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time did not less infest all those seas than rob- years, and which now devolved on the Thebans. bers did the land. And this was one main cause After the death of Epaminondas, the celebrated why most of the ancient cities of Greece were Theban general, however, as no person was situated at some considerable distance from the found possessed of his abilities, the Thebans shore; but even in these, as all their safety con were again obliged to yield the superiority to the sisted in the resistance they could make against Spartans. But by this time the Greeks had become an invader, their inhabitants were under a ne acquainted with the luxuries and elegancies of cessity of going constantly armed, and being life; and all the rigor of their original laws ever on their guard. Another mischief arising could not prevent them from valuing these as from these continual piracies and robberies was, highly as other people. This did not indeed that they occasioned the far greater part of the abate their valor, but it heightened their mutual lands to lie uncultivated, so that the people only animosities; at the same time that, for the sake planted and sowed as much as was barely ne- of a more easy and comfortable life, they became cessary for their support; and, where there was more disposed to submit to a master. The Perso great a neglect of agriculture, there could be sians, whose power they had long dreaded, and little room for any discoveries in other useful who were unable to subdue them by force of arms, arts and trades. Hence when other nations, as at last found out, by the advice of Alcibiades, the Jews, Egyptians, Midianites, Phænicians, the proper method of reducing the Grecian &c. had improved themselves to a very high de- power, namely, by assisting them by turns, and gree, the Greeks seem to have been utter supplying one state with money to fight against strangers to every useful art. During this period another, till they should all be so much reduced, of savage barbarity, the most renowned Grecian that they might become an easy prey. Thus the heroes as Hercules, Theseus, &c., performed Greeks were weakened, though the Persians did their exploits; which, however exaggerated by not reap any benefit from their weakness. Philip poetic fiction, no doubt had a foundation in of Macedon entered into the same political truth. Some, indeed, are of opinion, that the views; and partly by intrigue, partly by force, Grecian heroes are entirely fictitious beings. Yet, was declared genera issimo of Greece. His succonsidering the extreme degree of barbarity cessor, Alexander the Great, completed their which at that time prevailed throughout Greece, subjection; and by destroying the city of Thebes, it seems not improbable, that some persons of and exterminating its inhabitants, struck such a extraordinary strength and courage might under- terror throughout Greece, that he was as fully take the cause of the oppressed, and travel about obeyed by all the states as by any of the rest of like the more modern knights errant in quest of his subjects. adventures.
During the absence of Alexander in Persia The first expedition in which we find the the Greeks attempted to shake off the MacedoGreeks united, was that against Troy, for the nian yoke, but were quelled by his general Antiparticulars of which, see Troca and Troy. pater. The news of Alexander's death was to Their success in this war (which happened about them a matter of the utmost joy; but their muA. A.C. 1184), cost them very dear; vast num- tual animosities prevented them from joining in bers of their bravest warriors being slain, and any solid plan for the recovery of their liberties, great numbers of the survivors cast away on their and hence they continued to be oppressed by return. It is probable, however, that their hav- Alexander's successors, or other tyrants, till ing staid for such a long time in Asia, might Aratus, the Achæan, about 268 B. C., formed a contribute to civilise the Greeks somewhat sooner design of setting his country free from these than they otherwise would have been ; and ac- oppressors. He persuaded a number of the cordingly, from this time, we find their history small republics to enter into a league for their somewhat less obscure. The continual wars, own defence, which was called the Achæan indeed, in which they were engaged among league; and notwithstanding that the republics, themselves for a long time, prevented them from taken singly, had very little strength, they not making any considerable progress in the arts; only maintained their independency, but soon while they preserved their liberty, and rendered became formidable when united. This associathem brave, and skilful in military affairs: at the tion continued to become daily more and more same time they effectually prevented them powerful; but received a severe check from from making permanent conquests, and confined Cleomenes III. king of Sparta, which obliged them within the bounds of their own country. them to call in Antigonus to their assistance. The states, too, were so equally balanced, that This prince overcame Cleomenes at the battle of scarcely one of them was able perfectly to sub Sellasia, and afterwards made himself master of due another. The Spartans, however, having Sparta. Thus he became a more formidable with great difficulty reduced the kingdom of enemy than the one he had conquered, and the Messene, and added its territories to their own, recovery of the Grecian liberties was incomplete. became the leading people in Greece. Their Soon after this the Greeks began to feel the superiority was long disputed by Athens; but weight of a power more formidable than any the Peloponnesian war at last determined that which they had yet experienced; namely, that point in favor of the Spartans, when the city of of the Romans. That insidious and haughty Athens was taken, and its walls demolished by republic first intermeddled with the Grecian afLysander the Spartan general. See Attica and fairs, under pretence of setting them at liberty SPARTA.
from the oppresion of Philip VI. of Macedon. By the battle of Leuctra, the Spartans lost that This, by a proper union among themselves, they superiority which they had maintained for 500 might have accomplished: but they acted as
though they had been infatuated : receiving with ravaged and ruined Greece stretched its implorthe utmost joy the decree of the Roman consul, ing hands towards Europe, and entreated its who declared them free; without considering, compassion, in the name of that merciful religion that he who had thus given them liberty, might which is common to all Christians; in vain it take it away at his pleasure. This lesson, how- exhibited to the view of independent nations its ever, they were soon taught, by the total reduc- degradation and misery; it was abandoned to tion of their country to a Roman province; yet despair. Posterity will hardly believe that, in an this can scarcely be called a misfortune, when we age in which statesmen have made so much look back to their history, and consider their out- parade about peace and order, men, to whom it rages upon one another : nor can we sympathise would have been easy to stop the fury of the with them for the loss of that liberty which they Turks, have insulted misfortune by disgracing only made use of to fill their country with with the name of rebellion the patriotism of the slaughter and blood. After their conquest by Greeks, and suffered the barbarians to assuage the Romans, they made no united effort to re- their thirst of vengeance on a handful of Chriscover their liberty; but continued in quiet subjec- tians already crushed by their exactions. Can tion till the beginning of the fifteenth century, it seem astonishing that the Greeks should sink About that time they began to suffer under the in a struggle, in which Turks and Christians tyranny of the Turks, and their sufferings were were leagued against them? It must be left to completed by the taking of Constantinople in time to disclose the issue of this struggle; in 1453. Since that time they have groaned under the mean while it is interesting to retrace its past the yoke of this inost despotic government. events, to examine this classic soil, on which the
GREECE, MODERN. Of this country, so in- ancients exhibited so many sublime examples of tensely interesting to the scholar, the artist, and patriotism and all the civic virtues, to contemplate the antiquary, we have been, as lord Byron the ruins which recal to our minds their civilisa. observes, more neglectful than it deserves;' tion, their arts, their superstitions, and their exancient recollections and associations have so ploits; and to gain some tolerably exact idea of the much influence, as completely to absorb the theatre of so many great events, and which is desattention of the traveller, and render him almost tined perhaps to present others not less astonishing. unconscious of the present race of mortals, and we shall then give, I. A rapid and general careless of the existing state of Greece. description of the countries inhabited by the Yet arc her skies as blue, her crags as wild,
Greeks; then treat of Greece properly so called Sweet are her groves and verdant are her fields,
under the divisions. II, Of Great Greece, or Her olive ripe as when Minerva smiled,
Livadia. III. Of the Peloponnesus or the And still his honied wealth Hymettus yields; Morea; and IV. Of the Archipelago, of which There the blythe bee his fragrant fortress builds, our notice must be very slight." The free-born wanderer of her mountain air;
I. The peninsula of Greece juts out into the Apollo still her long, long summer gilds,
Mediterranean Sea, like the peninsula of Italy, Still in his beam Mendeli's marbles glare :
but extends several degrees farther to the south. Art, glory, freedom fail, but nature still is fair. It may be assumed to be contained between the
As a proof of the little attention that has been parallels of 41° 30' and 36° 20' N. lat., and 18° 10 paid to this country and the want of taste and and 22° E. long., commencing from the head of feeling prevalent in some quarters, it has been the gulf of Salonica on the east, and that of observed that Pinkerton has devoted only one Aulona on the west, and reaching to Cape Ma page of his three huge quarto volumes to the tapan on the south. It consists properly of two wbole of Greece, about six lines to the descrip- peninsulas, one extending from the northern tion of Attica, and half a line to inform the limits already mentioned to Cape Colonna (the reader that Atini, the ancient Athens, is thinly ancient Sunium) in the south, being about 200 populated.
miles in length, and 100 in breadth, with an A general sympathy was manifested from one area of about 20,000 square miles, and united to end of Europe to the other, when, in the year the other, or that of the Morea (the ancient Pe1820, the first symptoms appeared of a rising of loponnesus) by the isthmus of Corinth; this the enslaved Greeks; all civilised nations seemed peninsula contains a surface rather less than half disposed to aid the oppressed, and to pay back of the former country. The islands of the Archi to the descendants some part of what the world pelago may be about equal in extent to the Morea, owes to their ancestors. If, indeed, this move- stretching more than four degrees farther to the ment has not at present produced much of per- east. The entire district is bounded on the north manent effect, we may attribute it to the in- by the Turkish provinces of Roumelia and sensibility of statesmen, whom the voice of Albania (see ALBANIA); on the west by the humanity can only move when it accords with Adriatic Sea, which separates it from the souththeir political views: we may observe that the eastern part of Italy; on the south by the same policy, which in 1813 and 1814 sympa- Mediterranean Sea, and on the east by the Asthised with an oppressed people, and encouraged chipelago. them to shake off the yoke, in 1822 doomed An uninterrupted range of mountains runs them to submit to a prolongation of their cala- down the middle of the greater peninsula, in a mities under pain of being declared rebels. The parallel line to its eastern and western coasts, wish of certain cabinets to furnish a counter- varying in elevation from 7000 to 8000 feet in poise to American liberty, in fact, has paralysed the northern and central part, to those in the ihis noble effort of humanity. In vain,' as one south, which are about 700 or 800 : among the of her eloquent French advocates observes, former may be reckoned the loîtiest ridge of
Pindus and Parnassus; and, among the latter, stone which arrest its progress. Precipitous Parnes, Pentelicus and Hymettus, in Attica. rocks, covered with wood, rise on either side of From this central chain different ridges branch the bay, into which the waters of the lake disoff towards the coast on either side; eastward charge themselves on issuing from their subterthe celebrated Olympus, near the northern part raneous abyss. Buzzards and other birds are of the gulf of Salonica, rising to the height seen constantly fitting over this liquid plain, of 6000 feet, forms part of an interior chain, while the vultures are ever hovering on the mounextending through the island of Negropont, tains which bound it to the west. consisting of Ossa and Pelion, Ota and Othrys, The coast of the peninsula, especially in the and mount Delphis the most remarkable of them southern part, is considerably indented with all. The mountainous countries of Epirus, gulfs and bays, several of which afford commoÆtolia, and Acarnania, constituted part of dious and sheltered anchorage for vessels, and what is now called Albania. In the Morea, near furnish great facilities for maritime commerce. the western coast, is the lofty Cyllenian range, The principal of these are the gulfs of Salonica, while towards the south rises the Taygetus. Talanta, Athens, and Napoli on the east ; those These mountains enclose plains of considerable of Aulona, Prevesa, Lepanto, and Arcadia on elevation, of which Thessaly, Bæotia, and the west; and those of Coron and Kolokythia on Arcadia, still maintain their ancient appearance, 'the southern coast; that of Talanta is more proand are watered by mountain streams and the perly a channel, separating the island of Negronumerous branches of the Peneus and Salym- pont from the mainland, to which it makes so pria, which, after intersecting the plain of Thes- near an approach, that Chalcis, the principal saly, unite, and flowing through the famous town, almost touches it. Of course there are valley of Tempe, discharge themselves into the many capes or headlands, some of them projectGulf of Salonica; while the Alpheus fertilises ing far inio the sea; the most remarkable of these the verdant plains of Arcadia, Elis, and Achaia. are capes Lingua, Leucadia or St. Maura, and To these may be added a multitude of other Konella on the west; capes Gallo, Malapan, and streams of less importance, which would not Malæa to the south; and capes Sunium or Calona, have been noticed in any other country than Manteio, and Phalasia, on the east. Greece, where every rivulet has its verse, and The climate of Greece, according to the latias Spon observes, these smaller rivers make more tude in which it is placed, and its exposure to noise, dans les livres que dans leurs lits.' the sea, which almost surrounds it, should be
There is but one lake of any considerable ex- similar to that of Italy; it is, however, in many tent, the Copaïs, now called Topoglias, which parts colder in winter, and warmer in summer. receives the waters of the Cephisa, after they in the centre of the country the tops of the have traversed the plains of Phocis, besides mountains are for three parts of the year covered those of a number of other rivers. It is situated with snow, which in some of their deeper renear the north-eastern coast of Bæotia, and its in- cesses may be always discovered. Mount Parcessantly increasing waters would long since nassus was formerly thought to be impassable have inundated the country, and rendered it un on account of its perennial snow, but Dr. Sibinhabitable, had it not been for the gulf of Ka- thorp relates that it was perfectly free when he tabathron, which, at the foot of a chain of chalk crossed it in the month of July. Some plains hills, receives the overflowings, and this lake of considerable elevation are said to be as cold probably finds a passage under the hills; for as the west of England, particularly that of the waters spring up abundantly on the opposite Ionnina, about 200 feet above the level of the side, and form a river, which at a short distance sea, between the middle range of mountains and discharges itself into the sea between plantations the western coast; in the Morea, further to the of cotton. The inhabitants call this river Larmi: south, the elevated plains are still colder, and it may be regarded as the outlet of the Cephisa, Tripolitza is said to be sometimes covered with which, after crossing the lake, runs about a snow to the depth of eighteen inches. At no league under ground. It is uncertain whether great distance from Tripolitza, the capital, Dr. the Katabathron be the work of nature alone, or Holland found the temperature at six in the whether art has completed what nature has be- morning as low as 16° of Fahrenheit. He adds, gun; this subterraneous canal was obstructed in the degree and continuance of cold were such its course, under the reign of Alexander, by as I scarcely recollect to have experienced in earthquakes and the crumbling of the ground; England, and this in the very centre of Arcadia; and there are still visible the extremely deep but this was in 1813, a winter remarkable for its wells, which were then dug to facilitate the severity in every part of Europe. In summer, course of the waters. Another operation of this however, the blooming vales of Arcadia present kind will perhaps soon become necessary, as the a continuance of scenery equal to any thing banks of the Copais, continually assailed by the which has been described or imagined in poetic winter torrents, present nothing but a series of song: Luxuriance and beauty may be prounhealthy marshes. Surrounded by rocks and nounced to be the general characteristics ; flowerhalf-cultivated hills, behind which, on the ing valleys, winding streams, and hills shrouded western side, the mountains of Phocis are seen nearly to their summits with wood, are the obrising in different shades of coloring, the Copaïs jects which commonly awaken our admiration.' presents one of the finest scenes in Bæotia; in -Haygarth. In the lower regions of Attica summer the roses almost cover its banks; the the air is more moderate, and the climate more river Hercyna, dashing from rock to rock, falls equable, the cold being less intense, the heat into this vast basin, foaming over the blocks of less oppressive, and the rain less abundant. In