Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

always in the first form or nominative case, ex trees which grow, &c.; not the man which was, cept first, when it is the object of a verb active &c., the birds who are, &c. Fortunately that is or transitive: as, you love him, whom I hate; equally free from change to denote nominative he dreads us, but despises them; we, as well as and accusative, and from any particular manner they, disregard him, but respect her, &c. In of application. We can say, the man that was these instances the pronouns him, whom, them, here, the bird that sings, &c. us, are, in the language of grammarians, go Some of the grammatists have endeavoured to verned by the active verbs (love, hate, dreads, interdict the use of whose (i. e. properly who's), &c.), in the accusative or objective case. Every except in connexion with a person, like who and reader, however little acquainted with the subject whom: but they have not succeeded. We can before, must now, it is presumed, understand say, the bird whose leg was hurt, as well as the what is meant by the position, Every pronoun man whose leg was hurt. is in the first form or nominative case, except Persons are apt, without care, to blunder in first, when the object of a verb active. But applying this and these, that and those : as this there is a second exception, viz. when a pronoun twelvemonth, instead of these twelvemonths : is preceded by any of those words talled pre- those or these kind of people, instead of that or positions; or (to adopt the common grammatic this kind of people. phraseology), when the pronoun is governed by There is hardly any difference between the a preposition.

application of this with its plural these, and that The words called prepositions are, of, to, from, with its plural those. If two objects, or sets of obover, through, above, for, by, in, below, beneath, jects, be referred to, this and these are applied to under, into, at, with, before, after, behind, within, the nearer, in time, place, or reference; that and without, up, beyond, about, near, down, on, those are applied to the more distant: thus, this is upon, off, against, among, between, &c. a more irksome part of the author's task than that

When these words come immediately before which led him to treat of more intellectual topics : any pronoun, it is to be put in the second form, these are the petty, unmeaning, and useless distinccalled objective case, or accusative case: as, I tions of arbitrary grammar now under considerawent with them, from him to her, &c., &c.: not, tion; but those enquiries, to which, in a former I went with they, from he to she, &c.

part of this work, he directed the attention of the The most usual grammatical improprieties, as reader, are of a loftier character. to the pronouns, consist in putting me for I, him

Sect. II.-The CUSTOMARY GRAMMAR OP for he, her for she, them for they, &c., in the fol

Verbs. lowing manner : Who is there? Me, instead of I. May William and me go to London? It We must exhibit the combinations, or what should be William and I. Them and us went are called the conjugations of verbs, beginning out together; they and we went out together with that jumble of anomalous incoherence, or Him and her are well matched; he and she are of dissimilar parts, commonly designated the well matched.

substantive or neuter verb to be. When he or she is applied to objects devoid

We of sex, respect must be paid to established usage.

Thou art. The sun must be spoken of as he, the moon as He

They she, &c. It is absurd to attempt to assign any She

These rational principle for this custom, which varies It is.

Men among different nations; for, with the Anglo John

Birds, Saxons, the sun was spoken of as she and the Man, moon as he. We, in this matter, follow the

&c. Latins, who followed the Greeks, who probably

The above is denominated the present tense, followed the Egyptians, who perhaps imitated indicative mood. the Babylonians; for much of the general agree

I

I am.

Ye or you

are.

&c.

We ment, or common consent, of nations and lan

He guages, is referrible, not to reason, but to custom

She founded on imitation.

They
It

These
Illiterate persons very frequently employ them

Man,

Men, instead of these or those : thus, them men were

&c. very noisy; it should be those men were very

Thou wast.

&c. noisy: hand me them books,-those books, or these books.

The above is called, by some, the imperfect There is often a departure from propriety in tense; by others, the past tense. changing from one person and number to ano The other parts of what is called the substanther: thus, every man knows their own affairs tive verb, are, be, being, been ; as, to be ; I shall best; it ought to be, every man knows his own be ; I being; I have been. affairs best. Can any one be certain, at their It is hardly possible for any mistake to happen first entrance on life, that they shall be always in these parts, except, perhaps, that children and successful; it should be his and he.

foreigners would be naturally induced by analogy The grammatists have succeeded in establish- (unless prevented by the force of custom) to say, ing a distinction between who and which: the I have beed, having beed, &c., instead of, I have former is to be employed only when speaking of been, having been. persons: as, the man who came, the woman who We have noticed how simple the substantive came, the men who are, the buds which are, the verb would be, if rendered regular, by discard

Ye or you

was.

were.

Birds,

ing all such dissimilar parts as, ann, is, ure, was, The verb have, so much used in connexion were: thus, I be, &c., I beed, &c., I have beed, with other verbs, is, owing to contraction, of a being, having beed. But established usage pro- very irregular form: thus, hibits such reasonable simplicity and utility. I have, thou hast (contraction of havest), he

When directly preceded by let, may, might, hath, or has, contraction of haveth, or haves, we, can, could, will, would, shall, should, be is un- ye or you, they, &c., have. changed; thus, let me be, let him be; I may be, The above is commonly called the presert he may be; I might be, he might be; I can be, tenso. I could be; I will, shall, would, or should I be, &c.

Не

had (contraction of haved), thou

hadst; he had ; we, you, or they The grammatists have conferred on such com We

had. binations a number of high-sounding, but insig &c. nificant or. absurd designations; as, imperative The above is called, by some, the imperfect, mood, potential mood, &c. &c.

by others, the past tense. There is another When the substantive verb is immediately combination, or reduplication, of the same word, preceded by if (I gif, i.e. give), though, suppose, called pluperfect tense. grant, and other similar terms, which usually

I indicate uncertainty or contingency, establisheŭ

We usage is so various as to set rules at defiance:

have had : thou hast had.

You thus, If If I be, or if I am;

They

He Though, If thou be, or if thou art;

hath, or has had; we, you or they

She &c. If he be, or if he is,

have had,

It, &c.
&c.
If I was, or if I were;

To have is called the infinitive mood; having
If thou wast, or if thou wert;

is called the present participle; had is called, by If he was, or if he were,

some, the past participle; by others, the perfect &c.

participle. Present grammatic usage leans more to if I

Do is also frequently employed in connexion were than if I was, and to if he were than if he with other verbs; and in what is called

the past was ; but, concerning the distinction between tense, I doed, is now contracted into did : indicative and subjunctive, grammatists are as

I do, thou dost, he doth, or does; we, &c., do. much divided as custom : and according to the

I did, thou didst, he did, we did, &c. old doggrel couplet,

What is denominated a regular verb is con

bined with nouns and pronouns in the following When doctors disagree,

manner: Disciples are free.

I The following words, called auxiliary verbs, have no change of termination, except in connexion with thou : thus,

They

train, or do train I may, thou mayest, he may, we may, you These may, they may

Men I might, thou mightest, he might, we might, &c.

&c. I can, thou canst, he can, we can, &c.

Thou trainest, or dost train. I will, thou wilt, he will, we will, &c.

He I shall, thou shalt, he shall, we shall, &c.

She Wilt and shalt are contractions of willest,

It trains, or does train. shallest ; as would, should, are of willed, shalled,

Man &c.

&c. In all the combinations of may, can, &c. (with the exception of what is called the second per- cative mood.

This is commonly called present tense, indison singular), there is as much grammatic sim

I plicity as can be wished; for there are no useless

He and embarrassing inflections or changes : thus,

She

trained, or did train. may

&c.
I

We
shall
He

You
will
be.

trained or did train.

They
could
&c.

&c.
should

Thou trainedst, or didst train. might

This is commonly called either the imperfect may

or the past tense, indicative mood. I

I have trained, &c. is called the perfect tense. He will

I had trained, &c., is called the pluperfect We shall

tense.

love. You could

I shall or will train, &c., is called the first fuThey would

ture tense, &c. should

I shall or will have trained, &c., is called the might

second future teuse.

We
You or ye

[ocr errors]

can

We

can

He

To train is called infinitive mood. Training bore, borne; begin, began, begun; bid, bade, is called present participle.

also bad and bid, bidden, also bid; break, broke, Truined is called past participle, or passive broken; choose, chose, chosen; cleave, clove or participle. But these designations are as useless, cleft, cloven or cleft; come, came, come; dare, for any practical purpose, as they are unmeaning durst, dared; do, did, done; draw, drew, drawn; or absurd.

drive, drove, driven; drink, drank, drunk; eat, By connecting the past participle of an active ate, eaten ; fall, fell, fallen; fly, flew, flown; foror transitive verb, with the substantive verb, sake, forsook, forsaken; freeze, froze, frozen; what grammatists term the passive voice is give, gave, given; go, went, gone; grow, grew, formed : thus,

grown; knew, know, known; ring, rang, or I am trained, &c. I was trained, &c. I have rung; run, ran, run; see, saw, seen; shake, been trained, &c. I had been trained, &c. I shook, shaken; slay, slew, slain; slide, slid, will or shall be trained, &c. &c. &c. If I am or slidden; smite, smote, smitten; speak, spoke, be trained, &c. I may be trained, &c. &c. &c. spoken ; spit, spat, spit or spitten ; spring,

It is wholly unnecessary to exhibit the verbs sprang, sprung; steal, stole, stolen ; stride, more fully. The reader will clearly perceive strode or strid, stridden; strive, strove, striven; how the various combinations are formed. swear, swore, sworn; swim, swam, swum; take,

All those verbs which do not admit of being took, taken; tear, tore, torn; throw, threw, combined with the substantive verb are called thrown; tread, trod, trodden; wear, wore, worn; intransitive or neuter : such as, sit, stand, lie, weave, wove, woven ; write, wrote, written. sleep, &c. We can say, I am trained, loved. The reader may compare these irregular verbs watched, &c.; but we do not say, I am sat, with the exhibition of them in a former part of stood, slept, &c.

the work, where it is proposed to render them One grammatic distinction of verbs, therefore, regular. is into active and neuter, or transitive and in- Pronouns and nouns, when combined with transitive: the former, as already noticed, when verbs, are commonly distinguished into number acting upon the pronouns, put them in what is and person : thus, called the objective case : thus, I love him, not

I am, first person singular.
I love he ; he loves me, not he loves I.
A certain number of verbs are called irregular,

Thou art, second person singular. because they do not assume ed, for what are

She called the past tense and perfect participle, like, I love, I loved, I have loved. Thus, according

is, third person singular. to custom, we must not say, I beginned, I have beginned; but, I began, I have begun. The following is a list of the irregular verbs :

We are, first person plural. 1. Those which admit of no change (as I

Ye or you are, second person plural. put, I have put): put, cost, beat (sometimes beaten is employed as the participle; as, he is

{ are, third person plural. beaten), burst, cast, cut, hit, hurt, let, rid, set, shed, shut, split, sweat, read.

&c. 2. Such as have one anomalous termination : Thou is obsolete, except in prayer and among as, abide, abode; sell, sold (corruption of selled); the Quakers, and in jocular or contemptuous beseech, besought; bind, bound; bleed, bled; speech; for, instead of saying thou art, thou breed, bred; bring, brought; buy, bought; catch, mayest, thou lovest, &c., when addressing one caught; cling, clung; creep, crept; dig, dug; person, we say, you are, you may, you love. feed, fed ; feel, felt; fight, fought; find, found; But in prayer to God we say, thou art, thou flee, fled; fling, fung; get, got; gild, gilt (also mayest, thou wast, thou lovest, &c. regular); gird, girt (regular); grind, ground; have, had (contraction of haved); hang, hung; also hang- SECT.

also hand. Sect. III.-DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE SUBed, or regular; hear, heard (contraction of heared);

STANTIVE VERB. held, hold; keep, kept (contraction of keeped); lay, Ungrammatic people are apt to say, I be, laid (contraction of layed); lead, led ; leave, left; thou be, he be, we be, you be, they be; instead lend, lent; lose, lost; make, made; meet, met: pay, of, I am, thou art, he is, we are, you are, they paid (contraction of payed); say, said (contraction are. of sayed); seek, sought; send, sent; shoe, shod; There is seldom any mistake made by persons shoot, shot; shrink, shrunk; sing, sung;sink, sunk; who are at all accustomed to grammatic lansit, sat; sleep, slept; sling, slung; slink, slunk; guage except in the third person; in which the speed, sped; spend, spent; spill, spilt, also greatest grammatic proficients are apt to blunspilled; spin, spun; stand, stood; stick, stuck; der, particularly in extemporaneous speaking, sting, stung; stink, stunk; string, strung; swing, when their sentences are long and intricate; swung: teach, taught; tell, told (contraction of employing is for are and are for is, and was for telled); think, thought; weep, wept.

were, or were for was. 3. Those which have two or more anomalous Grammatic propriety admits of this plain rule. terminations: as, I begin, I began, I have begun: When one object is spoken of, is for the begin, began, begun; know, knew, known; rise, present, and was for the past, must be employed : rose, risen ; arise, arose, arisen; blow, blew, when two or more objects are spoken of, are for blown; awake, awoke (also awaked), awaken; the present, and were for the past, must be em Dear (to bring forth), bare, bom; bear (to carry), ployed. Thus,

Man &c.

They

Men

Man is a rational creature: he is the natural pronouns into a plural nominative. The suplord of the lower animals, which are commonly port of so many of his relations were a heavy tax called irrational; but he is mortal as well as they upon his industry,-was. The support of his are, and some of them are longer lived than he mother and the expense of his sister was a heavy is. Plato and Aristotle are two of the most tax upon his industry, were. The support of ancient pbilosophers whose writings are extant; his mother, with the expense of his sister, were but neither the one nor the other is to be com- a heavy tax on his industry,-was. What is pared with some modern philosophers.

wisdom and virtue to the sons of folly? ReconSome persons blunder by using were instead ciliation was offered on terms as moderate as of was: thus, I were at London yesterday, he was consistent with a permanent union. Not were in the country last week, for, I was in Lon- one of all these sons of folly are happy. And don yesterday, he was in the country last week. the fame of his person and of his wonderful acBut the most common grammatic error is in tions were diffused abroad. The variety of the employing was instead of were: as, we was there, productions of genius, like those of art, are withyou was there, they was there, for we were, you out limit. To live soberly, righteously, and were, they were.

piously, are required of all men : here, to live The following are instances of grammatic in- (not soberly, righteously, and piously) is the accuracy: the improper words are put in Italics. nominative to the verb. To be of a pure and

Was we wrong? Was you there? Was they humble mind, to exercise benevolence, to cultihere? Was the ancients well acquainted with vate piety, is the sure means of becoming peacescience? Was Plato and Aristotle truly great ful and happy. Here there are three distinct philosophers? There is many authors in the entities spoken of or enumerated in the nominapresent time. There are some kind of writings tive to the verb, and, therefore, not is but are which is wholly destitute of merit when tried by should be used. the test of utility; which are the true standard of excellence. The mechanism of clocks and Sect. IV. — DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE watches were wholly unknown a few centuries WORDS CALLED AUXILIARIES OR HELPING ago. Folly and vice is often united. There was VERBS. more equivocators than one.

These are, may, might, can, could, will, would, The substantive verb being of frequent recur- shall, should; and, fortunately, they have no rence, the grammatic learner should practise change of termination except that they assume much upon it to acquire a correct habit; keeping st in connexion with thou : thus, I may, thou this obvious principle steadily in view as to the mayst, he may, &c.: will and shall, have, instead third person, viz., When one object is spoken of, is of willest, shullest, wilt and shalt. or was, not are or were, must be used : when two or All, therefore, that the grammatic learner has more objects are spoken of, are or were, not is to remember in using these words is to put st or was, must be used ; i. e. when the nominative with thou: thus, thou mayst train, thou mightst to the verb is singular, is and was must be em- train, thou canst train, thou couldst train, thou ployed ; but when the nominative is plural, are wilt train, thou shalt train, thou shouldst train. and were must be employed. •

Do is frequently employed as an auxiliary, and The following are examples of false gram- changes thus: I do, thou doest or dost, he doeth, mar:

or doth or does, we, you, they, &c., do; I did, The smiles of counterfeit friendship is to be thou didst, he did, we did, &c.; I have done, suspected; it should be, are to be suspected. thou hast done, &c. The number of the inhabitants of Great Britain Here all you have to remember, is to put est or are greatly increased of late years; is greatly st with thou, and eth or es with he, she, it, or any increased. Nothing but vain and foolish pur- one object in the third person present: in the suits are agreeable to some persons—is agreeable. past tense did remains unchanged, except that There is many occasions in life in which silence st is added after thou. and reserve is true wisdom; it should be are. Children and foreigners, following analogy, There are many an occasion in life in which si- naturally say, I do, we do, &c.; I doed, he doed, lence or reserve are true wisdom; it should be is; we doed, &c., I have doed, &c.; instead of because many an occasion is one entity or a sin- which they must learn to say and write, I do, gular nominative; as, also, silence or reserve; thou dost, he doth or does, &c.; we did, thou for every disconnective word (neither, nor, either, didst, &c.; I have done, &c. or, &c.) has just the opposite effect of a connec- Have is also, with another verb, considered tive word, such as and. The business that re- auxiliary, and is similarly contracted: thus, I lated to ecclesiastical meetings, matters, and have, we have, you have, they have, thou hast, persons, were to be ordered according to the he hath or has; I had, thou hadst, he had, we king's direction,-was. The affairs belonging to had, &c. : the church, was to be ordered by the king, were. Here, again, you have only to remember to say In him wus happily blended true dignity and af- or write, thou hast, he hath or has, thou hadst; fability,-- were. In him were happily blended in all the other coinbinations have and had untrue dignity with affability,-was. The con- dergo no change. junction and connects two or more singular The termination eth or th is now almost obsonouns or pronouns into a plural nominative; lete; es or s being commonly used : thus, he but with, besides, as well as, and such words, do trains, she loves, it rains; not he traineth, slie not connect two or more singular nouns and loveth, it raineth.

Sect. V.-DIRECTIONS CONCERNING REGU which they are connected : as they, these, those, LAR VERBS.

men, women, children, houses, &c.; thus, they These are, fortunately, very simple; for they love us—not they loves us. These are the friends have no useless and troublesome changes or ter of the poor-not these is the friends of the poor. minations, except est or st in connexion with Men naturally love their children—not loves. thou, and eth, th, es, or s, in connexion with he, People do not consider how much they are she, it, or any one object or singular nominative improved by adversity—not people does not conin the third person, and what is called present sider how much it is improved by adversity, &c. tense. The only mistake, therefore, which per 2. When two or more singular nouns and sons are apt to commit, who are at all accus- pronouns are enumerated or added together, they tomed to grammatic usage, is in not putting est form a plural nominative to the verb: thus, in connexion with thou, and es, or s in connexion John and James and William love play: John, with he, she, it, or any singular noun, in the James, William, equally love play. Robert and present tense. The second person singular, i. e. his sister Mary often walk together in the fields : thou, is (as already intimated), never used except both he and she prefer the country to the city: in prayer, and by the Quakers, and in jocular or they are fond of botany, and seldom return from contemptuous discourse. The chief attertion, their walks without some botanic specimens. therefore, of the grammatic learner should be In all such cases the pronouns must be in the directed to the third person singular, present plural number. tense; and he has only to keep this explicit rule 3. Two or more circumstances form a plural steadily in view. When the nominative is singu- nominative: thus, to see the beauties of nature, lar, i. e. when one object is connected with the and to listen to the music of the groves, produce word called a regular verb, es or s must be agreeable sensations—not produces. The flashing affixed; but when the nominative is plural, i.e. lightning and the reverberating thunder, natuwhen two or more objects are indicated, es or s rally produce strong emotions, especially in the must not be affixed. Thus,

minds of tirnid persons. To speak truth, to be John trains the pointers: John and James diligent in husiness, punctual to engagements, train the pointers : John or James trains the and honorable in transactions, are important pointers. William possesses good sense, and rules of prudential wisdom; and they seldom loves instruction; he diligently applies to useful fail to give respectability to the character of learning; and his brothers possess much affection every one who diligently observes them. for him : they, too, love instruction, and apply The conjunctive and is the only word that diligently to learning.

connects two or more nouns, pronouns, or memThe following are instances of grammatic im- bers of a sentence into a plural nominative: propriety: the improper words (i. e. in having, thus, the sun that shines, the rain that descends, or in not having es ors affixed) are put in Italics. and the wind that blows, produce good to man

All joy and tranquillity dwells there: much kind. The conjunction is sometimes omitted : joy, or at least tranquillity, dwell there. Thought- the sun, the rain, the wind, produce good to less and intemperate pleasure usually deteriorate mankind. Such words as with, as well as, &c., both mind and character: intemperate pleasures though they seem connective, do not form a usually deteriorates both mind and character. plural nominative: thus, the king with his body Ignorance and negligence has produced the guard has just passed--not have. The king as effect: ignorance or negligence have produced well as his attendants has passed by. the effect: ignorance with negligence produce All disconnective words, such as neither, nor, bad consequences: negligence as well as ignor- either, or, have the opposite effect of and. There ance produce bad consequences. Not only his is in many people, neither knowledge nor virtuefortune, but his reputation suffer by his miscon- not are. It is either John or James that delights duct. The king and his courtiers has passed by: in music. Beauty, wealth, or fame, is a very the king with his courtiers have passed by: the precarious possession. king as well as his courtiers have passed by. Except when the noun or pronoun coming Nothing delight me so much as the works of after the disjunctive is plural, the nominative is nature. Public and private happiness, national always singular : thus, neither adversity nor dignity, and all that is most interesting to human enemies disturb his equanimity-not disturbs. beings in this world, depends greatly on the cha- Neither enemies nor adversity disturbs--not racter of the government.

disturb. It is better in such cases, if possible, to In all the above instances, the attentive learner put the plural word last; but, in all such forms will perceive that the words put in Italics are of expression, the inconvenience of arbitrary wrong, because es or s is affixed when the nomi- grammar is strikingly obvious. native is plural, or omitted when the nominative Concerning nouns which indicate plurality is singular. There is some difficulty at first, in when considered in one view, and unity or indiascertaining the nominative, or promptly dis-, viduality when considered in another—there is covering whether it be plural or singular. To no uniform grammatic usage. Some authors this point, therefore, the grammatic student would write, ‘My people do not consider; they should apply particular attention, until it be- have not known me:' others, my people does not comes quite familiar to him. The following consider : it has not known me. The multitude remarks are intended for his assistance : eagerly pursue pleasure as their chief good. The

1. All nouns and pronouns that are evidently multitude eagerly pursues pleasure as its chief plural, i. e. which indicate two or more objects, good. The council were divided in their sentimust not have es or s affixed to the verb with ments. The council was divided in its senti

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »