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of grafting may be performed upon the branches of bearing trees, when intended either to renew the wood, or change the sort of fruit. Towards the end of May, or the beginning of June, the junction of the graft and stock in either method will be effectually formed, and the graft begin to shoot, when the clay may be taken off, and, in a fortnight or three weeks after, the bandages likeWise. 3. Crown-grafting is commonly practised upon such stocks as are too large to cleave, and is often performed upon the large branches of apple and pear trees, &c., that already bear fruit, when it is intended to change the sorts, or renew the tree with fresh-bearing wood. It is termed crowngrafting, because the stock or branch being headed down, several grafts are inserted at top all around betwixt the wood and bark, so as to give it a crown-like appearance. This kind of grafting should not be performed until March, or early in April; for then the sap being in motion, renders the bark and wood of the stock much easier to be separated for the admission of the graft. The manner of performing it is this: First, cut off the head of the stock or branch, with a saw, horizontally, and pare the top smooth; then having the grafts, cut one side . each flat, and somewhat sloping, an inch and a half, forming a sort of shoulder at top of the slope to rest upon the crown of the stock; and then raising the rind of the stock with a wedge, so as to admit the cion between that and the wood two inches down, place the graft with the flat side next the wood, thrusting it down far enough for the shoulder to rest upon the top of the stock; and in this manner may be put three, four, five, or more grafts, into one large stock or branch. When the grafts are thus inserted, let the whole be tied tight and well clayed : but leave two or three eyes of each graft uncovered, and raise the clay an inch above the top of the stock, so as to throw the wet quickly off, without lodging about the grafted parts, which would ruin the whole. Crown-grafting may also be performed, by making several clefts in the crown of the stock, and inserting the grafts round the top of the clefts. The grafts will be pretty well united with the stock, and exhibit a state of growth, by the end of May or beginning of June, and the clay may then be taken away. The trees grafted by this method succeed extremely well; but, for the first two or three years, have this inconvenience attending them, that they are liable to be blown ont of the stock by violent winds; which must be remedied by tying long sticks to the body of the stock or branch, and tying each graft up to one of the sticks. 4. Root-grafting is performed by whip-grafting cions upon pieces of the root of any tree of the same genus, and planting the root where it is to remain. It will take root, draw nourishment, and feed the graft. 5. Side-grafting is by inserting grafts into the sides of the branches without heading them down; and may be practised upon trees to fill up any vacancy, or for the purpose of variety, to have several sorts of apples, pears, plums, &c., upon the same tree. It is performed thus: Fix upon such parts of the branches where wood
is wanted to furnish the head or any part of the tree; there slope off the bark and a little of the wood, and cut the lower end of the grafts to fit the part as nearly as possible; then join them to the branch, and tie them with bass, and clay them over. 6. Whip-grafting is always performed upon small stocks, from about the size of a goose-quill to half an inch, or a little more or less, in diameter; but the nearer the stock and graft approach in size the better. It is called whip-grafting, because the grafts and stocks, being nearly of a size, are sloped on one side, to fit each other, and tied together in the manner of whips. The method is as follows: Cut off the head of the stock at some clear smooth part; then cut one side sloping upward, about an inch and a half or nearly two inches in length, and make a notch or small slit near the upper part of the slope downwards, about half an inch long, to receive the tongue of the cion; then prepare the cicn, cutting it to five or six inches in length, forming the lower end also in a sloping manner, so as exactly to fit the sloped part of the stock, as if cut from the same place, that the rinds of both may join evenly in every part; and make a slit so as to form a sort of tongue to fit the slit made in the slope of the stock; then i. the graft, inserting the tongue of it into the slit of the stock, applying the parts as evenly and closely as possible; and immediately tie the parts together and cover them with clay, as above directed. This sort of grafting may also be performed, if necessary, upon the young shoots of any bearing tree, if intended to alter the sorts of fruits, or have more than one sort on the same tree. By the middle or end of May the grafts will be well united with the stock, as will be evident by the shooting of the graft; then the clay should be wholly taken away; but suffer the bass bandage to remain some time longer, until the united parts seem to swell and be too much confined by the ligature; then take it wholly off. 7. Grafting by approach, or inarching, is, when the stocks designed to be grafted, and the tree from which you intend to take the graft, either grow so near, or can be placed so near together, that the branch or graft may be made to approach the stock, without separating it from the tree, till after its union or junction with the stock; so that the graft being bent to the stock, they approach and form a sort of arch ; whence the names. Being a sure method, it is commonly practised upon such trees as are with difficulty made to succeed by any of the other methods. When intended to propagate any other kind of tree or shrub by this method of grafting, if the tree, &c., is of the hardy kind, and growing in the full ground, a proper quantity of young plants for stocks must be set round it; and, when grown of a proper height, the work of inarching must be performed; or if the branch of the tree designed to be grafted from are too high for the stocks, in that case stocks must be planted in pots, and a slight stage must be erected around the tree, of the due height to reach the branches, and the pots containing the stocks must be placed upon the stage. This method of grafting is sometimes performed with the head of the stock cu
off, and sometimes with the head left on till the graft is united with the stock; though, by previously heading the stock, the work is much easier performed; and, having no top, its whole effort will be directed to the nourishment of the graft. Having the stocks properly placed, either planted in the ground or in pots around the tree to be propagated, then make the most convenient branches approach the stock, and mark on the body of the branches the parts where they will most easily join to the stock, and in those parts of each branch pare away the bark and part of the wood two or three inches in length, and in the same manner pare the stock in the proper place for the junction of the graft; then make a slit upwards in the branch, so as to form a sort of tongue, and make a slit downwards in the stock to admit it; let the parts be then joined, slipping the tongue of the graft into the slit of
the stock, making the whole join in an exact
manner, and tie them closely together with bass, and afterwards cover the whole with a due quantity of clay, as in the other methods. After this, let a stout stake be fixed for the support of each graft; to which let that part of the stock and graft be fastened which is necessary to prevent their being disjoined by the wind. The operation being performed in spring, let them remain in that position about four months, when they will be united, and the graft may then be separated from the mother tree. In doing this, be careful to perform it with a steady hand, so as not to loosen or break out the graft, sloping it off downwards close to the stock; and if the head of the stock was not cut down at the time of grafting, it must now be done close to the graft, and the old clay and bandage must also be cleared away, and replaced with new, to remain a few weeks longer. If the grafts are not firmly united with the stock, in the period above-mentioned, they must remain another year till autumn, before the grafts are separated from the parent tree. By this kind of grafting may be raised almost any kind of tree or shrub, which is often done by way of curiosity, to ingraft a fruit-bearing branch of a fruit-tree upon any common stock of the same genus, whereby a new tree bearing fruit is raised in a few months. This is sometimes practised upon orange and lemon trees, &c., by grafting bearing branches of a fruittree upon any common stocks raised from the kernels of any of the same kind of fruit, or into branches of each other, so as to have oranges, lemons, and citrons, all on the same tree. Grafting has been practised from the most remote antiquity; but its origin and invention have been differently related by naturalists. Theophrastus tells us, that a bird, having swallowed a fruit whole, cast it forth into a cleft or cavity of a rotten tree; where mixing with some of the putrified parts of the wood, and being washed with the rains, it budded, and produced within this tree another tree of a different kind. Pliny says that a countryman, wishing to make a palisade in his grounds that it mightendure the longer, filled up and strengthened the bottom of the palisade by running or wattling it with the trunks of ivy. The effect of this was, that the stakes of the palisades, taking root, became engrafted with the
trunks and produced largetrees; which suggested to the husbandman the art of engrafting. The use of grafting is to propagate any curious sorts of fruits; which cannot be done with certainty by any other method: for as all the good fruits have been accidentally obtained from seeds, so the seeds of these, when sown, will many of them degenerate, and produce such fruit as is not worth the cultivating; but, when shoots are taken from such trees as produce good fruit, these will neveralter from their kind, whatever be their stock. The reason or philosophy of engrafting is somewhat obscure; but the effect is ordinarily attributed to the diversity of the pores or ducts of the graft from those of the stock, which change the figure of the particles of the juices in passing through them to the rest of the tree. Mr. Bradley, from some observations of Agricola, suggests, that the stock grafted on is only to be considered as a fund of vegetable matter, which is to be filtered through the cion, and digested, and brought to maturity, as the time of growth in the vessels of the cion directs. A cion, therefore, of one kind, grafted on a tree of another, may be rather said to take root in the tree it is grafted in, than to unite itself with it; for it is visible that the cion preserves its natural purity, though it be fed and nourished by a mere crab ; which is, without doubt, occasioned by the difference of the vessels in the cion from those of the stock: so that grafting may be justly compared to planting. But the natural juices of the earth, by their secretion and communication in passing through the roots, &c., before they arrive at the cion, must doubtless arrive there half elaborated and concocted; and so disposed for a more easy, plentiful, and perfect assimilation and nutrition; whence the cion must necessarily grow and thrive better and faster than if it were put immediately in the ground. Many have talked of changing of species, or producing mixed fruits, by engrafting one tree on another of the same class; but, as the graft carries the Juices from the stock to the pulp of the fruit, there is little hope of succeeding in such an expectation by ever so many repeated grafts; but if, after changing the graft and stock several times, you set the seed of the fruit produced on the graft in a good mold, it is possible that a change may happen, and a new mixed plant may be produced. Thus the almond and peach may, by many changes in the graftings, and by interrations of the stones of the peaches, and of the shells of the almonds, and by teribrations of the stem and the root here and there, alter their nature so much, that the coat or pulp of the almond may approach to the nature of the peach, and the peach may have its kernel enlarged into a kind of almond ; and, on the same principle, the curious gardener may produce many such mixed kinds. M. Du Hamel has observed that, in grafting trees, there is always found, at the insertion of the graft, a change in the direction of the fibres, and a sort of twisting or turning about of the vessels, which greatly imitates that in the formation of certain glands in animal bodies; and hence he infers that a new sort of viscus being thus formed, the fruit may be so far influenced by it, as to be meliorated
Ants, by their labour and industry, contrive that corn will keep as dry in their nests as in our granaries. . Addison. He, whose very beat actions must be seen with grains of allowance, cannot be too mild, mouerate, and forgiving. Id, There are still great pillars of granite and other fragments of this ancient temple. Addison on Itely. "Tis a rich soil, I grant you; but oftener covered with weeds than grain. Collier on Fame. The smaller the particles of cutting substances are, the smaller will be the scratches by which they continually fret and wear away the glass until it be polished; but be they never so small, they can wear away the glass no otherwise than by grating and scratching it, and breaking the protuberances; and therefore polish it no otherwise than by breaking its roughness to a very fine grain, so that the scratches aad frettings of the surface become too small to be vitible. Newton's Opticks. I would always give some grains of allowance to the sacred science of theology. Watts on the Mind. The naked nations cloathe, And be the” exhaustless granary of a world. Thomson's Spring. And freshness breathing from each silver spring, Whose scattered streams from granite basins burst, Leap into life, and sparkling woo your thirst. Byron. There grain, and flower, and fruit, Gush from the earth until the land runs o'er. Id. Don Juan. GRAIN. See BARLEY, Cors, Whe A1, &c. GRA1N, OILY. See SEs AMUM. Grain, ScARLET. See CActus, Coccus, and QUERCUs.
A GRAIN Weight of gold bullion is worth two-pence, and of silver only half a farthing. GRAIN CoAst. See MALAGUETTA. GRAIN (John, Baptist le), counsellor and master of requests to Mary de Medicis queen of France, was born in 1565, and was much esteemed by Henry IV. He wrote a work entitled, Decades, containing The History of Henry the Great, and of Louis XIII., from the beginning of his reign to the death of the Marshal d'Ancre in 1617. He vigorously defends the edict that had been granted to the reformed. He died at Paris in 1643. GRAINGER (James), M.D., a distinguished oet in the last century, was born at Dunse, in oil. in 1724. His father, who had been reduced by adverse circumstances, still bestowed on him a classical education, and laced him with a surgeon at Edinburgh, where e attended the medical lectures of the university. Entering the army, as a regimental surgeon, he served in Germany under the earl of Stair, till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, after which he took his degree of M.D. and settled in London. He is said principally to have supported himself by writing for the press. An Ode to Solitude, published in Dodsley's collection, first procured him reputation; and, among others, the acquaintance of Shenstone and Dr. Percy. In 1759 he published his Elegies of Tibullus, which involved him in a paper war with Dr. Smollet. He then went to the West Indies as tutor to a young gentleman, and, during the voyage, formed an attachment to a lady, whom he married on his arrival at the island of St. Christopher's, of which her father was governor. Ilere he again, and very successfully, engaged in medical practice; and produced a West Indian Georgic, or didactic treatise in blank verse, entitled The Sugar Cane, and Bryan and Pereene, a ballad. The former he published in England, in 1764. He then returned to Basseterre, St. Christopher's, where he died of a fever, in 1767. GRAITNEY. See GRETNA. GRALLE, in ornithology, an order of birds analogous to the bruta in the class of mammalia, in the Linnaean system. See Zoology and ORNItho LoGY GRAMAYE (John Baptist), a historian and poet, born at Antwerp, and provost of Arnheim. He travelled over Germany and Italy, but, in going to Spain, was carried off by African corsairs to Algiers. He returned to the Netherlands, and died at Lubeck. He published, 1. Africa, Illustratae, libri X. in 1622; 4to. 2. Diarium Algiriense: 3. Peregrinatio Belgica; a
curious work: 4. Antiquitates Flandriae, folio; .
and, 5, Historia Namurcensis.
tory at Greenwich was made for Dr. Halley stituent particles of the human body; a dyed under his immediate inspection, and divided by substance: figuratively, temper and disposition. his own hand; and, from this incomparable origi- Grains of allowance, something indulged or nal, the best foreign instruments of the kind are remitted. Grains, husks of malt. Grains of ropies. The sector, by which Dr. Bradley first Paradise, an Indian spice. A storehouse for discovered two new motions in the fixed stars, corn. Granate, or granite, a kind of marble, so was of his invention and fabric; and, when the called because it is marked with small varieFrench academicians were sent to the north to gations like grains. ascertain the figure of the earth, Mr. Graham For the whole world before thee is as a little grain was thought the fittest person in Europe to sup- of the balance.
Wis. xi. 22. ply them with instruments: those who went to Wherefore I sing; and sing I motë certain, the south were not so well furnished. He was In honour of that blissful maiden free, for many years a member of the Royal Society, Til fro my tongue of taken is the grain, to which he communicated several ingenious and And, after that thus saide she to me: important discoveries. He died in 1751.
My litel childe than : wol I fetchen thee, GRAHAM (James), marquis of Montrose. See
Whan that the grain is fro the tongue ytako : MONTROSE.
Be not agaste I wol thee not forsake. GRAHAM (Sir John), of Abercorn, or Dundaff,
Chaucer. The Prioresses Tale.
The was eke wexing many a spice one of the patriots who fought along with Wal
As clowe, gilofre, and licorise, lace, against the English invaders under Edward
Gingiber, and grein de Paris. I. He was killed at the battle of Falkirk, in
Id. Romaunt of the Rose. 1298, where the following inscription repeatedly And in his barne hath, soth to saine, renewed is to be seen on his monument :
An hundred mavis of whete graine. Mente manuque potens, et Vallæ fidus Achates,
Ye, jelousie is love;
And would a bushel of venim excusen,
Id. Troilus und Creseide. GRAHAM (Sir Richard), lord viscount Pres
How the red roses fush up in her cheeks. ton, eldest son of Sir George Graham of Nether
And the pure snow with goodly vermil stain, by, in Cumberland, Bart. was born in 1648.
Like crimson dyed in grain.
Spenser. He was sent ambassador by Charles II to Louis Your minds, preoccupied with what XIV., and was master of the wardrobe and se You rather musi do than with what you should do, cretary of state under James II. But, when the Made you against the grain to voice him consul. Revolution took place, he was tried and con.
Shakspeare. demned, on an accusation of attempting the Though now this gruined face of mine be hid restoration of that prince; though he obtained Io sap consuming Winter's drizzled snow, a pardon by the queen's intercession. He spent Yet hath my night of life some memory. he remainder of his days in retirement, and
Knots, by the conflux of meeting sap,
i Infect the sound pine, and divert his grain published an elegant translation of Boethius
Tortive and errant from his course of growth. Id. on the consolations of philosophy. 'He died in
Look into the seeds of time, 1695.
And say which grain will grow, and which will not. GRAHAME (James), a modern Scottish poet,"
Id. was bred to the bar, but afterwards took orders Let them pronounce the steep Tarpeian death, in a curacy in the neighbourhood of Durham, Vagabond exile, flaying pent to linger where he died, in 1811, in the prime of life. But with a gruin a day, I would not buy His chief pieces are, The Sabbath ; The Bards of Their mercy at the price of one fair word.
fone fair word. Id. , Scotland, and British Georgics.
As it ebbs, the seedsman GRAIÆ Montes, in ancient geography, the Upon the slime and ooze scatters his grain,
Id. name given by Pliny to that part of the Alps, And shortly comes to harvest. which lies between France and Italy, and by
Thou exist'st on many thousand grains
by That issue out of dust. Id. Measure for Measure. which they pass out of Italy into the ci-devant
By intelligence province of Provence.
And proofs as clear as founts in July, when GRAIGEMANACH, a town of Ireland, in We see each grain of gravel. Id. Henry VIII. Kilkenny, on the Barrow, over which it has a
His reasons are as two grains of wheat hid in two bridge, twenty miles from the sea. The tide bushels of chaff.
Id. Merchant of Venice. flows up to it.
It is a sincerely pliable ductile temper, that neglects GRAIL, n. s. From Fr. gréle. Small parti- not to make use of any grain of grace. Hammond. cies of any kind.
The trial being made betwixt lead and lead, weighHereof this gentle knight unweeting was, ing severally seven drachms, in the air; the baAnd, lying down upon the sandy grails,
lance in the water weighing only four drachms and Drank of the stream as clear as crystal glass. forty-one grains, and abateth of the weight in the air Spenser. two drachms and nineteen grains : the balance kept
Bacon. GRAIN, n.s. Fr. grain ; Belg. graen: the same depth in the water.
The one being tractable and mild, the other stiff GRAIN'ED, adj. Ital., Span., and Port. gra
and impatient of a superior, they lived but in cunning GRAINS, n. s. no; Lat. granum. A single
le concord, as brothers glued together, but not united in Geais'y, adj. seed ; corn ; a small weight, orain
Hayward. GRAN'ARY, n. s. so called because it is sup Give them grains their fill . GRAN'ATE, or posed of equal weight with Husks, draff, to drink and swill. Ben Jonson.
Gran'lte, n. s. ja grain of corn : the direc- Unity is a precious diamond, whose grains as they tion of the fibres of wood; the direction of con- double, twice double in their value.
Holyday. Vol. X.
Over his lucid arms
A Grain Weight of gold bullion is worth A military vest of purple dowed,
two-pence, and of silver only half a farthing. Livelier than Melibæan, or the grain
Grain Coast. See MALAGUETTA. Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old. Milton.
GRAIN (John, Baptist le), counsellor and Come, pensive nun, devout and pure,
master of requests to Mary de Medicis queen of All in a robe of darkest gruin,
France, was born in 1565, and was much es-, Fiewing with majestic train.
teemed by Henry IV. He wrote a work enThe third, his feet Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail,
titled, Decades, containing The History of Henry Sky-tinctured grain!
Id. Paradise Lost.
the Great, and of Louis XIII., from the beginQuoth Hudibras, it is in vain,
ning of his reign to the death of the Marshal I sce, to argue 'gainst the grain. Hudibrar. d'Ancre in 1617. He vigorously defends the His brain
edict that had been granted to the reformed. He Outweighed his rage but half a grain. Id. died at Paris in 1643.
The tooth of a sea-horse, in the midst of the solider GRAINGER (James), M.D., a distinguished parts, contains a curdled grain not to be found in poet in the last century, was born at Dunse, in ivory.
Browne. Berwickshire. in 1724. His father, who had They began at a known body, a barley-corn, the been reduced by adverse circumstances, still weight thereof is therefore called a grain ; which
bestowed on him a classical education, and ariseth, being multiplied, to scruples, drachms,
placed him with a surgeon at Edinburgh, where ounces, and pounds,
Holder. The beech, the swimming alder, and the plane,
he attended the medical lectures of the university. Hard box, and linden of a softer grain. Dryden.
Entering the array, as a regimental surgeon, he
served in Germany under the earl of Stair, till Though much against the grain, forced to retire, Buy roots for supper, and provide a fire.
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, after which he took
his degree of M.D. and settled in London. He Pales no longer swelled the teeming grain, Nor Phæbus fed his oxen on the plain.
is said principally to have supported himself by Many of the ears, being six inches long, had sixty
writing for the press. An Ode to Solitude, pubgrains in them, and none less than forty, Mortimer.
lished in Dodsley's collection, first procured him The ungrateful person lives to himself, and subsists
reputation; and, among others, the acquaintance
of Shenstone and Dr. Percy. In 1759 he pubby the good nature of others, of which he himself has not the least grain.
lished his Elegies of Tibullus, which involved him Alabaster, marble of divers colors, both simple and in a paper war with Dr. Smollet. He then went mixed, the opulites, porphyry, and the granite.
to the West Indies as tutor to a young gentle
Woodward. man, and, during the voyage, formed an attachStones of a constitution so compact, and a grain soment to a lady, whom he married on his arrival fine, that they bear a fine polish.
la at the island of St. Christopher's, of which her Ants, by their labour and industry, contrive that father was governor. Ilere he again, and very corn will keep as dry in their nests as in our granaries, successfully, engaged in medical practice; and
Addison. produced a West Indian Georgic, or didactic He, whose very best actions must be seen with treatise in blank verse, entitled The Sugar Cane, grains of allowance, cannot be too mild, mouerate, and Bryan and Pereene, a ballad. The former and forgiving.
Id. he published in England, in 1764. Ile then reThere are still great pillars of granite and other turned to Basseterre, St. Christopher's, where he fragments of this ancient temple. Addison on Italy. died of a fever, in 1767.
”Tis a rich soil, I grant you; but oftener covered GRAITNEY. See GRETNA. with weeds than grain.
Collier on Fame. GRALLÆ, in ornithology, an order of birds The smaller the particles of cutting substances are, analogous to the bruta in the class of mammalia, the smaller will be the scratches by which they con- in the Linnæan system. See ZooLOGY and ORtinually fret and wear away the glass until it be EULOGY polished; but be they never so small, they can wear
GRAMAYE (John Baptist), a historian and away the glass no otherwise than by grating and scratching it, and breaking the protuberances; and
poet, born at Antwerp, and provost of Arnheim,
Po therefore polish it no otherwise than by breaking its
He travelled over Germany and Italy, but, in roughness to a very fine grain, su that the scratches going to Spain, was carried off by African coraad frettings of the surface become too small to be vi- sairs to Algiers. He returned to the Nethercible.
Newton's Opticks. lands, and died at Lubeck. He published, 1. I would always give some grains of allowance to Africæ Illustratæ, libri X. in 1622; 4to. 2. the sacred science of theology. Watts on the Mind. Diarium Algiriense : 3. Peregrinatio Belgica; a The naked nations cloathe,
curious work: 4. Antiquitates Flandriæ, folio; Avd be the exhaustless granary of a world.
and, 5, Historia Namurcensis.
Thomson's Spring. GRAMEʻRCY, interj. Contracted from grant And freshness breathing from each silver spring,
I spring ne mercy. An obsolete expression of surprise. Whose scattered streams from granite basins burst, Leap into life, and sparkling woo your thirst. Byron.
O, which a pitous thing it was to see There grain, and flower, and fruit,
Hire swouning, and hire humble vois to here ! Gush from the earth until the land runs o'er. Grand mercy! Lord! God thank it you, quod sbe
Id. Don Juan. That ye nan saved me my children dere.
The Clerkes Take. GRAIN, Oily. See SESAMUM.
Id. The Court of Love. Grain, Scarlet. See Cactus, Coccus, and Gramercy, sir, said he ; but mote I weet QUERCUS.
What strange adventure do ye now pursue ? Spenser