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Athens the temperature seldom rises above 80° weight of it is annually sent to Constantinople. or 90°, and it is very rarely so low as the freezing Articles of the first necessity are all manufacpoint; it is therefore generally healthy, while tured in Greece; tanning, dyeing, cotton and silk on the contrary, many parts of Livadia, which, weaving, and other mechanical arts, are carried in ancient times were the site of populous cities, on with tolerable skill in every family: and the are become infectious marshes, spreading death Greeks have no need of importing any thing among those who are hardy enough to establish but what contributes to convenience or luxury; themselves in their neighbourhood.

articles of this description they can easily proThe soil of Greece is generally good; that of cure by giving in exchange the superfluity of Bæotia especially is very rich, producing wheat, their produce, as grain, oil, wine, fruits, &c. Indian corn, barley, kidney-beans, rice, and This exchange sometimes affords a very lucratire sesamum, with a great quantity of cotton; while commerce, buty, in order to turn the balance its lakes still supply Athens and other parts decidedly in favor of the Greeks, agriculture of the country with eels, waterfowls, and must be carried to a higher state of perfection, rushes for baskets, mats, and lamp-wicks. Not so that the quantity of their productions may fewer than eight different sorts of wheat are cul- be increased, and the quality of their goods tivated with great success, and produce in good improved. soils from ten to twelve for one, and in the best. To produce these beneficial effects the laborer from fifteen to eighteen for one, and this mostly must be rescued from the iron hand of oppresin unmanured ground; barley, millet, and to- sion, and brought under the dominion of just bacco are also general throughout Greece. In laws; but the despotism of the Turks has parathe plains of Thessaly are extensive groves of lysed every thing in Greece. To live in abject mulberry-trees, cultivated principally for the wretchedness, to have no appearance of wealth silk-worm, which is there an object of much at- or comfort in their dwellings, or anything which tention; the trees are carefully cut down, may tempt the cupidity of these savage masters, watered, and hoed. The silk of Attica is re- is the only safeguard that the miserable Greeks markable for its whiteness; but that of the possess. Owing to this cause, and the upwholeMorea, deriving its name probably from the mul- some state of the atmosphere in some places, berry, is the most celebrated; there is also abun- arising from the numerous marshes near the coast, dance of excellent corn, wine, and figs, and the the population of the country is much diminished. wheat yields thirty-fold, and two crops in a year. The whole of Greece does not perhaps now conThe cactus or Indian-fig forms an impenetrable tain more than 4,000,000 of inhabitants, allow. hedge with its thorny coats round the plantations ing to the in many places ; but most of the lands are open.

Peninsula in the north , 2,000,000 Cotton is produced in most parts of the country, but in the greatest abundance in the plains of

The Morea and Negropont 1,000,000 Triccala in Thessaly, where not less than 600,000

The islands ..... 1,000,000 pounds of the wool are grown annually. The The Greeks constitute three-fourths of this po fig-tree is cultivated with much attention and pulation; the rest are Turks, Mussulmans, Alsuccess, and the olive forms the greatest part of banians, Jews, and the mixed descendants of the exports and riches of Attica, yet this oil, Romans, Venetians, Neapolitans, and other Euonce so fine and so highly esteemed, is now only ropeans, generally called Franks. The Turks used for the manufacture of soap. Their know. are, however, quite ignorant of the state of the ledge of agriculture is not very far advanced, population; it is, therefore, not surprising that and the simple instruments they use bear every strangers should have but an imperfect knowmark of a very ancient origin; in some parts, ledge of it. As of old, the people may be said as in the isles of the Archipelago, they use the to be divided into four classes, cultivators of the spade instead of the plough, the lands being soïi. craftsmen, soldiers, and priests. In the divided into parcels too small to require the manners of the Greeks we may observe many use of the latter instrument. Of the wines of defects and vices; but these are, for the most this country, ten different sorts have been enu- part, the natural effect of their long and merated by Dr. Sibthorp, but none of them can hard bondage, and should make us detest the be called fine except those made on a few of the barbarous despotism which has so long opislands of the Archipelago; the practice also pressed a people gifted with every disposition which generally prevails of mixing with them necessary to render them great, happy, and worturpentine, from the species of fir called pinus thy of their ancestors. They are indeed natumaritima, in order to prevent them from becom- rally lively, and this appears in the excessive ing acid, renders the favor not very agreeable. joy which they manifest in their panegiris or This fir is one of the most useful trees in Greece, church-festivals, in which they drink and sing furnishing pitch and tar for all maritime and and dance in honor of their patron saint, till domestic purposes; of the resinous parts are they fall into a state of weariness and stupefacmade candles or torches, the cones are put into tion. It is said, that a Greek before he enters the wine casks, the wood serves for the carpen- again into his enslaved village, sometimes takes ter, and the bark for tanning. Honey is pro- a week, a month, or a year to rejoice in ; but duced in considerable quantities, and much this is not gaiety; it is frenzy ; they appear in valued by the Athenians, especially that of Hy- this like the unfortunate negroes, who pass the mettus, in Attica, which has been celebrated whole night in dancing, in order to forget the from time immemorial, and is still so much toils of the day. If the men are immoderate in in esteem, that a present of 1000 pounds their exhibitions of joy, the women are so in

their grel The loss of her husband terminates of embroidery and spinning, under the fine clifor ever the happiness of the widow; she utters mate of the Archipelago ? Education furnishes dreadful lamentations, tears her hair, disfigures them with scarcely any means of dissipating her countenance, retires from society, neglects their weariness; their husbands either leave them the care of her person, and takes no part in alone while they go to navigate the ocean, or social avocations; she seldom marries again. treat them with a lordliness equal to that of the In well regulated towns this excessive mourning Turks. Among the superstitions to which they has been rather tempered by the prevalent man- are much devoted may be mentioned their using ners, but, in the country parts and the islands, of various charms, their consulting with sorit is still inordinate. At their funerals, mourners ceresses, and their reliance on dreams, which inare hired for the purpose, and the disgusting terest them exceedingly, and by which the young spectacle is exhibited of a factitious despair, females endeavour to discover what sort of a mingled with the most extravagant panegyrics husband they are likely to have, and whether on the deceased ; in many places they expose they are destined to be happy in their future the dead in the churches, where they are visited life. Their marriages are celebrated with reby the relations and friends, who come to give joicings, in which whole villages take a part. them the last kiss. A woman is considered as The proposals are made in some of the islands of little value in society, when her husband is by proxenetes or match-makers; at church the dead : in the higher ranks, as among the ancients, newly married couple are adorned with crowns; the Greek females are sequestered and shut up and, on entering the bridegroom's house, the in their seraglios, from which they never go out bride is carried over the threshold, as to touch without their veils, and that only to visit their it would be counted a bad omen: Almonds, female relations, or to frequent the churches. walnuts, and other fruits are distributed among Embroidery, music, and story-telling are their the people; the repast is commonly very abunchief occupations in their retirement, and their dant, and they drink moderately as is customary minds thus left without culture, would become in Greece, where drunkenness is seldom met torpid were it not for their natural vivacity, with, and their manner of living is generally which discovers itself in the brightness of their very simple. eyes, in the flexibility of their agreeable coun. În vain in this country do Helicon and Partenances, and in the agility of all their limbs; nassus still rear their summits to the clouds, the but these women, who in the most simple dress genius of the fine arts no longer resides there : always appear even handsome, disfigure them- how indeed could they develop themselves under selves by the heavy costume in which they are a government which makes every appearance of muffled up, and the thick paint with which they riches a signal for fresh exactions? Neither cover their faces. Frequent bathing, and that architecture, nor painting, nor sculpture, is to languor inseparable from idleness, impair in be found in any perfection; the churches even early life those charms, which begin to disclose are small and mean, and those which are in any themselves at a very tender age, and all the respect remarkable in their construction take marks of a premature old age appear before they their date from the times of the latter empire, or have reached what is commonly considered the of the Italians, or have been composed of the prime of life; among the lower classes, the fragments of antiquity ; besides these there are fatigues of labor generally produce the same ef- no public edifices, except the monasteries, built fect. With an excessive love for dress, and great without taste, and often without any symmetry. fondness of perfumery, the Greek women manifest This country, once the richest in the productions great negligence in regard to the cleanliness of of the fine arts, is now the poorest in the civilised their apparel, and their dwellings are destitute world; and, to equal other nations, it will be of neatness, though it would be most easy to necessary for the Greeks to study the very first keep them in order; since all their moveables principles, since these have fallen into oblivion. consist in a few sopbas, some presses or chests Music is among them less an art than a means of to contain their clothes, the matrasses which amusement and diversion; in their churches the they spread in the evening to sleep on, some clergy cunieat themselves with miserable psalmostools about two feet high which serve them for dy, which they never dream of improving; and, tables and chairs, and the brazier near which the in their social meetings, a bad instrument, some women in winter spend the whole day, and which favorite air, and a poor player, are sufficient to is about the same height : some images com- excite their gaiety. Their songs sometimes proplete the decoration of their rooms. In the duce emotions of the most moving kind, but this cities and the islands, where more intercourse is hardly to be attributed to their music; indeed, with the European nations prevails, there is less buried in slavery and poverty, how can the art uniformity and insipidity in the life of the fe- of harmony inspire any people? males; they are not excluded from society; gay The language of the ancient Greeks has underand affable, they often charm the traveller by gone many alterations in the course of time; and the most gracious and easy hospitality. What these, as may be observed, commenced with the stranger,' says a popular French advocate of the decline of the eastern empire. The irruption of Greeks, can resist the invitations and offers of the barbarians hastened the corruption of the hospitality which are frequently addressed to' language, as well as the fall of the empire; and him in a sweet and harmonious language by ages have passed in which this nation had no groups of lively and black-eyed females seated literature but that of its ancestors. About the before their houses, and occupied in the labors twelfth century some taste for learning arose; the crusades then commenced, which brought the century, had not even a single printing press, East into relation with the West, the Greeks and received from Venice and Trieste the only with the Latins and Saracens; and though there books generally saleable, that is, the formularies was a striking distinction between the supple and of devotion. The Athenians have lost all traces artful character of the Greeks, and the barbarous of those dramatic exhibitions of which their anrudeness of the Latins, new ideas were inspired cestors were so fond. Only three poems have into the mind of the nation, and new expressions been produced among them before the eighteenth were introduced into its language. The Italians century; but since that time their poets have particularly had great influence over the Romaic, multiplied, and their productions have become or modern Greek, which was then formed; poets more numerous and varied. Songs, in which all and prose writers availed themselves of this new nations delight, are become a favorite amuselanguage'; which, though as remote from the ment with the Greeks. At first they had two ancient Greek as the Italian is from the tongue kinds of them, viz. erotic, or love songs, and the of ancient Rome, soon became the national idiom. clephtica tragoudia, that is, songs celebrating the Had not their liturgy, from the earliest times of great exploits of some klephtes, a name simply Christianity, maintained the use of the ancient signifying a robber, but by no means dishonorharmonious language of their ancestors, the able in some parts of Greece, where the most Greeks probably would have been much farther respectable people make no scruple of taking to distant from its purity; and to this same pre- the highway, and subsisting on the booty they ventive cause may be attributed the uniformity have acquired, especially if they hate regularly which prevails in the modern language in all the made their offering at the shrine of some saint different districts, how remote soever they may or madonna. We shall quote two of these be from the centre of Greece. In some of the klephtic songs in the original, as a specimen of islands also, which are very little addicted to the Romaic generally spoken, with subjoined trade, more of the words and turns of expression translations, which will give some idea of the of the ancient Greek are preserved than in the tone that breathes through many of these mounrest of the country. The Albanians, who have tain strains. been settled in Greece only six centuries, have adopted the language of the Greeks, though they differ from them in other respects, and treat them

ο ΤΑΦΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟΥ. with great contempt. Independently of words and expressions derived from the European

Ollos &ßaoileve, ki' ó Añuos diarácęc tongues, the ancient Greek grammar has under- 'Súpte, haidiá pov,'otò vepòv, ywui và pár' árove. gone various alterations; the accents, which the Kai où Aautoáka Me' aveyiè, cáčov low covrá pov* nice ear of an Athenian distinguished with so

Na! : appara uoc góp£ớt, goai ca rávoc much care, have been confounded; the aspira

Και σείς, παιδιά μου, πάρετε το έρημον σπαθί μου, tions, though still marked, are no longer bro. Ipáoiva cóYETE «laðià, otpūoté pov kalnow, nounced ; several vowels and diphthongs, that

Και φέρτε τον πνευματικών να μ' εξομολογήσω the ancients distinguished, have now the same

Νά τον είπω τα κρίματα όσα 'χω καμωμένα sound given to them, el, 01, n et v, being pro

Τριάντα χρόνι’ αρματωλός, κ' είκοσι έχω κλέφτης nounced by the Greeks as ē; and this, they pre

Και τώρα μ' ήρθε θάνατος, και θέλω ν' απαιθάνω.. tend, is the true pronunciation. With the words Kápete Kußoüpi pou thatù, nòv và yévy, of the ancient language the moderns have taken Να στέκ' ορθός να πολεμώ, και δίπλα να γεμίζω. great liberties, lengthening some, shortening

Κι' από το μέρος το δεξί αφήστε παραθύρι, others, interpolating or retrenching the vowels or

Τα χελιδόνια να 'ρχωνται, την άνοιξιν να φέρουν, consonants in the middle of words, changing

Και τ' αηδόνια τον καλόν Μάην να με μαθαίνουν.' one letter for another; in fine, confounding their significations, and using the ancient words in THE TOMB OF THE KLEPHTES. new senses. In the grammar, the dual number, peculiar to the ancient Greek, and the oblique Darkness drew near, and day was fading fast, cases, are lost; the auxiliaries to have and to will, Like death and life, when Demos spoke his last : employed in modern languages' to indicate the “Leave me a while, my childreu-hence, and bring past and the future, as well as the use of the Our draught for evening from the crystal spring; personal pronouns in the verbs, are all derived My brother's son, Lampsakis! come and wear from European sources. It is remarkable, that These arms—my arms henceforth be chieftain here the mariners and fishermen of the nation have My comrades, take my now forsaken swordretained more of the ancient words than others; Cut me green boughs, and let its blade afford the names which they give to plants and fishes Once more a couch to rest its weary lord!

Call me a priest to whom I may confess bear a strong resemblance to those by which

All my past errors--would the list were less Dioscorides, and other naturalists, called them.

A Klepbtes long! an Armatolos longer, On the other hand, the most corrupt dialect is Terror of Turks- but now the foe is stronger used in Attica, where once the most pure and "Tis Death! prepare my tomb-but broad and high! chastened style prevailed. The orthography When o'er it sounds the Moslem's battle-cry, varies much, and, indeed, has no fixed rules. Let me have space to raise my mouldering corso,

We cannot expect any brilliant progress in Appall with death, yet strike with living force! literature from a people oppressed for so many And leave one crevice-where the rustling wing centuries, who possess no capital, or any great Of swallows and of nightingales that sing establishments for education; who, until this The lovely May, may tell me when 'tis Spring !"

bold;

ΤΟΥ ΣΤΕΡΓΙΟΥ. .

with the church of Rome; pagan doctrines rela

tive to magic, the curse pronounced by the K'ây tà depßévia rovpretav, tà rūpav Apßa- priests, and the efficacy of some religious serνίτες,

vices, were propagated almost without alteration; “Ο Στέργιος είναι ζωντανός, πασάδες δεν ψνφάει. but, incredible as it may seem, the doctrine of Ooov xlovičovv rå Bovvd, Toúpkovs un Apooku- purgatory, so profitable to the Latins, and which νούμεν. .

has conferred such immense influence and riches Πάμεν να λιμεριάζωμεν, όπου φωλεάζουν λύκοι on their clergy, never gained access among the Σταϊς χώραις σκλάβοι κατοικούν τους κάμπους με Greeks. The usurpation of temporal power by τους Τούρκους, ,

the clergy, which has constituted the disgrace Xúpais laykádia s' épnuiaīs éxovv Tù rallycápa. of the Latin church, is unknown to them; the Παρά με Τούρκους, με θηρια καλύτερα να ζούμεν. Greeks are astonished how a bishop of Rome,

who, say they, is no more than a bishop of STERGHIOS.

Alexandria, of Antioch, or of Nice, should dare Tho' the Turks and Albanians our passes may world, and domineer over the clergy and laity.

to usurp the supremacy over the whole Christian hold,

There has always been something of the repubOur Sterghios will scorn them, though many and

lican forms of antiquity preserved in the Greek And as long as the snows on the mountains shall be, church; they consider the priestly power as reThough we live with the wolves, we will live to be siding chiefly in the patriarchs, metropolitans, free,

archbishops, and bishops; and say, that the first The towns, and the plains, are the home of the slave seven councils have settled every thing that reWhere they herd with their Mussulman tyrants—the lates to doctrine, the decisions of which nothing brave

should, or can, affect. As to discipline, they Have their cities in rocks, cliffs, and solitudes, so consider it as the business of the synods, and We will dwell among beasts—but with infidels

that the assistance of a pope is altogether unnecesNo!

sary. Four patriarchs, elected by the synods,

and residing at Constantinople, Antioch, JerusaA little while before the insurrection of the lem, and Alexandria, have nearly the same Greeks a printing press was established in the power, that of Constantinople being merely reisland of Scio; by this means learning began to garded as the chief, and exercising some temporal spread rapidly; the classic works of ancient authority in a council of archimandrites, archGreece were republished ; libraries, colleges, deacons, and other priests and monks, at which and schools, were established among themselves, he presides; every bishop among the Greeks deand the young Greeks were encouraged to fre- cides matters in dispute, according to the codes quent the foreign universities. Of all the losses of Justinian and Theodosius, and the laws of suffered by this interesting country, that of her Basil of Macedonia. But this temporal authority universities at Buchorest, Aivali, Scio, Yanina, is rather the result of the civil, than the religious and Athens, will be long felt; the very seeds of state of the people, who, baving no other superior their restoration perished with the 500 Greek authorities than their patriarchs and bishops, students, the sacred band,' who fell at the fatal would rather refer to these national judges, than battle of Drageschan. The Anglo-Ionian uni- to the tribunals of their Turkish oppressors. The versity of Corfu is now the only sanctuary for manners of the superior Greek clergy are very Greek literature; and this, perhaps, is destined simple: as they are mostly taken from the moere long to shed the beams of learning and virtuenastic order, their lives partake very much of over the regions of the Levant.

the uniformity of the cloister; while monachism The character of the Grecian people, as of all itself does not, as in the Romish church, exhibit other civilised nations, has been strongly in- any thing of that pomp, predominant influence, fluenced by the principles and practices of its and cruel authority, which have been displayed religion. In ancient times, notwithstanding the by the Jesuits, the Dominicans, and Cistertians, lights that philosophy afforded, they were com of the West. The Greek monks are all of the pletely under the dominion of their priests; their order of St. Basil, preserving much of the simtreasures were lavished at their altars, their lives plicity of their primitive institution; it is in soliwere often sacrificed in their temples, and the tary places, in the midst of rocks and deserts, fables of their mythology, and the various festi- that the caloyers take up their abode. It must vals of their worship, some of them horrid for their not, however, be concealed, that the inhabitants cruelty and others abominable for their licen- of the Greek cloisters are generally very ignorant; tiousness, were the themes of their finest works being condemned to a contemplative mode of of imagination. However free they were in the life, they seem as if they imagined they had conduct of their civil affairs, they were really nothing more to do with their reason; and some slaves in their religious opinions. When at of them, not content with the sacrifice of thought, length the prevalence of Christianity wrought the submit to the mortifications, and austere life of downfall of this ancient system of superstition anchorites, and become almost walking spectres. and imposture, the national spirit transferred to Ambitious, notwithstanding this, of ecclesiastical the new worship the ardent imagination, the vi- honors, their conduct is often greedy and opvacity, and the puerile superstition, that had pressive; the patriarch, obliged to pay a tax to been derived from the ancients. Miserable con- the Turks for his place, exacts upon the metro troversies, and scholastic subtilties, distracted politans, these squeeze the bishops, and the the minds of the people; a breach took place bishops lay the monks and parishes under con

Vol. X.

2 R

tribution; they frequently sell the furniture of the sun, are portentous onens; lightning is those who do not pay these exactions, and con- dreaded by the busbandmen, and eclipses are tract debts at the cost of the people. The lower considered as the precursors of calamities; in clergy, that is to say the papas, having no pros- fine, the number five is held as one of the worst pect of advancement, betake themselves tu occu- of auguries, so that they believe themselves bepations of the meanest kind, in order to support witched if they utter it, or if any one extend to their families ; for, happily for the population of them their hand with the five fingers. the country, they are not forbidden to marry. Should another Luther make his appearance They are frequently husbandmen or farmers, in the Eastern church, he would have a multiwho, having learned a few of the formularies and tude of these things to reform, and be would ceremonies of the church, have purchased the render a great service to the people by supprespriestly office of some accommodating bishop, sing the useless fasts, which are imposed on them and, becoming all at once papas, make money during a great part of the year. The fast on of every thing; they sell absolutions, sacraments, the Epiphany, at the great ceremony of the exorcisms, relics, &c. They promote all kinds of blessing of the waters, every Wednesday and superstition; they have covered all Greece with Friday in honor of the Passion, at the Ascentheir little chapels, each of which has its officia- sion, and at Christmas ; but it is in Lent espeting priest; ignorant and fanatical, and miserably cially, that every body, even the sick and women paid, they are often the disgrace of the religion with child, observe a rigorous fast; to see the they profess, and pursue trades by no means miserable food, and even polypuses and other honorable, in order to obtain their subsistence. marine animals, some of them half putrified, • All Greece,' says the Count de Choiseul-Gouf- on which they then support themselves, we have fier, 'is filled with these monks, scarcely any of the greatest difficulty to conceive how these inwhom can read; but they know how far the in- trepid fasters can sustain life. At the approach fluence of religious fear extends over superstitious of Easter they make themselves amends for this minds. Every pirate has with him a caloyer, severe abstinence; on Palm Sunday they decoor papas, to absolve him from a crime the very rate the churches with the boughs of odoriferous moment he has committed it; after having mas- shrubs; they purchase on the following days sacred the people in the buildings they take absolution from their sins; on Holy Thursday by surprise, after having plundered and razed they partake of the Communion according to them to their foundations, they immediately the rites of the primitive church, observing this prostrate themselves at the foot of their minister, ceremony as a banquet of peace and brotherly when the repeating of a few words reconciles love; Ash Wednesday is a day of entire fasting, them to the Deity, as they suppose, calms their and they continue their devotions till late at consciences, and encourages them to the com- night; but on Easter eve all is bustle and premission of new crimes. Numberless ceremonies paration for the next day's festival; they clean and superstitions constitute the whole of the re- the house, throw out of the windows the old ligion of the papas and the laity; and there is earthen vessels, which have been used during not one superstitious opinion or practice of the Lent; the best apparel is taken out of the family ancient Greeks which is not prevalent among chest; the paschal lamb is purchased for the sotheir descendants in some form or other; they lemn repast, and they resume the harp and the have even augmented the number. They ac- tambourine, which had been laid aside during knowledge the influence of evil genii every the fast. The dawn of the Sabbath is hailed by where; they have protecting saints against every vollies of musketry and cries of joy; they make species of misfortune and accident; they have presents to their friends of painted eggs and peopled nature with invisible spirits; the dead cakes, the paschal lamb is eaten by the whole have no rest among them, they appear again in family, and copious libations of wine spread the form of vampires or broucalakas; the whole everywhere a noisy pleasure, which is kept up village is thrown into confusion, and they make during eight days, and often degenerates into use of every charm to quiet the rest'essness of extreme licentiousness. In many respects these these phantoms. In no place has sorcery so orgies resemble the Saturnalia of the ancient completely enthroned itself as in Greece; not Greeks. only do they believe in it, but they see its effects Baptism among the Greeks is administered every where. Dreams are ever furnishing fresh by immersion, and they accuse the Latins of food for superstition; they attribute periodical having altered this institution by practising fevers, and other diseases, to malignant influences, sprinkling. Their communion is a distribution and to envy; they write the name of the malady of wheaten bread and wine; to which on partion a triangular paper, and stick it on the en cular festivals a lamb is added; this simple trance of the sick man's chamber in order to ob- repast seems very much to resemble the agapai tain his cure; they fix the nail of a coffin on the of the first Christians. In their churches they doors of their houses to drive away the appari- have only pictures painted on wood, miserably tions; they tremble at the screeching of an owl, executed; in the country of Phidias and Praxior the shaking of a leaf; the osprey spreads teles they have proscribed without pity statues alarm in every direction, when its cries inter- and sacred sculpture, for fear of falling into idorupt the silence of the night; a whole caravan is latry, but they have no fear of this kind from stopped, if a bare cross its path, until some one exposing to view the wretched images painted comes up, who has not seen it, and breaks the by the monks. These paintings pass among charm ; to hear the braying of an ass on a fast them as miraculous; and most of the Greek day, to meet a papas, or monk, at the rising of monasteries possess one of them, which the cre

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