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Moore having proceeded to Stockholm

to con- adopted in compliance with the representations cert measures of co-operation with the Swedish of the Spanish juntas. Mr.Canning endeavoured troops, and refusing to concur in some of the king's to justify the principles on which his majesty's extravagant plans, the monarch's resentment was ministers had acted, by developing the state of so much excited that he was obliged to escape Spain at the commencement of the grand insurin disguise, and brought back his troops amount- rection. When the whole Spanish nation,' ing to 10,000 men, without landing them. said he, 'rose unanimously, and with a concert

The Russians now directed their force against almost miraculous, the consequence was, the the fortress of Sweaborg, the Gibraltar of the sudden creation of various local authorities, north; and so feeble was the defence that was acknowledging no head; jealous, watchful, and made of it, that it induced a suspicion of treach- extremely suspicious of any attempt on the part ery. They also made descents on the islands of of one to obtain ascendancy over the others.' Gothland and Aland. An engagement between The supreme central junta was not erected till the flotillas of the two powers ended to the dis- the last week in September. To these circumadvantage of the Swedes. In Finland an armis- stances Mr. Canning ascribed the direction of tice was concluded on the 27th of September, the expedition, and the delay of the advance of which consigned the greatest part of the pro- the British army. vince to the possession of Russia.

No inconsiderable portion of the present session The naval occurrences of the year 1808 were was occupied in an extraordinary investigation of not of much importance; but in such as oc- the conduct of the duke of York. So early as the curred the British ships maintained their usual 27th of January, colonel Wardle, an officer of mimaritime superiority.

litia, asserted the existence of a system of abuses An extraordinary instance of the naval in- in the military promotions. The substance of the feriority of the Turks was shown by an engage- charge was, that an intriguing female, Mary ment in the Archipelago on the 5th of July. Anne Clarke, who during several years had been The Seahorse English frigate descrying, off the a favorite with his royal highness, but then disisland of Scopelo, a Turkish ship of fifty-two carded, had carried on a traffic in commissions, guns, a corvette of twenty-four guns, and a gal- not only with the knowledge, but also the parley, by dint of maneuvering brought the corvette ticipation of the duke. After various observafirst to action, and in a short time reduced her tions had been offered by different members, the to a wreck. She then engaged in close fight chancellor of the exchequer proposed that the with the large ship, and after an obstinate re- enquiry should take place in a committee of the sistance compelled her to strike, with the loss of whole house, in which it appeared that the duke's 360 men killed and wounded, that of the Sea- knowledge of her transactions, and participation horse being only five killed and ten wounded. in her gains, were circumstances, the proof of

Mr. Rose, who had been sent to the United which depended chiefly on the testimony of States for the purpose of restoring the relations Mrs Clarke herself. of amity between the two countries, returned On the 23rd of February his royal highness without success.

addressed a letter to the speaker of the house of In the month of August this year arrived in commons, in which he not only denied all perEngland Louis XVIII., nominal king of France, sonal participation, but the slightest knowledge with the queen and the daughter of the late of these abuses. But,' added his royal highking, married to the duke d’Angouleme; but ness, 'if upon such evidence as has been adonly acknowledged here under the title of the duced against me, the house of commons can count de Lisle. A liberal provision was, never- think my innocence questionable, I claim of theless, made for himself and his household ; their justice that I shall not be condemned withand in the delightful seclusion of Hartwell, near out trial, nor be deprived of the benefit and Aylesbury, he passed almost the only tranquil protection which is afforded to every British and peaceful years he had known.

subject, by those sanctions under which alone The British parliament was convened on the evidence is received in the ordinary administra19th of January, 1809. The speech adverted to tion of the law.' the late overture for peace; in relation to which It now became necessary to put an end to the bis majesty expressed his persuasion, that the present anomalous proceedings, or to frame regutwo houses would participate in the feelings ex- lar articles of impeachment. With a view to pressed in his declaration. He informed them the first alternative, Mr. Percival on the 17th of that his engagements with Spain were reduced March moved a resolution, that the house havinto the form of a treaty of alliance. The pecu- ing examined the evidence, and having found liar claim of the king of Sweden to his majesty's that personal corruption, and connivance at corsupport was also insisted on; but the debates on ruption, had been imputed to the duke of York, the affairs of Portugal and Spain took the pre- were of opinion that the imputation was wholly cedence in point of interest. Earls St. Vincent, unfounded. This was carried by 278 against Grenville, and Moira, reprobated the idea of 196 voices. His royal highness, however, found sending an army to Portugal when Spain was at it expedient to resign his high office, which was stake. In the commons, Mr. Ponsonby adopted transferred to Sir David Dundas. the same train of reasoning; but they were ably During this ferment of the public mind, a answered by lords Hawkesbury and Castlereagh, charge of corruption was also brought against and by Mr. secretary Canning. Lord Hawkesbury lord Castlereagh. While that nobleman predeclared, that the sending of a British force to sided at the India board be had been compliPortugal, in preference to Spain, was a measure mented with the disposal of a writership, and,

desirous of a seat in parliament for a friend, he He then retired to Stralsund, in which place be was recommended to a trafficking broker,' who sustained a siege, and was killed in the defence pretered to be able to obtain one in exchange. of it. The duke of Brunswick also, whose efforts, W: this man lord Castlereagh imprudently combined with those of Schill, and supported by assented to an interview, but the treaty broke off. Great Britain, might have been attended with Lord Castlereagh, in his defence, disclaimed the happiest results, took up arms when the being actuated by any corrupt motive, or the cause was hopeless, and, after some temporary exertion of any official influence, though he success, was compelled towards the close of much regretted that he had inadvertently been August to embark on board a British squadron led to converse on such a subject with such a at the mouth of the Weser. man; and said, that if the house deemed the In Poland, the archduke Ferdinand being action, or rather the intention, which was all resisted by a very inferior force under prince that the accusation amounted to, unparliamentary, Poniatowski, nephew to the late king Stanislaus, he should bow to any censure which he might be and whose great qualities made him the object thought to deserve.''

of his country's secret hope and warm attachA resolution of censure was moved by lord ment, took possession of Warsaw, but was Archibald Hamilton on the 25th of April; but recalled in consequence of the early disasters of this being an offence that was only contemplated, the Austrian arms. The Russians, then joining the chancellor of the exchequer moved the the Poles, occupied nearly the whole of the order of the day; in voting for which, Mr. Can- Austro-Polish provinces; but the emperor Alex. ning took occasion to remark, 'that he would by ander showed no disposition to push the war no means be understood thereby to pronounce with vigor. the case submitted to them as not of very seri In Italy, where the archduke John commandous importance.' This opinion having apparently ed, the first operations of the Austrians were also more weight than the vote, the order of the day successful, and he captured the cities of Padua was negatived, and Mr. Canning himself moved, and Vicenza; but, subsequently to the battle of

that the house, on considering the whole of the Eckmuhl, he was also recalled to the defence of case, saw no necessity for a criminating resolu- Austria. In his retreat the archduke was closely tion,' which was carried by a majority of 214 followed by the viceroy, prince Eugene Beauto 167 voices.

harnois, who obtained several advantages over Soon after the battle of Corunna the emperor him; and on the auspicious anniversary of the Napoleon set out on his return to France. In the battle of Marengo, the two armies coming to a month of March, 1809, orders were issued for the general engagement near Raab in Hungary, French armies to recross the Rhine. The troops the Austrians were totally defeated, and that of Austria were assembled under the archduke great bulwark of the kingdom fell into the hands Charles as commander-in-chief. On the side of of the enemy. Italy, the viceroy Eugene Beauharnois collected During an interval of repose, which passed a numerous army. Early in April, the Aus- after the indecisive battle of Esling, all the detrians having passed the Inn near Scharding, the monstrations of the French seemed to be pointed king of Bavaria quitted his capital, and retired against that position, which was, in the expecto Augsburg. On the 18th Napoleon arrived at tation of attack, rendered almost impregnable Ingolstadt. The first considerable action took by redoubts and intrenchments. But, on the place at Ebensberg, where the archduke Louis night of July 4th, a bridge of vast dimensions was surprised, and his division of troops dis- was thrown across the river, with almost magical persed or destroyed.

expedition and skill, opposite the left wing of In the mean time the grand army under the the Austrians stationed at Wagram. Early next archduke Charles took possession of Ratisbon, morning the whole French army had crossed the making the French garrison prisoners of war. river, and appeared in order of battle. Thus On the 22nd of April the two armies met at surprised and disconcerted, the archduke Charles Eckmuhl. The battle commenced at two in the spent the day in maneuvreing and altering his afternoon, and was long and obstinate; but to- dispositions. On the 6th of July, at sunrise, the wards evening the Austrians were driven from long expected contest commenced. In his efforts their positions, and attempted to take refuge to outflank the enemy, the archduke dangerously under the walls of Ratisbon, but the city was weakened his centre, upon which an assault was forced with great slaughter, and the Austrians made with accumulated force. The Austrians, retreated to the left bank of the Danube. Na unable to withstand the shock, gave way, though poleon, following the course of that river, ad- by slow degrees, retreating finally near a league vanced to Vienna; into which capital, on the from the ground, leaving the wings exposed to 10th of May, he once more entered as conqueror, an attack from the dukes of Rivoli and Anerthe emperor Francis having previously retired to stadt (Massena and Davoust). The village of Moravia.

Wagram being also forced by the enemy, the In the north of Germany a strong disposition Austrians, perceiving the fate of the battle de to rise in opposition to the tyranny of France at cided, fled with precipitation, and were pursued this time manifested itself, had any rallying point as far as Znaim in Moravia. existed. Colonel Schill, an officer late in the Napoleon now received a proposal from the Prussian service, raised the standard of indepen- emperor Francis to treat of peace; and a definidence at Luneburg, and was joined by great tive treaty was concluded much less unfavorable numbers; but he was opposed and overpowered to Austria than might have been expected. To oy a far superior force under Jerome Buonaparte. Bavaria the emperor Francis was obliged to

yield the important territory of Saltzburg, with but marshal Victor, aware of his danger, had by other districts in the vicinity. To France were this time crossed the Tagus. The British and ceded Fiume and Trieste, with the entire line of Portuguese army now marched along the banks coast connecting the dominions of France on of the river towards Olalla, and took an advanboth sides of the Adriatic. In Poland the king tageous position near Talavera de la Reyna. of Saxony obtained, in addition to the provinces Early on the morning of the 28th the enemy constituting the duchy of Warsaw, the Western attacked the British in force, making a demonGallicia, with the city of Cracow. Another stration also on the opposite quarter. The batportion of Austrian Poland was assigned to tle continued at intervals during the whole day, Russia.

and ended in the final repulse of the enemy. After the British army had embarked from Marshals Ney, Soult, and Mortier, now adCorunna, the French emperor bent all his efforts vanced in great force upon the rear of the allies, to the subjugation of Spain. A number of and it became necessary for them to retreat to fugitives from the army of Castanos, which was Badajos. On the eastern side of the peninsula, defeated at Tudela on the 23d of November, general Blake, after a fruitless attempt to recover 1809, had retreated to Saragossa, and, together Saragossa, was attacked and totally routed by with its martial citizens and armed peasants from the duke of Albufera (marshal Suchet) on the the country, composed a body of 50,000 men, 19th of June;—and this disaster was followed under the command of the renowned Palafox. by a much greater; for the central army, said The siege was conducted by the duke of Monte to consist of 50,000 men, under the marquis bello, one of the ablest of the French generals. Ariezaga, advancing upon Madrid, with the On the 26th of January the French made their view of passing the Tagus at Aranjuez, was engrand attack. About noon on the following day countered 19th of November, by the French the breaches were practicable, and the assailants under king Joseph, assisted by the marshals entered the city. General Lacoste, and a great Soult, Mortier, and Victor, at Ocana, near the number of their bravest officers and men, fell in south bank of that river, when the action terthe assault. The determined resolution of the minated in a signal victory on the part of the inhabitants, who disputed every inch of ground, enemy. The vanquished army retreated in conand converted every house into a fortress, reduced fusion beyond the mountains. In the month of the French to the necessity of mining and blow- December the strong and important fortress of ing up the houses. The Spaniards, on their Gerona, after a long resistance, surrendered to part, had recourse to counter-mining; and the marshal Augereau. effects of this subterraneous war were dreadfully The king of Sweden persisted in the war with destructive. During these tremendous operations Russia, with what his subjects deemed insensate the batteries kept up an incessant fire; and, by obstinacy. On the morning of the 13th of March, mining and blowing up the houses as they pro as he was preparing to leave Stockholm for his ceeded, the French, on the 17th of February, at country residence, he was suddenly arrested in length became masters of the city. No fewer his own palace. He drew his sword in rage, than 20,000 of its brave defenders were at this but was immediately overpowered, and sent a time buried under its ruins.

prisoner to the fortress of Drotningholm. The A series of disasters now fell on the patriot duke of Sudermania issued a proclamation, in cause. The French army in Catalonia made quality of administrator, declaring the incapacity three powerful attacks on that of the Spaniards and deposition of the king. This resulted in an under general Reding. In the last of these the act of abdication, signed by Gustavus IV., and Spanish general, after an obstinate conflict, in a decree was passed, that he and his issue, born which he was severely wounded, was, on the and not born, were for ever excluded from the 12th of March, driven from his position, and throne of Sweden. The duke ascended the throne compelled to retire to Tarragona. Soon after as Charles XIII., and a treaty of peace followed, general Cuesta was defeated 29th of March, at 17th of September, with Russia. An accommoMedellin, and obliged to retreat to Monasterio, dation between Sweden and France took place The patriots about this time recovered Vigo; in December, in consequence of which the but their casual advantages were sunk in the former recovered Pomerania, and the Isle of long train of disasters, and the French made Rrgen. themselves masters of the centre of Spain. In the early part of June Su John Stewart,

On the 22d of April Sir Arthur Wellesley commander of the British army in Sicily, underonce more landed ai Lisbon with large rein- took an expedition against the kingdom and forcements. Instantly repairing to Coimbra, he capital of Naples, and landed with 15,000 put himself at the head of the allied forces, and British troops, afterwards joined by a body of advanced against Oporto; at the same time de Sicilians on the coast of Calabria. On the 24th taching marshal Beresford to occupy the fords the advanced division of the fleet anchored off of the Upper Douro. Here marshal Soult, Cape Miseno, and preparations were made for finding himself in danger of being insulated, an attack on the Isle of Ischia. A descent being judged it necessary to retreat into Gallicia. effected, in the face of a formidable chain of Meanwhile marshal Victor had made himself batteries, the defences of the enemy were turned, master of Alcantara; upon which the British and their principal force retired to the castle, commander returned to the south, and Victor which surrendered on the 30th. The adjacent retired to his former station at Guadiana. garrison of Procida was also summoned, and

Sir Arthur Wellesley on the 20th of July submitted; which paved the way for the capture affected his junction with Cuesta at Oropesa; of forty gun-boats in their passage from Gaeta to

Vol. X.

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Naples. But such a force was now assembled for anchored again three miles from the forts, and the defence of Naples, that Sir John Stuart saw sent all the small vessels to the attack. Lord no prospect of success in an attempt against that Cochrane, leading the way, opened a fire on a capital. An unsuccessful attempt on the castle ship of fifty-six guns, which struck, and this was of Scylla, which the enemy afterwards aban- followed by three others of the linc, which were doned, blowing up the works, concluded the also forced to strike; all of which were set on military operations of the British in this quarter. fire and destroyed. The other French ships be

An undertaking of much greater momenting got into deep water, moved up the Charente, occupied the attention of the British ministry where it was impracticable to mulest them; but during the summer of 1809: the memorable it was doubtful whether they could be again got Walcheren expedition. Towards the end of out to sea. July an army of 40,000 men was collected under Lord Collingwood, who had succeeded Nelthe command of the earl of Chatham, assist- son in the chief command of the ships in the ed by a naval force, under the direction of Mediterranean, having proposed to general Sir Richard Strachan. The principal object of Stuart an expedition against the islands of the expedition was to gain possession of the Zante, Cephalonia, and others, whilst the French islands commanding the entrance of the Scheldt, should be occupied with the defence of Naples, and the port of Flushing.

a joint force from Messina, Malta, and Corfu, The armament invested Flushing on the 1st was arranged for this purpose, and on the 1st of August. A dreadful cannonade and bom- of October it anchored in the bay of Zante. On bardment commenced on the 13th, which on the the following day a capitulation was agreed on, 15th produced from the commander of the gar- by which all that group of islands surrendered to rison, general Monnet, a request for a suspension the British arms, and the government of the sepof arms. This was followed by a surrender, tinsular republic was restored. which yielded nearly 6000 men prisoners of war. On the 23rd of October three French ships of During the siege of this place, a great number the line and four frigates, with a convoy of about of troops from the Belgic and nearest French twenty vessels, were descried coming from Touprovinces were assembled for the defence of lon. Lord Collingwood directed rear admiral Antwerp; so that an attack upon that important Martin to proceed with a squadron in chase of place, and the feet lying under its fortifications, them; and on the 25th, off the mouth of the whatever might have been its success at the com- Rhone, two of the French ships of the line were mencement of the enterprise, was now thought chased on shore, and set on fire by the crews; too hazardous. The troops likewise were be- while a third, with a frigate, ran on shore at the coming sickly, and lord Chatham was induced entrance of the port of Cette, with little chance of to depart for England on the 14th of September, being got off. "The convoy mostly escaped at with the greatest part of his army. The opinions the time into the bay of Rosas; but on the 30th of the ministry relative to the retaining or aban- some ships, with the boats of the fleet, under the doning Walcheren itself were in a state of fluc- orders of captain Hallowell, entering into the bay tuation. In the middle of September a requisition most gallantly overcame all the resistance made was made for a number of the peasantry of the as well from the vessels as from the castle of Roisland to repair and strengthen the fortifications sas and the forts, and captured or destroyed the of Flushing; and, near the end of October, whole. 100 artificers arrived from England with brick Mr. Jefferson having been succeeded, in the and lime. Towards the middle of November, office of president of the United States of however, the demolition of the works and basin America, by Mr. Maddison, the embargo, which for shipping was begun; and on the 23d of had been severely felt from its long continuance, December Walcheren was completely evacuated was repealed, and an act substituted prohibiting by the relics of the British army, one-half of all intercourse with France and England, with a which were either dead, or on the sick list. proviso, that, if either nation rescinded its ob

Martinique and Cayenne were added to our noxious decrees, the prohibition relative to that conquests: and a French fleet of nine sail of the nation should cease. Mr. Erskine, the English line, lying in the road of Aix, protected by the envoy in America, was consequently empowered forts of that island, lord Cochrane, who was to promise, that, if the American interdiction of acting under the orders of admiral Gambier, July 1807 were withdrawn, the commerce of proposed to make an attack upon it with a America with the French colonies should be squadron of five ships, frigates, and smaller armed placed on the same footing as in times of peace, vessels. Standing in with a favorable wind, on the British cruisers being allowed to capture ali the 11th of April, a boom laid across the vessels trading contrary to this restriction. But entral.ce was broken through by the leading Mr. Erskine ventured also, without proper auship, and the greater part of the French ships thority, to declare the orders in council rescinded slipped their cables, and ran for the shore. On from the 10th of June 1809, on the general enthe following day lord Cochrane gave information gagement that an envoy extraordinary would be by telegraph to the admiral, that seven of the received by the president, with a disposition corenemy's ships were on shore, in a situation respondent to that of his Britannic majesty. The which afforded an opportunity of destroying them. British government, however, refused its ratificaIt being, however, found that the state of the tion to this agreement. wind rendered it hazardous to enter the roads, On the 16th of December Napoleon announced in which the water was shallow, with the large to the senate his intention of divorcing his emships, admiral Gambier, who had unmoored, press; and the archduchess Maria Louisa, daughter of the emperor Francis, was pointed strict alliance with the French emperor. Austria out as the future empress. This had been ar- had been once more prostrate at his feet. The ranged at Vienna during the preceding summer, resistance of Spain, in the general opinion, had and the marriage was celebrated at Paris in the become almost hopeless; and all the other pow. ensuing month of March, with great pomp and ers of Europe were in a state of vassalage. Yet festivity.

under these unfavorable circumstances the speech In the course of this year several changes had delivered by the lord chancellor, in his majesty's taken place in the English cabinet. Mr. Can- name, expressed his just confidence, under dining did not enter very cordially into the defence vine providence, in the wisdom of his parliaof lord Castlereagh on the charge relative to the ment, the valor of his forces, and the spirit of India writership; but it was not then known his people. His majesty hoped that material that he had preriously applied to the duke of advantages would be found to result from the Portland for the removal of that nobleman from demolition of the docks and arsenals of Flushing. the war department, recommending the marquis The expulsion of the French from Portugal, and Wellesley as his successor ; obtaining a promise the glorious victory obtained by lord viscount from the premier to that effect, though not for its Wellington at Talavera, had contributed to check immediate execution.

the progress of their arms in the peninsula. AsThe melancholy termination of the Walcheren surances had been received of the friendly disexpedition, however, brought this state of mask- position of America; and his inajesty had much ed hostility between these ministers to a crisis. satisfaction in declaring the flourishing state of Mr. Canning again urging his suit was surprised the national commerce, and increasing produce to find that no communication had been made of the revenue.' to lord Castlereagh by the duke of Portland, and In parliament the speech of Mr. Perceval on gave in his resignation. Lord Castlereagh, the subject of the late overtures to lords Grenon the other hand, being now informed of all the ville and Grey, was particularly modest and concircumstances, so bighly resented the interference ciliatory. In adverting to the overture made by as to make an immediate demand of satisfaction. the command of the king to lords Grey and A duel accordingly took place on the 21st Grenville, he protested that he did not wish for of September, in which Mr. Canning was the situation which he then occupied. The cirwounded.

cumstances of the times required a strong and On the 23d of September Mr. Perceval, upon extended administration; and he hoped that the whom (in consequence of the resignation of the application would have been successful. Had premier and the two secretaries) the chief, it may be been at liberty to state his proposals, the first be said the sole, weight of the government now would have been to resign the treasury to their devolved, wrote to earl Grey and lord Grenville disposal. stating, that his majesty had authorised the earl After a variety of other proceedings, in which of Liverpool (late lord Hawkesbury), and him- the same subjects were indirectly brought under self, to communicate with their lordships for the discussion, on the 26th of January lord Porchespurpose of forming an extended and combined ter moved in the house of commons, 'that a comadministration; and requesting their presence in mittee be appointed to enquire into the policy London.' Lord Grenville on this repaired to and the conduct of the late expedition to the town, in obedience to what he considered to be Scheldt.' This motion was carried by the small an intimation of the king's pleasure; but in his majority of 195 to 186; and a committee of the answer to Mr. Perceval, dated the 29th of Sep- whole house was fixed on for the purpose. His tember, he peremptorily declined the communi- lordship afterwards moved for an address to the cation proposed, declaring, that it could not be king for copies of instructions given to the comconsidered in any other light than as a dereliction manders, and other papers, which was agreed to; of public principle.' Earl Grey, writing from and a secret committee was nominated for the his seat in Northumberland, declared his at- inspection of such communications as were tendance in town unnecessary, unless he had re- deemed improper to be made public. ceived the king's commands to that effect.'. Mr. Among the papers thus moved for was ‘A Perceval now accepted the office of first lord of copy of the earl of Chatham's statement of his the treasury: marquis Wellesley, who had su- proceedings, dated October 15th, 1809, and preperseded Mr. Frere in Spain, was recalled to sented to the king February 14th 1810.' This receive the seals of the foreign department : lord document appeared, from its contents, to be an Liverpool succeeded lord Castlereagh as minister appeal to his majesty by the commander of one at war; and the honorable Richard Ryder, lord part of the expedition against the conduct of the Liverpool in the home department.

commander of another part, and the circumThe 25th of October of this year, being the fif- stance occasioned much debate. A motion being tieth celebration of his accession to the throne, made by Mr. Whitbread for an address to his was distinguished throughout the united king- majesty, requesting that there might be laid be dom as a jubilee, and was marked by every fore the house copies of all reports and other pademonstration of loyal attachment and reve pers submitted at any time to his majesty hy the

earl of Chatham, relative to the late expedition, "The parliament of the united kingdom was was carried, on a division, by 178 to 171 votes. convened on the 23d of January, 1810, and never The answer returned to the address signified, did the political atmosphere exhibit a deeper that the king had received a report from lord gloom Russia, the only continental power Chatham on the 15th of January, which he had which could singly cope with France, was in kept till February the 10th, when it was returned


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