every part, so as no sun, wind, or wet, may penetrate, to prevent which is the whole intention of claying. Examine it now and then, to see if it any where cracks or falls off, and, if it does, it must be instantly repaired with fresh clay. 2. Cleft-grafting is so called because the stock being large is cleft or slit down the middle for the reception of the graft; and is performed upon stocks from about one to two inches diameter. First, with a strong knife cut off the head of the stock; or, if the stock is very large, it may be headed with a saw; and cut one side sloping upwards about an inch and a half to the top; then proceed with a strong knife, or chisel, to cleave the stock at top, cross-way the slope, fixing the knife towards the back of the slope, and strike it with a mallet, so as to cleave the stock about two inches, or long enough to admit the graft, keeping it open with the chisel; this done, prepare the cion, cutting it to such length as to leave four or five eyes, the lower part of which being sloped on each side, like a wedge, one and a half or two inches long, making one side to a thin edge, the other much thicker, leaving the rind thereon, which side must be placed outward in the stock; the cion being thus formed, and the cleft in the stock being kept open with the chisel, place the graft therein at the back of the stock, the thickest side outward, placing the whole cut part down into the cleft of the stock, making the rind of the stock and graft join exactly; then, removing the grafting chisel, each side of the cleft will closely squeeze the graft so as to hold it fast; it is then to be bound with a ligature of bass, and clayed over, as directed above, leaving three or four eyes of the cions uncovered. If it be intended to graft any large stocks or branches by this method, two or more grafts may be inserted in each. In this case the head must be cut off horizontally, making no slope on the side, but smooth the top; then cleave it quite a-cross, and place a graft on each side, as the stock may be cleft in two places, and insert two grafts in each cleft; they are thus to be tied and clayed. This method

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