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GRANGE (Joseph de Chancel de la), a French poet, was born in 1676 in Perigord, and wrote his first comedy at nine years old, and a tragedy at sixteen. The work, however, which made him most known, was a satire, entitled Philippics, against the duke of Orleans. For this he was seized, and ordered to be imprisoned in the isle of St. Margaret, from whence he made his escape to Sardinia, and afterwards to Holland. He died in 1758. His works are in 5 vols. 12mo. GRANGER (James), an English clergyman, and biographer, was a native of Berkshire, and educated at Christ Church, Oxford; soon after leaving which, he obtained the vicarage of Shiplake in Oxfordshire. Having made a collection of portraits of Englishmen, chronologically arranged, he published his Biographical History of England, 1769, 2 vols. 4to., in which the lists of engravings were accompanied by short memoirs and anecdotes, illustrative of their modes of dress, manners, &c., and the different periods of history concerned. He subsequently produced 2 supplementary volume; and in 1775 a second edition of the whole work. He died April 15th, 1776, in consequence of an apoplectic fit the preceding day, while administering the sacrament. A collection of his correspondence was published by James Peller Malcolm, 8vo., and a continuation of the Biographical History through the reigns of George I. and George II. by the Rev. Mark Noble. GRANI, from Irish greann, a beard ; in our ancient writers, mustaches or whiskers. The Roman Catholics give us a reason why the cup is refused to the laity, Quia barbati, et prolixos habent granos, dum poculum inter epulas sumunt, prius liquore pilos inficiunt, quam ori infundunt. GRANICUS, a small river near the Hellespont in Lesser Asia, remarkable for the first victory gained by Alexander the Great over the armies of Darius. Justin and Orosius tell us, that the Persian army consisted of 600,000 foot and 20,000 horse; Arrian makes the foot amount to 200,000; but Diodorus tells us, that there were only 100,000 foot and 10,000 horse. The Macedonian army did not exceed 30,000 foot and 5000 horse. The Persian cavalry lined the banks of the Granicus, in order to oppose Alexander wherever he should attempt a passage; and the foot were posted behind the cavalry on an easy ascent. W. wanted Alexander to allow his troops some time to refresh themselves; but he replied, that, after having crossed the Hellespont, it would be a disgrace to him and his troops to be stopped by a rivulet. Accordingly a proper place for crossing the river was no sooner found, than he commanded a strong detachment of horse to enter; he himself followed with the right wing, which he commanded in person; the trumpets in the mean time sounding, and loud shouts of joy being heard through the whole army. The Persians let fly such showers of arrows against the detachment of Macedonian horse, as caused some confusion; several of their horses being killed or wounded. As they drew near the bank, a most bloody engagement ensued; the Mace
donians attempting to land, and the Persians pushing them back into the river. Alexander, who observed the confusion they were in, took the command of them himself; and landing, in spite of all opposition, obliged the Persian cavalry, after an obstinate resistance, to give ground. However, Spithrobates, governor of Ionia, and son-in-law to Darius, still maintained his ground, and did all that lay in his power to bring them back to the charge. Alexander advanced full gallop to engage him, and both were slightly wounded at the first encounter. Spithrobates having thrown his javelin without effect, advanced sword in hand to meet his antagonist, who ran him through with his pike as he raised his arm to discharge a blow with his scymitar. But Rosaces, brother to Spithrobates, at the same time, gave Alexander such a furious blow on the head with his battle-axe that he beat off his plume, and slightly wounded him through the helmet. As he was ready to repeat the blow, Clitus with one stroke of his scymitar cut off Rosaces's head, and thus in all probability saved the life of his sovereign. he Macedonians then, animated by the example of their king, attacked the Persians with new vigor, who soon after betook themselves to flight. Alexander immediately charged the enemy's foot with all his forces, who had now passed the river. The Persians, disheartened at the defeat of their cavalry, made no great resistance. The Greek mercenaries retired in good order to a neighbouring hill, whence they sent deputies to Alexander, desiring leave to march off unmolested. But he, instead of coming to a parley with them, rushed furiously into the middle of this small body; where his horse was killed under him, and he himself in great danger of being cut in pieces. The Greeks defended themselves with incredible valor for a long time, but were at last almost entirely cut off. In this battle the Persians are said to have lost 20,000 foot and 2500 horse, and the Macedonians only fifty-five foot and sixty horse. GRANITE. See GRAIN. GRANITE, in lithology, a genus of stones of the order of petrae, belonging to the class of saxa. The principal constituent parts of this stone are felt-spar or rhombic quartz, mica, and quartz. These ingredients constitute the hardest sort of granite, and that most anciently known. That into which schoerl enters is more subject to decomposition. They never have any particular texture or regular form, but consist of enormous shapeless masses extremely hard. In the finer granites the quartz is transparent; in others generally white or gray, violet or brown. The felt-spar is generally the most copious ingredient, and of a white, yellow, red, black, or brown color. The mica is also gray, brown, yellow, green, red, violet, or black; and commonly the least copious. The schoerl is generally black, and abounds in the granites that contain it. Hence the color of the granites depends principally on that of the spar or schoerl. The red granites consist commonly of white quartz, red felt-spar, and gray mica; the gray ones of white quartz, gray, or violet felt-spar, and black mica. The black granites commonly contain schoer
instead of felt-spar; and the green usually contain green quartz. On exposing granite to the flame of a blow-pipe, the component ingredients separate from one another. Mr. Gerhard, having melted some in a crucible, found the feltspar run into a transparent glass; below it the mica lay in form of a black flag, the quartz remaining unaltered. It melted somewhat better when all the three were powdered and mixed together; though even then the quartz was still discernible by a magnifying glass. Hence we may explain the reason why grains of a white color are sometimes found in volcanic lavas. The mixture of mica prevents the silex or quartz from splitting or cracking; and hence its infusibility and use in furnace-building. Granites are seldom slaty or laminated. In those of a close texture, the quartz and schoerl predominate. They take a good polish ; for which reason the Egyptians formerly, and the Italians still, work them into large pieces of ornamental architecture, for which they are extremely fit, as not being liable to decay in the air. Wallerius describes eighteen species of granites, besides many others akin to this genus. Those described by Cronstedt are, 1. Loose or friable, which comes from France, and is used at the brassworks for casting that metal in. 2. Hard or compact, of which there are two varieties, red and gray. The former is met with of two kinds; viz. fine-grained, from Swappari in Lapland, or coarse-grained, from the province of Dalarne in Sweden. The gray, with other colors, is met with on the coast round Stockholm and Norland in Sweden. “That granite may be produced,’ says Kirwan, “at this day, from the agglutination of its own sand, we have an evident proof in the mole constructed in the Oder in the year 1722; it is 350 feet in length, fifty-four in height, of that breadth at top, and 144 at bottom; the walls were made of blocks of granite, fastened with iron cramps, the chinks stopped with moss, and the space between the walls filled with granite sand ; this sand, by the oozing of the water impregnated with iron, or other causes, is now at last rendered so hard and compact as to prevent any more water from traversing it, and cannot be distinguished from natural granite.’ It is for this reason that granite is so much used in the improved roads round about London, which have been what is commonly called Macadamised. See Roads. GRANITELLO, a genus of stones of the order of petrae, belonging to the class of saxa. There are two species: 1. That composed of distinct particles, found in several of the mountainous parts of Sweden. In some of these there is a predominance of quartzose particles, in others of micaceous; in which last case the stone is slaty, and easily split. 2. That composed of convoluted particles. It is met with of dif. ferent colors, as whitish, gray, greenish, and reddish. Both these kinds of stone are used in building furnaces, on account of the powerful resistance they make to the fire; but the latter is preferable to the other, on account of its containing a little of a refractory clayish substance. It is likewise of great use in mills, where the fellow is a coarse sand-stone.
GRANI'VOROUS, adj. Lat. granum and voro. Eating grain; living upon grain.
Granivorous birds, as a crane, upon the first peck of their bills, can distinguish the qualities of hard bodies, which the sense of men discerns not without mastication. Browne.
Panick affords a soft demulcent nourishment, both for granivorous birds and mankind. Arbuthnot.
GRANT, v.a. & n.s. From Fr. garantir, GRANT'ABLE, adj. Junius and Skinner; GRANTEE', n.s. perhaps, as Minsheu GRANTok', n.s. \; from Lat. graGRAN'TED, part. tuito, or rather from gratia or gratificor. To admit that which is not yet proved ; to allow ; to yield; to concede. There are four meanings to this word, to give; to convey; to admit; to bestow something which cannot be claimed by right. A grantor is he by whom any grant is made: a grantee he to whom it is made. Grant, a gift; a boon; it has in law a special meaning; and is “A gift in writing of j a thing as cannot aptly be passed or conveyed by word only; as rent, reversions, services, advowsons in gross, common in gross, tithes, &c., or made by such persons as cannot give but by deed, as the king, and all bodies politic; which differences be often in speech neglected, and then is taken generally for every gift whatsoever, made of anything by any person; and he that granteth it is named the grantor, and he to whom it is made the grantee. A thing is said to be in grant, which cannot be assigned without deed.’ The God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him. 1 Sam. xviii. Then hath God also to the gentiles granted repentance unto life. Acts xiii. 18. Graunt us ladie shene Eche of us, of thy grace a bone. Chaucer. House of Fame. Madame' thus say sayid thei, we be Folke that which he besechen the, That thougraunten us, now, gode fame And let our workes have gode name. Id. This thing was granted and our other swore With full glad herte. Id. Prologue to Canterbury Tales. All the land is the queen's, unless there be some grant of any part thereof, to be shewed from her majesty. Spenser. They gather out of Scripture general rules to be followed in making laws; and so, in effect, they plainly grant, that we ourselves may lawfully make laws for the church. Hooker.
But of this so large a grant, we are content not to take advantage. Id. Didst thou not kill this king 2 —I grant ye. Shakspeare. Suppose, which yet I grant not, thy desire A moment elder than my rival fire, Can chance of seeing first thy title prove 2 Dryden. This grant destroys all you have urged before. Id. Courtiers justle for a grant, And when they break their friendship plead their want. Id. Grant that the fates have firmed, by their decree, The Trojan race to reign in Italy. Id. AEneid. To smooth the way for popery in Mary's time, the grantees were confirmed by the pope in the possession of the abbey-lands. Swift.
I take it for granted, that, though the Greek word which we translate saints, be in itself as applicable to things as persons, yet in this article it signifieth not holy things, but holy ones. Pearson. if he be one indifferent as to the present rebellion, they may take it for granted his complaint is the rage of a disappointed man. Addison's Freeholder. But grant that actions best discover man; Take the most strong and sort them if you can. Pope. He heard, and granted half his prayer; The rest the winds dispersed. A duplex querela shall not be granted under pain of suspension of the grantor from the execution of his
office. Ayliffe. The office of the bishop's chancellor was grantable for life. Id.
Not only the laws of this kingdom, but of other places, and the Roman laws, provide that the prince should not be deceived in his grants. Davies. But though I grant him these excellencies, I must be pardoned, when I censure either his judgment or his virtue. Beattie. Nor was thy respite granted to my prayer; This fleeting grace was only to prepare New torments for thy life, and my despair. Byron. Childe Harold.
GRANT, in law. To every good grant, it is said, the following things are requisite: 1. That there be a person able to grant. 2. A person capable of the thing granted. , 3. That there be a thing grantable. 4. That it be granted in such manner as the law requires. 5. That there be an agreement to, and acceptance of, the thing granted, by him to whom made. And, 6, There ought to be an attornment where needful.-Co. Lit. 73. But grants and conveyances are good without attornment of tenants, notice being given them of the grants, by stat. 4 Anne c. 16, § 9. Grants are taken most strongly against the grantor in favor of the grantee: the grantee himself is to take by the grant immediately, and not a stranger, or any in futuro; and if a grant be made to a man and his heirs, he may assign at his pleasure, though the word “assigns’ be not expressed.— Lat. 1, Saund. 322. The use of any thing being granted, all is granted necessary to enjoy such use: and in the grant of a thing, what is requisite for the obtaining thereof is included.—Co. Lit. 55. So that if timber trees are granted, the grantee may come upon the grantor's ground to cut and carry them away. See GIFTs.
GRANT of The KING. The king's grants are matters of public record: for the king's excellency is so high in the law, that no freehold may be given to, nor derived from, him, but by matter of record. To this end a variety of offices are erected, communicating in a regular subordination one with another, through which all, the king's grants must pass, and be transcribed and enrolled; that the same may be inspected by his officers, who will inform him if any thing contained therein is improper, or unlawful to be granted. These grants, whether of lands, honors, liberties, franchises, or aught besides, are contained in charters or letters patent; that is open letters, litera patentes: so called because they are not sealed up, but exposed to open view, with the great seal pendant at the bottom: and are usually directed or addressed by the
king to all his subjects at large. And therein they differ from certain other letters of the king, sealed also with his great seal, but directed to particular persons and for particular purposes: which therefore, not being designed for public inspection, are closed up and sealed on the outside, and are thereupon called writs-close, literæ clause; and are recorded in the close-rolls, in the same manner as the others are in the patent rolls.-2 Comm. 346, c. 21. GRANT (Francis), lord Cullen, an eminent lawyer and judge of Scotland, was born about 1660, and, having entered as an advocate, made a distinguished figure at the Revolution, by opposing the old lawyers, who warmly argued on the inability of the convention of estates to make any disposition of the crown. The abilities he showed in favor of the Revolution recommended him to an extensive practice; in which he acquired so much honor, that, when the union between the two kingdoms was in agitation, queen Anne, without application, created him a baronet, with a view of securing his interest in that measure; and soon after made him a lord of session. The same talents that recommended him to this honorable office, were conspicuous in the discharge of it; which he continued for twenty years with the highest reputation; when, after an illness which lasted but three days, he expired without agony on March 16th, 1726. GRANT (Charles), an eminent and most benevolent East India proprietor and director, born in Scotland in 1746, was by the death of his father at the battle of Culloden left to the care of his uncle, who sent him out to India. Here he soon found patronage in the civil service, and in 1770 returned to Scotland and married. In 1772 he went out to Bengal as a writer, and was shortly after appointed secretary to the board of trade. In this situation he became the patron of various Christian missions, and in 1790, on his return to England, obtained a seat in the East India direction, and in the house of commons. He now wrote his important Observations on the State of Society among the Asiatic Subjects of Great Britain, which in 1813 the house of commons caused to be printed for the use of its members. Mr. Grant was also one of the commissioners appointed by parliament to superintend the building of new churches; a member of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; and a vice-president of the Bible Society. His death took place October 31st, 1825. GRANTHAM, a borough and market town of Lincolnshire, on the road from London to York. It is supposed to have been a Roman station. It is governed by an alderman and twelve justices of the peace, a recorder, a coroner,an escheater, and twelve common-councillors. It has a fine large church with a stone spire, one of the loftiest in England, being 300 feet high; and which appears to lean to one side. Grantham has a good free school, where Sir Isaac Newton received his first education, besides two charity schools. It sends two members to Parliament, and is seated on the Witham, thirty miles south of Lincoln, and 110 north of London. GRANVILLE (George), lord Lansdownt, was descended from the family of Rollo, the first duke of Normandy. At eleven years of age ne was sent to Trinity College, Cambridge, and at the age of thirteen admitted M.A., having, before he was twelve, spoken a poetical address of his own composition to the duchess of York, when she visited the University. In 1696 his comedy called the She Gallants was acted at the theatre royal in Lincoln's Inn-fields, as was his tragedy called Heroic Love in 1698. In 1702 he translated into English the second Olynthian of Demosthenes. He was M. P. for the county of Cornwall in 1710; afterwards secretary of war, comptroller of the household, then treasurer, and one of the privy council. In 1711 he was created baron Lansdowne. On the accession of king George I. in 1714 he was removed from his treasurer's place; and in 1715 entered his rotest against the bills for attainting lord Boingbroke and the duke of Ormond. He entered into the scheme for raising an insurrection in the west of England; and was committed to the Tower, where he continued two years. In 1719 he made a speech in the house of lords against the bill to prevent occasional conformity. In 1722 he withdrew to France, and continued abroad nearly ten years. At his return, in 1732, he published a fine edition of his Works in 2 vols. Quarto. He died in 1735, leaving no male issue. GRAN ville, a considerable walled sea-port town on the coast of Normandy, in the department of La Manche. It stands on a peninsular rock, and has two suburbs. It has a considerable traffic with the neighbouring island of Jersey; and fisheries all along the coast. It sends out a number of vessels to Newfoundland. Population 5000. Twelve miles north-west of Avranches, and thirteen S.S.W. of Coutances. GRAN ville, a fertile country of North Carolina, in Hillsbury district, bounded on the southeast by Warren county, south by Wake, southwest and west by Orange, and north by Virginia. Williamsborough is the capital. GRANvillr, a post town of Washington county, New York, near which is a valuable marble quarry. It is twelve miles south-east of Whitehall, and sixty north-east of Albany. Population 3717. GRAN'ULE, n.s. GRAN'Ulous, adj. Roo. Lat. GRAN'ULARY, adj. granum. Small GRAN'ULATE, v. n. & v. •y compact particles GRANULA'tion, n. s. like grains. To granulate is to break into small masses or raise in small asperities; it is also a surgical term, descriptive of the process by which ulcers are healed, from the resemblance of their surfaces to clusters of small grains—these are named granulations. Granulation is also the act of pouring melted metal into cold water, that it may granulate or congeal into small grains: it is generally done through a colander, or a birchen broom. Gunpowder and some salts are likewise said to be granulated, from their resemblance to grain or seed. Granule is a small compact particle. Small-coal, with sulphur and nitre, proportionably mixed, tempered, and formed into granulary bodies, do make up that powder which is used for guns. Browne's Vulgar Errours.
Sharp's Surgery. GRANULATION, in chemistry, is an operation by which metallic substances are reduced into small roundish particles, to facilitate their combination with other substances. This operation consists only in pouring the melted metal slowly into a vessel filled with water, which is in the mean time to be agitated with a broom. With Inelted copper, however, which is o to explode with great violence on the contact of water, some precautions are to be observed. In the brass works at Bristol, copper is granulated, without danger of explosion, by letting it fall in small drops into a large cistern of cold water covered with a brass plate. In the middle of the plate is an aperture in which is secured with Sturbridge clay a small vessel, whose capacity does not exceed a spoonful, perforated with many minute holes through which the copper passes. A stream of cold water passes through the cistern. If allowed to grow hot, the copper will fall to the bottom, and run into flat pieces instead of granulating. Lead or tin may be granulated by pouring them when melted into a box; the internal surface of which is rubbed with powdered chalk, and the box strongly shaken till the grains have become solid. Metals are granulated, because their ductility renders them inca– o of being pounded, and because filing is ong and tedious, and might render the metal impure by an admixture of iron from the file. RAPE, n.s. Fr. grappe; ItaGRAPE'ston E, n.s. lian grappo, graspo; GRAPE'-hy Acinth, n.s. (Belg. kruppe; Teut. GRAPE'-shot, n.s. trauben. The fruit of the vine, and the seed contained in the grape; a flower; shot of a peculiar kind used in battle. And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and stranger. Lev. xix. 10. For no man, at the firste stroke, Ne may not fel adoune an oke— Nor of the reisins have the wine Till grapes be ripe and wel afine. Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. And sometimes floures spring as in a mede, Sometimes a vine and grapes white and rede. Id, The Frankeleines Tale. Nay in Death's hand the grapestone proves As strong as thunder is in Jove's. Cowley. Anacreon, for thy sake I of the grape no mention make; Ere my Anacreon by thee fell,
Cursed plant, I loved thee well. Id. When obedient Nature knows his wil., A fly, a grapestone, or a hair can kill. Prior.
Here are the vines in early flower descried, Here grapes discoloured on the sunny side. Pope. Within a cable's length their vessels lay Off Ismail, and commenced a cannonade Which was returned with interest I may say, And by a fire of musquetry and grape And shells and shot of every size and shape. - Byron. GRAPE. See Vitis. GRAPE HYAcyNTh. See HYAcINThus, GRAPE MANG Rove, GRAPE SEA-side. Two species of polygonum. GRAPE-shot, in artillery, is a combination of small shot, put into a thick canvas bag, and corded strongly together, so as to form a kind of cylinder, whose diameter is equal to that of the ball adapted to the cannon. The number of shot in a grape varies according to the service or size of the guns: in sea-service nine is always , the number; but by land it is increased to any number or size, from an ounce and a quarter in weight to three or four pounds. In sea-service the bottoms and pins are made of iron, whereas those used by land are of wood. The following statement exhibits the number and sorts of shot contained in the grape, for guns of different species:—
in a picturesque manner.
Write with a needle, or bodkin, or knife, or the like, when the fruit of trees are young; for, as they grow, so the letters will grow more large and graphical. Bacon's Natural History.
The hyena adorata, or civet-cat, is delivered, and graphically described by Castellus. Browne.
GRAPHOMETER, a mathematical instrument, otherwise called a semicircle; the use of which is to observe any angle whose vertex is at the centre of the instrument in any plane (though it is most commonly horizontal, or nearly so), and to find how many degrees it Contains.
GRAPNEL, n.s. Fr. grapin. A small anchor belonging to a little vessel. A grappling . with which in fight one ship fastens on ano
In goth the grapenel so full of crokes; Among the ropes, ran the shering hokes. Chaucer. Legende of good Women.
GRAPNElls, or GRAPPLINGs, are fitted with four or five flukes or claws, and commonly used to ride a boat or other small vessel.
GRAPPLE, v. n., v. a. & Teut. grabbeGRAP'PLEMENT. o: len, grappen; from Goth. graff, kraff, the hand.—Thomson. Ger. krappeln, to seize. To contend as wrestlers; to engage in close fight: an iron instrument by which one ship fastens on another. As two wild boares together grappling go, Chaufing and foming choler each against his for Spenser's Faerie Queene. They catching hold of him, as down he lent, Him backward overthrew, and down him stayed With their rude hands and griesly grapplement. Spenser. In the grapple I boarded them ; on the instant they got clear of our ship, so I alone became their prisoner. Shakspeare. HamletGrapple your minds to sternage of the navy, And ieave your England as dead midnight still. - Shakspeare. I’ll in my standard bear the arms of York, Tograpple with the house of Lancaster. Id. For Hippagines, vessels for the transporting of horse, we are indebted to the Saliminians; for grappling hooks to Anacharsis. Heylin. They must be also practised in all the locks and gripes of wrestling, as need may often be in fight to tugg, or grapple, and to close. Miltors. As when earth's son, Antaeus strove With Jove's Alcides, and, oft foiled, still rose Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined. Throttled at length in the air, expired and fell. Ia. Living virtue, all atchievements past, Meets envy, still to grupple with at last. Waller. Sometimes, from fighting squadrons of each fleet, Two grappling Ætnas on the ocean meet, And English fires with Belgian flames contend. Dryden. Or did his genius Know mine the stronger demon, feared the grapple. And, looking round him, found this nook of fate. To skulk behind my sword. Id. Don Sebastian. Does he think that he can grapple with divine vengeance, and endure the everlasting burnings South. Antaeus here and stern Alcides strive, And both the grappling statues seem to live. Addison. Like one who grapples with his enemy
hold; to seize; to catch ; to struggle; figuratively to encroach or covet. The substantive signifies possession, or the power of seizing And hastily retourned into that place age, And fond this blynd seching on hondes and on kne, Grasping all aboute to find, that he had lore. Chaucer. The Merchantes Second Tale.
See, his face is black, and full of blood; His hands abroad displayed, as one that grasp And tugged for life. Shakspeare. Henry V.. I would not be the villain that thou think'st For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp. And the rich East to boot. Id. Macbeth. They looked upon it as their own, and had it even within their grasp. Clarenden. This grasping of the militia of the kingdom iuto their own hands, was desired the summer before. Id. Within the direful grasp Of savage hunger, or of savage heat. Milton.