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Greek towards the Trojans, Hector fighting, Pa- here contains several fragments of ancient monuris and Æneas both on their knees, and a ments, with inscriptions; and what renders this wounded Trojan. There is a stiffness, however, spot remarkable is, that at Orchomenes Sylla in the draperies; the same countenance and ingained a battle which paved the way to his dicsignificant expression is observable in all the tatorship. Not far distant, the village of Caprana heroes; and the figure of Minerva, covered from indicates the site of the ancient Chæronea, where head to feet, resembles an idol cut in wood. The are seen on a height some ruins, probably those hair of ail the warriors is arranged in pointed of the Acropolis, and seats cut in the rock, which meshes, resembling perukes; the figures are mark the situation of an ancient theatre. This painted blue and red, and it would seem that city was situated at the foot of Helicon, now reTheir armour was metal. In the same trenches placed by Cranizza, in which is an old square also was found an enormous ivory eye, proba- tower whose massive construction may be assignbly belonging to the colossal statue of Jupiter. ed to very early times. The Venetians had a fortress here, which over- Helicon does not present the pleasing or sublooked a town of about 800 houses. In the se- lime aspect we might expect from a mount conventeenth century the partridges were so nume- secrated by the poets; it has, however, charming rous that the magistrates used to oblige the valleys, covered with corn fields and orchards, inhabitants to go in the spring to look for theit over which poplars and plane trees rise on ali nests and destroy their eggs. At present this sides. The muses' wood has become solitary ; island exports only almonds; but its population, Hippocrene exists no longer; it is perhaps dried consisting mostly of Albanians, bas increased to up; the Perinessus rolls its waters to the Copais. about 2000.
without inspiring any Pindar, or any modern Bæotia, though little visited by travellers, and Hesiod; and the celebrated Thebes, the centre of containing now no considerable city, still presents the confederated cities of this province, is now no most charming scenery and a multitude of once more than a small town within the limits of the celebrated places: it is a country abounding as ancient Cadmeion or citadel; its poor remains formerly in grain; and, should Athens recover its scarcely afford any idea of its former state. It is numerous population, would be able again to the see of an archbishop; but it no longer possupply it. Mount Cythæron separates it from sesses the silk manufactories and dye-houses esAttica; Helicon and Parnassus lift their lofty tablished there by the Jews in the middle ages; summits over its western boundaries; and several nor that of pipes, which existed in the seventeenth other chains covered with pines, mastichs, wild century, the materials of which were brought olives, and evergreen oaks, traverse the interior, from a quarry of earth peculiar to this country. bordered by plains of rice, cotton, dourah, and The town of Lebadea, now called Livadia, is the wheat, and also some fine pasture ground. The chief place in Bæotia; it is situated at the enlargest of these plains, enclosed between ridges trance of a ravine, at the bottom of which flows of hills and feeding flocks of fine black sheep, the river Hercyna. It is the residence of a voiare watered by rivulets that flow from the heights vode and an archbishop, the centre of a consideraround them. The Asopus runs directly to the able trade, and presents a more prosperous apsea : but the Cephisus falls into the lake Copais, pearance than the other cities of the country : a already described. Steep rocks, covered with castle built on a rock, but now dismantled, prowood, border the gulph of Potsomathi, where tects it. At the foot of the rock they show a stands the village of Mertino, in the neighbour- cavity, which they say was the cave of Trophonius; hood of which are the ruins of an ancient city, but it is not deep, and probably was the subperhaps that of Larymna, among which there is terraneous chamber where the image of the god no public edifice or any monument of sculpture; was deposited; it is in fact only twelve feet the port, however, is yet to be observed. On the square; in the upper part is discoverable a coother side of the Copais we find some remains lored border, similar to what is found in other of the city of Orchomenes, called in the time of ancient Greek monuments. A grotto on the Homer the Athens of Beotia : it stands just other side of the mountain, now converted into above the village of Scripou, which is inhabited a Greek chapel, is more likely to have been the by about 400 peasants. Here are to be seen the famous cave, where they terrified with spectacles foundations of the walls of the ancient acropo- and illusions those who came to consult the lis, well built, though without cement; and the oracle. The springs of Lethe and Mnemosyne paths, cut in the rock, which led to the city are still flow in the same country, and mingle their still visible. The most curious part of the ruins waters with those of the Hercyna. is what Pausanias calls the Treasury of Minyas, The defile of Cythæron is defended by an old of an age, according to Greek authors, before fort; to the north of it stretches the plain watered that of Hercules, which they fix 1350 years be- by the Asopus, where the Greeks obtained the fore the Christian era. It consists of two walls, famous victory of Platæa. The foundations of on each of which is laid a large block of marble, this city are yet visible; at the foot of Cythæron, and the entrance was probably closed by one consisting of thick walls, Aanked with towers; side of the rock. Some curious inscriptions are on the probable site of the Acropolis are some found at Orchomenes; on the pillars of the tem- broken columns and unformed masses of masonple of the Graces is to be seen a long list of mu- ry, and, below its walls, a few sarcophagi cut in sicians, actors, and declaimers; another inscrip- the rock, but now broken. A poor village, intion contains a contract, by which the right of habited by 150 peasants, occupies the situation of pasture was preserved to the inhabitants of the this once famous city; it bears the name of Cocla. neighbourhood. A small convent established Near the defile stands also the village of Calivie.
In the plain, between Leuctra and Platæa, are in the fortifications. Few ancient cities have two billocks, under which probably were buried left ruins in such good preservation as Eretria ; the Greeks who perished in the sad contest be- its limits are marked by weil-constructed walls, tween the Thebans and Spartans. A hamlet of the citadel, the plans of the houses, and that of the name of Lefka, consisting only of five the theatre, the proscenium of which is almost houses, is all that remains of Leuctra; but ano- the only part standing. The interior of the island ther called Eremo-Castro, on the heights to the is but little known. On approaching it from north, contains some ancient inscriptions. On the isle of Andros, the first objects that strike the the eastern coast of Bæotia we find Orope occu- eye are the steep and pointed rocks of Cape d'Oro, pying its ancient site; its name is upon three formerly Caphareus; the islets and shoals round or four marbles preserved at Scamino, supposed this cape are still as dangerous as when the Greto be the ancient Tanagria. Farther on, at the cian fleet was wrecked at the entrance of Aulis, outlet of the strait of Euripus, an area strewed on its return from Troy. Violent'tempests conwith ruins appears to have been the situation of tinually prevail round this promontory, and what Anthedon; near it we discern the remains of the aggravates the misfortune, in case of shipwreck, two moles, which in the form of a cresent enclosed is, that the villages of mount Ocha in the the harbour, now abandoned ; we perceive also neighbourhood are inhabited by ferocious Albasome vestiges of the city and port of Aulis, where nians, who, not content with dragging away the the fleet of the Greeks under the command of wrecks of the vessels, often murder the crews. Agamemnon anchored; and of the city of De- These Schypetars, at first Christians, have become lium, where the foundations of a theatre are still Mahommedans, although they have no religion visible.
except a few superstitious opinions; their wives The island of Eubea, now Negropont, extends still practise the Christian worship. Their ordiopposite to Bæotia as far as the coast of Attica, nary occupation is the care of their flocks; they and approaches so near the Bæotian territory, are called Acrianides or Barmades. The ancient that Chalcis, its principal city, almost touches Carystos, out of which the Italians made a mothe continent. The strait of Euripus is scarcely dern city, under the name of Castel-Rosso, still more than a canal; the ancients threw a bridge contains 1600 Turkish families and 1400 Greeks. over it, probably in the same place as that which The inhabitants choose their voivode, always now passes from Bæotia into Eubæa; it consists from the Turks, because these are most numerof two arches, below which are some mills, and ous; they also garrison the citadel. Beyond several towers defend its extremities. This island Carystos are seen on the declivity of mount Ocha, is crossed through its whole length by mountains, now St. Elie, the quarries, from which the anwhose tops are entirely bare, and their height cients extracted the beautiful columns of cipolian diminishes as they approach the coasts. The marble, of which some now adorn the edifices of valleys between them are covered with a soil, in Rome. Entire pillars are still found here, which, which, under a very soft climate, corn, vines, and after being cut, have been abandoned in conseolives, flourish in great abundance. The pastur- quence of some alteration in the state of Greece. age of Eubea has been renowned in antiquity, as Near the summit of the mountain the marble well as its baths, and its two springs, one of gives place to gneiss. Walnut trees are seen which, it was pretended, whitened the wool of the growing in it, and at this height an English trasheep that drank of it, while the other dyed it veller discovered the remains of a temple of sinblack. The ancients reported strange things of gular construction, that seems to have been unthis strait and did not even agree among them- known to Pausanias. It was built of great pieces selves; some stating the flux and reflux at seven of freestone, on which were laid large flat stones times, and others, as Seneca, at fourteen times in with the entrance narrowed towards the top, like twenty-four hours. A modern observer, father those of the Egyptian temples. The north of Babin, observed only the common ebbing and the island is less known than the south, being flowing of other seas, except on certain days, inhabited by a barbarous race, on whom the particularly during the first and last quarters of Turks themselves have not been able to impose the moon, when the sea flowed irregularly ; du- their yoke. ring the eleven days of the month, in which the Thessaly is separated by natural limits from water fluctuates, it changes its motion more than the rest of Greece; the sea washes its eastern ten times a day, the wheels of the mills on it coast, Olympus closes it in on the north, the turning as often in contrary directions. Having chain of Pindus towards the west, mount (Eta on stopped an hour and a half at one of these mills, the south, and it is still further enclosed by he saw the course of the current change three mounts Pelion and Ossa; all of them poetic times. During the rest of the month the sea boundaries. Different ramifications of these rises twice a day to the height of one foot. mountains run out towards the interior, covered
The modern name, Negropont, was given to with pastures and separating the charming valleys this island by the Venetians, who held it for a through which winds the Peneus, descending long time, and built and fortified the city of from mount Pindus and receiving a number of Negropont on the site of the ancient Chalcis, tributary streams, some of which fall in cascades; where the diet of the confederated cities of the after passing the delightful valley of Tempe, this island sat, and where the celebrated copper ma- river finds its outlet at the gulf of Therma. The nufactories flourished. This city is built with sun darts its rays on this enclosed basin, and the narrow and dark streets, and surrounded with heat would be intolerable were it not for the ramparts; the suburbs are inhabited by Greeks refreshing breezes from the mountain chains, and Jews, while the Turks occupy the part with which give birth to numerous springs of cooling
water, and shady forests. “In picturesque views Were not many boasted heroes of antiquity of the and enchanting landscapes,' says Dodwell, it very same description ? surpasses Italy, and indeed every country in the On the southern side the entrance of Thessaly world; lively and clear colors heighten the effect is most imposing ; the defile of Thermopyle, of the soft undulations of the distant mountains; which crosses the chain of mount Eta; is the no vapor interposes, as in Italy, between the only grand route leading to it from Phocis: landscape and the eye of the spectator; and the there are two mountain tracts which are not limits of the hills, which bound the borizon, are practicable, especially for armies. The passage fine and distinct, without that sharpness which of Thermopylæ has always been important for offends the painter.' The plains are covered the defence of Greece, and it has been secured with fine corn fields, plantations of olives, mul- by walls and ramparts against the Gauls, the berry and walnut trees, surrounded with vines, Romans, the Huns, and the Turks. In the age fruit trees, cotton, tobacco, or odoriforous flowers; of patriotism, a chosen band of citizens has while cypresses and majestic plane trees decorate formed its chief defence against an invading the scene. The declivities of the mountains fur- army. On the right hand of the road is a hill nish excellent wood for building, feed a multi- on which a guard-house has been built in modern tude of game, and afford pasture to the Walachian times, where, it is said, that Leonidas and his flocks, which regularly descend every autumn, brave Spartans were interred. Every place on after the fall of snow on the Pindus, to enjoy this sacred spot is interesting; but unfortunately during the winter the refreshing grass and mild the marshes, which have been formed on the climate of the interior. The Walach shepherds coast, have buried, it is feared, many precious go about the middle of November, with their remains of antiquity under their rushes. The families and flocks, to fold in the great valley of defile, however, still remains, and the warm the Peneus, and wait the return of the fine season. springs which gave it its name; while of the six These nomades, habituated to live in the open rivers described by the ancients only three are air, and clothed in plaids, made of goats' hair, to be found : the Boagrius, the Asopus, and the fix their tents, of the same material, under the Sperchius. Over the last, through the narrowest green oaks, and as much as possible near the part of the defile, is the way to the springs, the rivulets and woods. There is nothing poetic in principal of which, of a sulphureous quality, their manner of living; they are half savages, but very clear, issues, bubbling out of the foot with a fierce and martial air : wandering over of a rock, and its passage covers the reeds with mountains infested with wolves, and exposed to a calcareous crust. Near their source these the depredations of Albanian robbers, they arm waters form rivulets which flow into the sea, themselves to defend their flocks, and we need The ancients had baths here, and an altar in the only to see them muffled up in their capes, and neighbourhood to Hercules. Here are to be almost immovably fixed to one spot, casting seen the remains of the fortifications which forferocious looks over their sheep, goats, cattle, merly defended the pass; and, near the source and horses, while their wives are groaning under of the Asopus, the situation of the ancient Hethe fatiguing labors to which they are doomed, raclea is still visible. The precipitous rocks of to perceive at once that it is not among them we the Eta, crowned with planes, oaks, pines, and must expect to find the beau-ideal of rural life. other trees and shrubs, and furrowed by the When the rivers of Lower Thessaly overflow their torrents which descend from it, render this scene banks, they raise their black tents, to go and very picturesque. seek pasture elsewhere. Sometimes they have Issuing from the defile, and passing through the misfortune to lose a great part of their flocks fields of rice, tobacco, and cotton, we reach in a by famine or different disorders. They sell their few hours the town of Zeitoun, the ancient Sabutter and cheese and wool, pay the capitation mia, which is still overlooked by some ruins of tax to the Turks, and, when the snow begins to the Acropolis. The exhalations from the marshes disappear on mount Pindus, leave the plains, to and rice grounds render the climate of this place gain their old abode on the heights. Although unwholesome, which is evident from the pallid of a rough character, approaching to barbarism, complexion of the inhabitants : they are about 3000 this pastoral race has some estimable qualities : in number, mostly Greeks. Yet Zeitoun occuthey are commended for frankness, which ap- pies a high situation, commanding a beautiful pears to advantage in contrast with the general prospect; on the one hand of the sea and the dissimulation of the Greeks. If we seek in Thes- island of Eubea, and on the other of the passaly for the descendants of the centaurs, who sage of Thermopylæ, to the foot of the CEta. passed for supernatural beings by subduing the Zeitoun has a bishopric; its port is at the vilhorse, and those unconquerable tribes who lage of Stilidi, perhaps on the site of the ancient amused themselves by fighting with bulls, we Phaleria ; it has also another port, the village of shall still find men who justify this illustrious Agia-Marina. There are two ways from this origin, by the efforts they are making to vindicate town to the capital of Thessaly; one by Pharsalia, the liberty of their ancestors. The names of the other by the coast of the Egean Sea. The Boukavalas and Blackavas are celebrated in village of Eschinos, on the borders of the sea, Thessaly; and if it should be objected, that our is near the site of an ancient city, the ruins and admiration of their acts of patriotism must be acropolis of which are still visible. On a neighdiminished by the recollection, that they are but bouring height are seen some enormous olives bandit-chiefs, issuing from a mountain tribe who that cover, with their thick foliage, the remains have well merited the name of Clephta-Choria, or of foundations composed of massy stones, of the village of robbers, it may be asked in reply, a temple and of a church, which had replaced it;
time having here put an end to the worship Many of the Zagorians emigrate, to go and work both of Pagans and Christians. Passing from in other places, and return to enjoy the fruits of thence we enter a charming country, watered their industry. The principal islands, near the by numerous streams, and planted with mul- coast of Magnesia, are Skiathos and Scopelos ; berry, orange, and fig-trees. This was Phtio- the first is fertile, but badly cultivated, aboundtis, the kingdom of Achilles. It is not quite ing in vines, fig-trees, and wild olives; it procertain where Larissa-Cremaste, the capital of duces also a multitude of goats, whose flesh is this state, was situated; perhaps its ruins may be highly esteemed, and a great quantity of fish. found at the foot of a hill between Gradityha Skiathos had two cities in ancient times, besides and Machala.
villages; now there is only one village and a On turning the gulf of Pagasæ, Pelion rises hamlet, and the miserable cabins form a striking to view, covered with groves and gardens : this contrast with the richness of the scenery around, picturesque amphitheatre extends across the in which various trees and aromatic plants, country of Magnesia, terminated by mount border the rocks of white marble, which are seen Tisea, at the end of a large peninsula. Vines, in the uncultivated plains. In the church, a olives, mulberry, and every kind of fruit trees, stone, bearing an ancient inscription, serves for adorn the foot of Pelion, fine planes and chest- the base of the communion table; the papas nut trees cover its declivities, and the villages make their parishioners believe, that it has some appear embosomed in forests; orange, citron, thing mysterious about it, so that learned travellers and fig trees fill the gardens of the peasants, have had great difficulty in obtaining a copy of the who live by the manufacture of silk and oil, by inscription. Scopelos is equally fruitful, but still their flocks of sheep and goats, by the game, less peopled; it furnishes excellent wines, and the fish on their coasts. The fruits are nei- oranges, citrons, olives, and figs, and some silk. ther so good, nor so abundant, on the east as on Here the bishop of the two islands resides; the west of the mountain, arising probably there are also some monasteries, a dozen churches, from the greater humidity of the soil, occasioned and no Turks: it is independent. by the numerous springs which run down it. In the way from Magnesia to the capital we The Greek peasants in Magnesia manufacture find Velestin near the site of the ancient Pheræ ; cotton yarn, and make bonnets, hoods, and other Pagasæ was its port, on the gulf of that name. garments. The town of Makrinitza, at the ļn the suburbs is still seen the fountain of commencement of the peninsula, is built of Hyperia; it forms a little lake of limpid water, stone, and inhabited by about 1000 Greeks, bordered with cypresses, poplars, planes, and most of them laborious artizans, who, if they olives, the verdure of which forms an agreeable could have communicated their energy to all contrast with the handsome houses, and the their countrymen, would long since have rescued white minarets of the mosques around it
. HowGreece from the yoke of the Turks. In the ever celebrated it was in the verses of Homer, neighbourhood stands the well-built village of and other poets, it no longer preserves any of Volos, or Golos, inhabited by Turks and Greeks, the ruins of its ancient monuments. Near who are very different in their manners; the Lake Bæbeis, surrounded with its waving hills, houses are neat and lofty; the streets are adorned are the picturesque ruins of an edifice, which with poplars, walnut-treets, cypresses, and appears to have been a temple; but the cities of planes, on which are a multitude of birds, mak- Babe and Laceria have disappeared. Armyro ing the air resound with their melodious strains; is now one of the principal cities in the country; and, in fine, those charming pavilions, where the it is inhabited by Turks : a few ruins prove that Mussulmans give themselves up to the dolce it was inhabited in very early times; but more farniente. The Greeks, though they have no considerable remains are found at Aias, where pavilions, are not less fond of pleasure, but they there are stones ten feet thick, which are probaare the pleasures of the table. At the distance bly of high antiquity. A broad and convenient of a league from Volos is a dismantled fort oc road leads to Larissa, still the capital of Thescupied by the Turks; and there are many pretty saly. There are few places which have preserved villages scattered over the country, in delightful their pre-eminence during so long a series of situations, among which are Drakia, Portaria, ages; we must not, however, expect to find any Saint Laurent, Saint Georges, and Lechonia. remains of antiquity at Larissa : nothing is to Some ruins are discoverable not far from this be seen but dirty streets; masses of houses irreplace, by some said to be those of Demetrias, gularly built, but sometimes well grouped and and by others those of Iolkos ; there are still to mixed with cypresses and gardens, watered by be seen a cistern, the old foundations, and the fountains; bazaars abounding with victuals, but acropolis. Here stands the village of Goritza, with very little valuable merchandise; some where, on festivals, the mass is still celebrated in mosques, surpassing in grandeur those of the the open air, after the eastern manner, near a other cities of Greece; and a fine modern bridge spring which was probably held sacred by the crossing the Peneus, in the direction of the valley ancient Thessalians.
of Tempe. There is, however, one remnant of Trickery, at the extremity of Magnesia, is in- ancient manners to be observed at Larissa ; it is habited only by sailors. On the eastern coast the use of those old cars mounted on round is the flourishing village of Zagora, with about solių pieces of wood instead of wheels, which 500 houses, so shaded with chestnut and walnut in the heroic times were used in the Troad.
rees as to resemble a great wood. The wolves There are scarcely any Greeks in the town; they here so easily elude pursuit, that in winter they have but one church, but it is the archiepiscopal coine and howl in the midst of the village. church, on which depend ten bishops compris
ing, with the archbishop of Larissa, the exarchate On issuing from the valley of Tempe, we perof Lower Thessaly, and of all Greece. The ceive the mouth of the Peneus and the boundaTurks have made this place the capital of a pro- ries of Macedonia. Here is a flourishing city of vince containing 100 villages, mostly scattered Magnesia, called Ampelachie ; the inhabitants of over the ancient plains of Pelasgia; the city, which distinguish themselves by the spinning according to Dr. Holland, has 4000 houses, and and dyeing of cotton; and it is thought that the 20,000 inhabitants, among whom he was sur waters of the country contribute to the brilliancy prised to find many negroes.
of the colors, which they know how to apply to On descending from Larissa, along the course this sort of thread : those of them who have of the Peneus, we cross some delightful plains, travelled in the west for the purposes of trade once animated with a numerous population, and wear the European costume. There is a Greek still embellished by nature, and arrive at the foot school here, founded by the bishop of Salonica, of the mountain chains, through which the river Platomenos Dionysius. The whole population winds its course to the Thermaic Gulf. These amounts to between 5000 and 6000 souls. The plains are sometimes excessively hot, and the in- nearest sea-port for the exportation of cotton is habitants are much troubled with intermitting Karitza, about six miles distant. Another indusfevers. Travellers should visit the vale of trious place, of the same country, is the little Tempe in the spring, if they wish to see it with- town of Rapsiani, which has a Greek school by out danger in all its freshness and beauty of ve- the same founder, and also exports the same getation. Here Olympus and Ossa, which seem articles. Returning to the south of Larissa, we to bound the course of the river on the north, arrived at the ancient Pharsalia through some present a curtain of verdure along the horizon; narrow passages of the mountains. Not far from the forests of Olympus are crowned with sum- it was situated, on the Eripeus, the city of Memits covered with snow, that justify the epithet litea, which is reduced to a very small populaof snowy given to this mountain by Hesiod; tion, as are many others, which once peopled while the less elevated Ossa has less wood, and Thessaly. Ascending towards the source of the is not so much watered by springs. A little Peneus, we pass by Triccala, anciently called village, called Baba, stands below the conflu- Tricca, in the middle of the last century the ence of the Peneus and the Titaresus, in a circular most considerable city of the province; but the plain near the entrance of the valley. Domes, cruelty of the Turks, and the pestilential exhalaminarets, and houses, are grouped together in a tions from the rivers in the neighbourhood, have most picturesque manner, with vast plane trees, destroyed its splendor: it occupies, however, a cypresses, and pyramidal pines. Some think charming situation in a valley of the Peneus; its that this village stands on the site of the ancient Greek churches, its mosques, its old citadel, and Elatea; in going to it you coast along a pretty houses, intermingled with groves of trees, form large lake, or more properly a marsh, called Nem with the verdant scenery around a most delightzero, anciently Nessan. On entering the valley ful picture. The market is held under the shade of Tempe, you become sensible that the Greek of vines, but the houses are surrounded with and Latin poets have a little exaggerated its filth : it contains about 7000 inhabitants. beauties; there are many superior scenes in Eu- On the side of Mount Pindus, near the village rope and other parts of the world. This defile, of Kastraki, there are some ruins which are suphowever, through which the streams of Thessaly posed to be those of the ancient Gomphi; and in flow into the sea, and which is enclosed by Ossa this mountainous region are to be found the and Olympus, unites natural beauties of a kind Meteores of Stagous, little monasteries, built on rather striking than agreeable ;-a river, the wa- the edges and platforms of precipitous rocks, ters of which, always agitated, are shaded by standing like pyramids in a wild desert. Here, planes, on the branches of which the wild vine free from the attacks of robbers, and more useless hangs its leafy festoons; rocks, more or less ele- to society than their brethren in the plains, live vated and steep, raising themselves above the banks a number of monks; who will, however, afford of the Peneus, in some places at the distance of the rites of hospitality to any traveller who shall not more that 200 or 300 feet; whilst an ancient have the courage to suffer himself to be drawn paved road, sometimes cut in the rock, some up by a rope and pulley. It is indeed no joke times raised in terraces, and sometimes shut in to find one's self suspended at the height of 150 by the narrow valley, passes along the river, feet, by a simple cord, between heaven and earth, often at a considerable height : such is Tempe. at the discretion of these solitary beings, by In the middle of the valley there is a cold spring whom every stranger might justly be suspected. at the foot of a rock, where travellers generally There is nothing particular in these monasteries halt, and near it a dismantled tower. A Latin in- beside their elevated situation; the monks seem scription on a rock states, that Cassius Longinus to have as little occasion to think as the birds fortified this passage, but since the Persian in- who nest in their rocks; they have scarcely any vasion the Greeks have abandoned this part of books, and trouble themselves little with the their territory. In the spring of the year some history of their aërial dwellings. Under the boats navigate the Peneus, with hives, in order reign of Ali Pasha, they were compelled to to collect the honey on the coasts, and on the become the gaolers of his state prisoners. Forsides of the mountains, while others drive their merly there were twenty of these monasteries, now cars also, laden with hives, into the meadows of there are only seven, the most considerable of Pharsalia for the same purpose, which they after which are those of Meteoron and Varlaam. They wards leave, to follow the spring in the higher consist of hermitages, chapels, and altars, built regions of the mountains.
on the platforms and in the holes and crevices