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vadia are comprehended the provinces situated between the sea, on the east, south, and west, and Macedonia and Albania on the north; that is to say Acarnania, AEtolia, Phocsi, Boeotia, Thessaly, and Attica. There are few remains of the multitude of cities which once filled this country, and its Polo is perhaps not more than one-tenth of what it was in ancient times, The mountains on the side of Albania afford a covert for some warlike tribes, whose chief occupation is robbing, and who attack, one another, when they are not engaged with the neighbouring nations; the presence of the Turks, too, has been sufficient to depopulate these once flourishing provinces. The soil still continues fertile, and the traveller is charmed with the luxuriant pasturage of the plains, the thick forests of the mountains, the fruitful fields and plantations of the valleys, the delightful orc round the towns, the fisheries of the coast, and the cultivation of the silkworm, the vine, and the olive, all flourishing under a climate remarkable for its mildness. The richest, most prosperous, and best peopled, province of ancient Greece is Attica; but it has lost all the advantages, which human genius and industry had conferred upon it; nothing now remains but a serene sky, a fine climate, and a soil suited to every species of culture; yet badly tilled, it exhibits in some places a naked sterility, producing only degenerated vegetables. The population had been in 1820 reduced to 25,000 souls, including Greeks, Turks, and Albanians; among the two latter foreign nations, the Greeks themselves seem like foreigners; bowed down under the degrading yoke of these barbarians, the Greek of Attica has none of the airy vivacity of the ancient Athenian, who could bear neither slavery nor liberty, and in whom the love of glory ...? a taste for the fine arts incessantly gave birth to the most lively emotions. Deprived of their cities, their industry, and their commerce, the inhabitants have been reduced to a rustic and pastoral life; in winter these wandering shepherds descend from the mountains of Thessaly, to find under a softer climate pasturage for their large flocks of goats and sheep. The former of these animals are more numerous in these provinces than the latter, and almost equally serviceable; of their hair are manufactured sacks and large carpets; their milk, either by itself, or mixed with that of the cow, makes good cheese, and their skins, converted into bottles, serve for the transportation of the wine, oil, and honey, of the province; and, being afterwards tanned, are made into shoes for the people. . Five shepherds are counted sufficient for a flock of 1000, and, when the vintage is over, they bring their flocks into the vineyards, to feed on the vine leaves. The people of Attica still excel in the art of dyeing wool and cotton; they dye blue with indigo, yellow with Avignon berries, and red with the

chrysoxylon or wood of the rhus-cotinus, which, growing on the mountains in the neighbourhood of Marathon, and Pendeli, is gathered by the Albanians, who sell it to the dyers. The country yields great quantities of good madder, and a little cochineal is gathered on mount Cacha, but not used in dyeing. The wine, anciently much esteemed, is very bitter, weak, and saturated with resin; the honey of mount Hymettus, once so celebrated, Clarke assures us, has now the effect of a medicine, so that it is dangerous to take much of it. The poor Caloyers, who inhabit this barren mountain, are obliged to deliver the honey which they gather to the bishop of Athens, to whom the revenues of their convent belong. Wood is in general very scarce in Attica, and in some places they have no other fuel than brambles; there are very few mulberry trees, and the quantity of silk produced is very small; it is, however, fine and entirely white. Everything seems to have degenerated on this classical soil, not through the fault of nature, but of man. The oil, of which they make 20,000 large measures a-year, furnishes occupation during the winter to a great number of workmen; many of whom themselves possess a house with a little vineyard, some olive plants, and a few hives of bees, on which they subsist, while taking care of the olive plantations of the oikokuroi, or richer proprietors. The latter also let out little farms, with a cottage and some arable land, to the poor, furnishing them with grain for seed and cattle, and receiving at the harvest two-thirds of the produce, after a tenth has been reserved for the voivode or Turkish governor. In the plain of Athens a great quantity of barley is cultivated; it is sown in October or November: in the month of May they drive horses and asses into the fields, tying them to posts, that they may eat the barley; and removing the posts when they have sufficiently fed upon and manured the land around them. A plough of the simplest construction is then used in preparing the ground for the sowing of cotton, which immediately commences. Instead of a harrow, they employ a process, which is also evidently derived from the early times of Greece; a laborer standing upright on a plank laid upon the ground, which is drawn by oxen over i. furrows in order to close them. The cotton harvest commences in the month of September, and when it is finished the barley sowing commences; so that the earth never rests, but, after a long series of ages, still yields its fruits without relaxation or abatement. When they thresh their corn, they bring it out into a court, the floor of which is either paved or made of closely beaten or smooth earth; in the neighbourhood of Athens the ground is sufficiently hard without beating; in the midst of this area they fix a post, to which they fasten with a cord one or more horses, making them turn round in a circle; the cord winding round the post, is continually shortening and bringing the horses to the centre; they then make them turn the contrary way, till the cord is completely unrolled; the workmen in the mean time are constantly throwing in the corn under the animals' feet. When the grain is winnowed, it is laid up in heaps, and befors the year 1821 the Turkish aga used to come and put his seal upon them, and it was unlawful to remove the least portion, until the tithe had been taken. Besides this tithe there was a tax upon vineyards, another upon wine, another on exports, and lastly a karatch or capitation tax: when the harvest is finished in Attica the laborers go with their mares into Boeotia, where the season is later on account of the mountains and lakes. In Attica the native Greeks have by degrees given place to the Albanians, or intermingled with the foreigners who had possession of the country in the middle ages, such as the Arragonese, the French, the Venetians, and the Genoese; it would therefore be very difficult to find any trace of the ancient Athenians or Eleusinians. The language and manners of the nation, however, still predominate, and have resisted even the barbarous oppression of the Turks. The Piraeus, formerly the celebrated port of Athens, exhibits few and very imperfect remains of the fine monuments of art with which it was once adorned: it now consists only of a convent, a custom-house, a few warehouses, and four anchoring places. The commerce of Attica, now furnishes only some fruits, oils, and cotton, for exportation. A plain and a few hills separate it from Athens, the citadel of which first strikes the eye of the traveller on his approach: on the road there are some fragments of tombs; and traces of the wall, which joined the city to the port, are still visible. In the neighbourhood of the port extends a bank of rocks scarcely ele.# above the soil, and on putting aside the bushes there is to be seen a line of pits cut in the rocks, and covered with flat stones; this was the ancient necropolis or burying-place; these graves are filled with fine mould, at the bottom of which lie the remains of the Athenians or Piraeans of ancient times. Burnt bones of black sheep sacrificed to the dead are also found, as well as paterae and other things connected with the profession of the deceased : one plate of bronze bears the name of a judge, in another tomb there is a mask of baked earth, in another the figure of a philosopher sitting, and in others painted vases, &c. Athens is irregularly intersected and surrounded by a rampart rudely elevated, and its present gates do not answer to the situations of the ancient ones; that of the Lions is the most imposing in its appearance. What remains of the ancient monuments is rather to be sought for without the city, the country parts being less subject to change, and in the city the ruins of antiquity serving mostly for the construction of new buildings. Formerly Athens extended all round the Acropolis, which is now isolated and on the outside of the city, which now does not occupy, perhaps, more than a fourth part of its former site. The bazaar or market place occupies a large space of ground, formerly perhaps the Ceramicus of the ancients; and a mosque, thought to be founded on the ruins of the Pantheon, stands in the midst of the square; another is supposed to be erected on the foundations of the temple of the Uranian Venus; and in front


of the Turkish cadi's palace, near the same place, the prison of Athens once stood. In the same neighbourhood are to be found some remains of the portico of the stoics, and the dervises or Turkish monks not long since occupied the tower of the winds, which stands at the end of one of the streets: it is of an octagonal form, and built of marble, and received its name from the circumstance of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, its builder, having represented on the eight sides the figures of the principal winds; a brazen triton, turning on a pivot, indicated on the top of the building the prevailing wind; every front also had a sundial upon it. Demosthenes's Lantern, an ancient edifice, also of white marble, has become by a strange vicissitude the abode of the capuchins; not far from this is another ancient monument, called the Lantern of Diogenes, well known by the imitations of it constructed in some western countries, especially in the park of St. Cloud. The modern edifices and establishments are small and mean in appearance, and, if we except the residences of the foreign consuls, are easily overtopped by the palm trees and olives, and by the minarets of the mosques; the hospital exhibits nothing but poverty, and, if the visits of travellers in this age had not induced some naturalised foreigners to keep something like inns, the curious visitor would not have been able to find a lodging in the city of Pericles. It would be worth while to take a journey to Athens, if it were only to see the Acropolis, This is the most ancient part of the city, and was at once a fort and a sanctuary, whence they held dominion over the bodies and souls of the inhabitants. A sacred olive, a salt spring, and an old idol, believed to be that of Minerva, gave rise in the time of Pericles to the construction of this fine monument of antiquity. Cecrops and Erechteus had their tombs in it. After the burning of the old temple of Minerra and the sacred olive by the Persians, in the seventy-fifth olympiad, Pericles built the maginficent Propylaeum and the majestic temple ef Parthenon, the ruins of which are still the models for artists; and this is not wonderful, since Phidias adorned it with his inimitable sculpture. Only the walls, however, the columns, and the caryatides, remain. This fine edifice, it appears, was not quite perfect in symmetry, which may have arisen from the necessity of occupying the site of the old temple, which was accounted sacred. The interior received scarcely any light from without, but was illuminated by a vast golden chandelier, the masterpiece of Callimachus, which was supplied with oil only once a year, the wick being made of asbestos, and consequently indestructible; this mysterious light shed its flickering beams over the old idol of Minerva, which had its face turned towards the east; and a figure of Mercury, surrounded with myrtle branches, and the sacred serpent, the guardian of the temple, carre in for a share of the public veneration. Some traces of the Cella are still discovered in three saloons of different sizes; the largest, towards the east, dedicated to Erechteus, was adorned on the outside with a portico, supported by six columns of the Ionic order. The smallest formed a little temple, borne by six caryatides, and erected on the site of the sacred olive tree and salt spring, and the other was the temple of Minerva. An ancient inscription proves that the Parthenon was not built till the fourth year of the ninety-second olympiad. The columns, on which the fronts of this edifice rest, are seen from afar; they are of the finest proportion, and executed with that perfection which the Greeks bestowed on their great monuments. The six caryatides represent Athenian girls assisting at the festivals of Minerva; above the tunic they have a kind of mantle, and a third part of their garment is thrown over their backs; part of their hair falls in ringlets over their shoulders and breasts. One of them has disappeared, and another, being carried off by lord Elgin, has been replaced by a pillar of rude masonry. The finest remains of the Parthenon were those admirable bas reliefs which adorned the pediment and metopes, and which also lord Elgin brought into this country, where they are exhibited in the British Museum. When Spon and Wheeler visited Athens, the Parthenon was used as a Greek church, and was still in such good preservation, that its primitive order could betolerably well ascertained. A portico, elevated upon steps and supported by pillars without bases, completed the tour of the edifice; a sculptured pediment decorated the two fronts; under the portico was a frieze, also sculptured; in fine, the metopes or catouches of the front presented to view, those beautiful sculptures which are now in England, with the remains of the frieze. The figures of the front and of the frieze have been conjectured by some to represent the contest between Minerva and Neptune; and by others Minerva, newly born, at the council of the Gods; but they are so mutilated that 1t is not easy to decide: they are nineteen in number. On the northern angle is o: the god of a river, supposed to be the Cephisus, situated on the north of the city; near him are a king and a woman, apparently about to emorace one another; then follows a figure, probably representing Irene, the goddess of peace, on whom Plutus is leaning, and leading on Proserpine, who is standing with Ceres in a chariot, the horses of which are inimitably sculptured; they seem to be teaching Minerva and Erechteus to guide the chariot. Jupiter is supposed to be standing near Minerva, with other figures representing the other divinities. On the southern extremity of the pediment is another river god, supposed to be the Ilyssus, to the south of Athens. Some of these figures are naked and others clothed, and in the former the more art has been employed, the less it appears; we could almost suppose they were alive, the figure of Ilyssus seems as if it moved and were rising up. The frieze on the peristyle probably reresents the processions at the Panathenæan estivals; at the east, under the portico, are twelve figures, representing the principal divinities, towards whom the procession appears to be moving; this is followed by sacrifices, heroes, persons carrying baskets of fruits, choirs of citizens, chariots and troops of cavaliers; while on

the metopes on the outside of the peristyle are seen, in demi relievo, figures of men breaking horses, and contending with centaurs. The other monuments of the Acropolis are less important, and the ruins less grand than those of the temple of Minerva. It is founded on a limestone rock, and was once the key of Athens; it was one of the last places quitted by the Turks in 1822, and for the first time since its ancient days belongs to the Greeks, and Fo instead of menacing, the inhabitants of the city. At the foot of it is a grotto, supposed to be that of Pan and Apollo, and a circular excavation in the rock indicates the site of the theatre of Bacchus; a naked and smooth platform of rock points out the famous Pnyx, wi. the turbulent populace of Athens assembled, to hear their orators discuss the public interests of their country, and sometimes to banish those who had rendered it the greatest services. A small excavation was the site, perhaps, of the tribune from which they harangued; not far from this are some anciently hollowed caves, supposed to be the prisons of the formidable Areopagus, but its situation is very doubtful. To the west of the city there are some fine pillars of marble, which once supported the temple of Theseus, built on the same plan as the Parthenon, and as late as the seventeenth century there remained some of the frieze of the portico, representing in basso relievo the battles of the Centaurs and the Lapithae. It stood on an elevated situation, and was made into a little church by the modern Greeks; as the Turks have formed a little mosque under the ancient portico of Adrian, where it still exists, and where not long since was to be seen a solitary dervise perched between the majestic columns. On another hill, anciently that of the museum, stands the little monument raised to the consul Antiochus Philopappus. The bed of the Ilyssus, at the foot of this hill, is dry during the greater part of the year; its waters used to be conveyed to Athens by a subterraneous canal; in this bed rises the fountain of Callirhoe. The academy and other celebrated places have so completely disappeared, that it is very difficult to assign their situations. Some European travellers have not given a favorable representation of the Greek population at Athens; it has been long a proverb, ‘May heaven preserve us from the Jews of Salonica, the Turks of Negropont, and the Greeks of Athens !' Mixed with the Turks and the Schypetars, this aboriginal race must have lost all feeling of their national dignity, and the more so as they settled down into misery and ignorance. It is hoped that the exertions of foreigners, and the events of the present struggle, will have a tendency to spread information and raise the spirit of the people, and thus lead the Greeks to rally round the manes of their ancestors. The climate of Athens is generally fine, and the air pure, but the excessive heats sometimes produce epidemic fevers; at the end of the last century the plague carried off more than onethird of the population. Ophthalmies are common, but these are rather the effects of their intercourse with Egypt, than of any local circumstances. In spite of the exactions of the Turks,

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the oil trade of Athens is very considerable; it has also some manufactories of soap and morocco leather. In the families they fabricate very fine tissues, of cotton and silk, with broad stripes which are much worn by the rich instead of body linen. The archbishopric of this city is one of the most ancient sees in Christendom, Dionysius the Areopagite having once filled it, and they still pretend to show his dwelling. Under the Turks the archbishop used to hold every Monday a kind of council with the Christian magistrates of the city, to receive complaints and adjust differences; the heads of families also were accustomed to choose every year four archons to watch over the public welfare, and these magistrates sat every day to hear causes, and to prevent them from being carried before the cadi. It is true, that Turkish despotism very much paralysed the influence of this institution, yet the Athenian archons did all in their power to conceal any fault from the knowledge oft'the voivode, and if he should get information of it, they endeavoured to obtain permission to inflict punishment themselves, to moderate the fines, and, if possible, hinder the matter from becoming public. There were also attorneys to defend the national, before the Turkish authorities, and each district of the city had its epitropos, a magistrate chosen annually by the citizens, for the assessment of taxes, contributions, and exactions. From mount Anchesmus, and mount Hymettus, situated at a short distance from the city, a most delightful prospect is afforded of the country of Attica. The way to Hymettus lies across the Ilyssus, and over a plain covered with myrtles; among the rocks at the foot of the mountain is situated the poor convent of Siriani. The miserable caloyers boast of being possessed of a miraculous fountain, an infallible preventive of barrenness and all manner of diseases, at which, as they say, the Holy Spirit came to drink, on the day of Pentecost, in the form of a dove. The silver mines of Laurium, below Hymettus, were exhausted by the ancients, and, to a considerable distance west of Thorica, are erceived empty shafts and masses of scoria. hough the mines were worked in the centre of the range of hills, the smelting seems to have taken place on the coast, probably for the sake of procuring fuel the more easily, which would soon fail in the populous districts of the interior of Attica. The quarries of marble are equally discernible, which the Athenians worked on mount Pentelicus; a monastery situated on this mountain still bears the name of Pendeli. This is one of the best situated, and most richly endowed monasteries in Greece; seated on the declivity of the mountain, below the marble quarries, and surrounded by thickets of poplars, laurels, myrtles, pines, olives, and mastich trees, it possesses olive-yards and apiaries of considerable extent; it produces honey nearly equal to that of Hymettus, of which it used to send a quantity annually to Constantinople; it paid no taxes and enjoyed great privileges. Below Pentelicus lies the famous plain of Marathon, shut in between two ridges of hills and watered by a little river from mount Parnassus, which runs through it. This plain opens

on the sea, where it presents a good anchong: for ships; and it was here that the Persians land. ed their vast army destined for the invasion of Greece. Part of it is now a marsh in the midst of which is a hillock, similar to those frequently found in the Troas, containing probably the bones of the heroes who died on this spot in defence of their country; on opening it nothing was found but a few remains of urns. In a marsh on the coast are still perceived the fourdations of ancient marble monuments, probably some of those raised to testify the gratitude of the republic. The village of Marathon contains about 200 inhabitants, whose cottages are sur. rounded with gardens full of apricot trees, vine, and olives. The only remnant of antiquity about it is an ancient basin which receives the waters of a neighbouring fountain. The desert tour tains near it are sometimes infested by jackals, wolves, and foxes. A little farther, on the strait of Euripus, are the remains of the temple of Themis, formerly in the ancient port of Rham. nus. This little temple was built of blocks of stone, rudely sculptured after the cyclopa manner. In the interior a mutilated statue ti the goddess has been found, which is very alcient, dating its mutilation probably from the time of the Persian invasion. Near this temple are the ruins of that of Nemesis, which hasthis sugularity, that the mouldings of the cornice as painted red, and this painting has presert: from decomposition every place it has touchei This temple was of Pentelican marble, and is statue of Parian, a master-piece of Philis may perhaps lie buried under the ruins of to building, which seem to have been overthrown by some violent convulsion of nature. To ancient walls of Rhamnus are still visible, tso cially on the land side. where they are cove by the thick foliage of the mastichs. There is to be observed here the bottom of a man's chair, which might be either a votive offering,” the seat of honor for the magistrates of to city. On the same coast was situated the or cient port of Thorica, which served to protect": working of the silver mines; the remains of: portico of fourteen columns of the Doric of still exist, but the city has disappeared. To modern port of Rafty has probably drawn of what remained of its population. On Cao Sunium, now Colonna, where Plato ravished ho disciples with his mild eloquence, and which: now uncultivated and desert, are still to some of the pillars of the fine temple of M* va, which are of extraordinary length. Hist the peasants on digging the earth, frequently to pieces of the silver-bearing lead. From Athens a sacred road led to Eleus whose mysterious worship attracted the Greo some traces of this place are yet to be discene, as well as some ruins of the monuments who bordered it. On the remains of the tempo" Apollo, the last columns of which have bo carried away by lord Elgin, is situated * convent of Daphne or the Laurels, with : church, surmounted by a dome that conto some fragments of antiquity. From thence" pass the ruins of the temple of Venus, near to them the little lakes called Rao which separated Attica from Eleusis; then the site of the paved court of the temple of Ceres, said to be the first place where grain was threshed to deposit it in granaries, a mark of the civilisation of the inhabitants, which owed its commencement to Eleusis. The temple of Eleusis has been so completely destroyed that for a long time it was impossible to recognise its plan; a society of English travellers have, however, discovered the propylaeum which served for an entrance to it, and which appeared to be like those of Athens. In the court, which succeeded to these, they thought they found some traces of the chariots, in which the priests used to cause those that were initiated into the mysteries to be rolled along; to this succeeded a second vestibule, at the extremity of which was the front of the temple, supported by twelve columns. The level of the interior appears lower than that of the portico, which makes it probable that there was another flooring, below which they put in motion the machine with which they used to astonish and bewilder the initiated. The bust of the colossal statue of Ceres was still lying on the ground at the end of the last century, and the people of the village, though Christians, attached superstitious ideas to it, pretending that it pro: cured them good harvests: it is now deposited in the university of Cambridge. Antique remains are dispersed through the village of Leschimo, which occupies the site of Eleusis; it is inhabited by about forty families of Albanians, who live by agriculture, to which the fertility of the plain invites them. The ancient city was built partly on the coast, where there was a port, and partly on the declivity of the hill; and there are some remains of an aqueduct, which supplied it with spring water, and in the neighbourhood some fragments of tombs. Two ancient ways, one passing by Marathon and the other leading directly to Thebes, conduct the traveller from the capital of Attica into Boeotia, crossing the Athenian Cephisus, that rolls its waters through a country covered with verdure, flowers, and fruit trees. Near this river is the ancient Colonna, celebrated by the misfortunes of CEdipus and the verses of Sophocles, of which Mr. Smart Hughes gives the following glowing account:-‘All the expressions used by Sophocles to describe the beauties of this enchanting place

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are still applicable to it: the saffron, the nar

cissus, and a thousand other flowers mingle their perfumes to embalm the atmosphere; the young shoots of those ancient olives on which Jupiter fixed his watchful eye still extend their great branches, and form an arch impenetrable by the rays of the sun. At the commencement of the fine season the thickets 1esound with the song of the nightingale; and in autumn the vines, trained round the cottages and country houses, are loaded with purple grapes: the peaches, and especially the figs, are here of an exquisite flavor. At the time when I traversed on foot this delightful country, the golden yellow of the quinces, which loaded the branches, formed an agreeable contrast with the deep red of the pomegranates just bursting their shells: across the groves on the one side were seen the Acropolis of Athens with its temple of Minerva, mounts Hy

mettus, Anchesmus, and Pentelicus; and on the other the undulations of the Corydalean, AEgalean and Parnassian chains. This terrestrial paradise owes its beauty and fertility to the Cephisus, which laves it with its inexhaustible waters, fanned by the softest breezes: but the traveller should take heed; these balmy breezes breathe death, and a night passed within the precincts of the ancient academy may be his last.’ Passing from Eleusis through the defile of Cithatron we see near a torrent the walls and towers of an ancient fort, probably that of Æneus; a little farther to the north the walls, nine feet thick, and some remains of the towers of the ancient city of Eleutheria, called now Gifto Castro, a fort of the Egyptians or Bohemians. Here a great tower of an irregularly polygonal form, on the most elevated spot, commanded the defile. The convent of Meletius also resembles a fort; it has an iron door, and the walls are thick and pierced with loop-holes, that serve to give light to the cells of the monks, of whom there are about ten, who in case of attack become soldiers, and defend themselves against robbers. The church within the enclosure is ornamented with pillars of red marble from the ruins of Eleutheria, where once stood a temple dedicated to Bacchus. Situated in the gulf of Athens are two islands, famous in ancient days; one is Salamis, the kingdom of Ajax, celebrated for the greatest struggles between the Greeks and Persians: it is now called Colouri. The whole population is included in two villages inhabited |. 500 Schypetars or Albanians, who cultivate the vine and the olive, and make turpentine. In the fine season they employ themselves in taking, on the coast, the octopodes, with pikes attached to poles thirty-six feet long; they also use the euphorbium soaked and ground, which they put under the stones in the water, to stupify the fishes. The convent of Phanomeri, fortified like a castle ot the middle ages, is situated opposite the coast ot Megara, supporting by its olive-yards about fifty monks, who reside in it. The church is adorned with columns of marble and granite. In the se– venteenth century the inhabitants of Colouri left their cabins at the appearance of a strange vessel, and fled to caverns to shelter themselves from pirates; there are 100 of these caverns, in one of which, probably, Euripides composed his tragedies. Psyttalia, now a mere rock between Salamis and the coast of Attica, is the ancient Holgina, once one of the richest and most famous places in Greece, where the first Greek money was coined, and its fine China ware and bronze works were esteemed throughout the country: it was celebrated for its trade, and for a magnificent temple of Jupiter of which there are some striking remains. The principal front had figures on it, which were discovered in the trenches, and, after being repaired by Thorwaldsen at Rome, were deposited in the museum of antiquities at Munich. They represent, as some suppose, warriors of different nations on each side of a figure of Minerva; on the one side are Patrocles lying on the ground, Ajax protecting him, Teucer the archer, and Ajax the son of Oileus, both on their knees, with a wounded soldier; and on the other Hippothous, who is attempting to draw the fallen


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