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of the rocks, and the hermits who inhabit these together; large blocks of stone are dispersed inaccessible places have renounced all earthly here and there in the neighbourhood, probably wealth; they, however, possess considerable intended for the repair of the works. The ancient revenues, and pay a rent to their landlord as well city stood in a little circular and deep valley, as a tribute to the patriarch. At the bottom of surrounded by the rocks of Parnassus, with its these five rocks Stagous occupies a territory fertile triple peak, and those of mount Cirphis, and in cotton, mulberries, and corn: the inhabitants almost entirely separated from the rest of Phocis. manufacture the silk and send it to the depôts The place is so small, that it is difficult to conat Larissa. The town has a bishop, who is a ceive how a city of any considerable size could suffragan of the archbishop of the capital. The be built there: very few fragments of marble have river Cachia, flowing through the country and been discovered ; and yet we cannot suppose that uniting with the Peneus, seems to be the Ion of much of it is buried in the ground, since there is the ancients.

a very shallow bed of soil to cover the rock in Leaving Ætolia, and proceeding along the this narrow valley. Some broken pieces of southern coast of the Corinthian Gulf, we arrive earthenware are also found covered with a fine at the bay of Salone, formerly Crissa, which ex- black and red varnish. The splendid temple, periences a regular tide, of which there is little elevated by its situation over the other edifices, appearance in the whole of the gulf besides. enriched by the offerings of nations and kings, The fine plains of Phocis, watered by the Cephi- embellished with the masterpieces of sculpture, sus, are at first concealed by mountains and and constructed with the greatest magnificence; rocks; the country, however, extends between that temple, so protected by public veneration, the bay and the mountains; and the scenes where different nations deposited their treasures, where the festivals of Delphos were celebrated where the blood of victims incessantly flowed, open to the view. At the entrance of the bay, and where the oracle of the Pythoness frequently where Æanthus once stood, is now situated the decided the fate of empires; all has disappeared, town of Galaxidi, inhabited by a race of men, with the exception of a small part, which has almost barbarians, devoted to a sea-faring life, escaped the attention of most Travellers, and despising every thing that has the appearance of which Mr. Smart Hughes alone seems to have convenience and comfort, living on vegetables penetrated. It is a kind of cell, or cave, dark and fish, and in miserably built houses : their and dirty, where it is difficult to breathe ; on town is situated on a naked and barren rock. It the north wall, formed of large pieces of cut is thought, that the fear of the cupidity of the stone, a great many inscriptions are seen; it was Turks has induced these habits of wretchedness, with the greatest trouble that the English trathough they possess about fifty buildings. Pass- veller deciphered the best preserved of these ining the port Janiki, and the mouth of the scriptions, containing the act of cession made to Hyleus, which flows from the plain of Malan- the temple; thus leaving no doubt of the ancient drino, we come to the road of Salone, and the destination of this monument. mouth of the ancient Plistus, now called Crissa, The Castalian fountain is almost the only as well as the town situated on its banks; the thing which remains unchanged at Delphos ; ancient town, together with Cirrha, its port, it rises, as formerly, at the foot of the peaks of exists no longer. Crissa contains about 1200 Parnassus; the water, clear and pleasant to drink, or 1500 inhabitants, and is the see of a bishop. falls from a rock, covered with an overhanging Salone, occupying the site of Amphissns, is more yew-tree, into a basin shaded by a fig-tree, and considerable: it has about 6000 inhabitants, of descending by a ravine of the valley to join wbom more than 2000 are Turks. There are in the Plistus. Spon, after drinking of the founthis place some remains of the sepulchres of the tain, was so inspired that he composed two ancient Amphissians.

Greek quatrains on the spot; and Chandler Ascending the Plistus, and crossing the plain experienced something of the same sensation; of Crissa, we soon reach Delphos; here the but it appears that the charm no longer operates ancient hippodrome has disappeared, as well as on poets by profession. At Castri,' (the preall that once rendered this place so famous in sent name of Delphos) says lord Byron, 'we Greece, and made it, as it were, the seat of drank of the water of a dozen rivulets, some of government for the priesthood. The port of which were none of the clearest, before we Crissa formerly experienced the sanguinary ven- could decide, to our satisfaction, which was the geance of these priests, for having molested the true Castalia; and this even had a detestable pilgrims in their way to the shrine : the town taste, proceeding, I suppose, from the fallen was razed, and the inhabitants exterminated. snow.'' Near the spring some traces have been The curse of Apollo is, however, now forgotten, discovered of the bath of the Pythoness; the and the plain is overshadowed with olives and descent is by a few steps. The Delphian girls, mulberry-trees. On approaching Delphos are still very handsome, are seen at the present day seen some ancient cryptæ cut in the rock ; under drawing water from this fountain, which is now the arches we perceive sarcophagi, attached to only applied to the most common uses. Castri the sides of these caves, with their coverings re- has not more than 100 houses, and those, for the moved and for the most part broken: over every most part, miserable cabins with only one room two sarcophagi an arch is formed, as is cus- each; the best have only a first floor for the tomary in Egypt, in Persia, and even in Italy, residence of the family, while the ground floor Some of the foundations of the walls of Delphos is divided, as is customary throughout Greece, are still visible, and even the remains of an into a stable and a cellar. Poor, and peaceably entrance composed of small stones cemented disposed, the Castriots seldom stray from their

valley, and are rarely visited by foreigners; the partly paved with great flags of ancient green Turks, even, forget them. They are Arnaouts stone. Spon found, in the monastery, 150 monks, by their origin; they mostly speak Greek and and in their cellar vessels twenty feet long. Albanian; and, notwithstanding their poverty, In the library there are only a few manuscripts know how to read and write. Silk and oil are spoiled by the dust. Near St. Luke stood the their principal productions, but they cultivate port of Balis, where they used to fish for purple some grain also upon the ancient terraces, con- shells. On this port also is the little port of structed for a very different purpose.

Kokosi, and two little islands; Didascalo, receiv. Upon a declivity of mount Parnassus is a little ing its name from an ancient school, now in convent, the monks of which, subsisting by the ruins and the abode of wild .pigeons, swallows, culture of their fields and by alms, have always and immense bats; and Ambelia, full of rocks, some bread and cheese, olives and wine, and a where falcons nest in great numbers. Elatea, chamber without furniture, to offer to travellers. the ancient capital of Phocis, is in ruins : and In their convent are seen some fragments of the tomb of Laius, and the temples formerly antiquity, such as metopes, altars, and inscrip- scattered over it, are now no more. It is still, tions. Not far distant lie some great blocks of however, possible to assign the situations of the stone, which probably have been cut from Parnas- fortified cities of the Phocenses. Elatea was sus at a very early period; some think that they probably situated at the entrance of the defile, are the same as those which, according to Herodo- leading from the plain of the Cephisus to Thertus and Diodorus, crushed the army of Xerxes. mopylæ, where now the hamlet of Turco-Chorio Parnassus, extending as far as Bæotia, is now stands. Ascending the Cephisus, from this place, called Lyakoura ; this barbarous name, however, we find the remains of an ancient fort, perhaps is not quite modern: anciently one of the moun. Drymæa. Other ruins, at the entrance of a road tains of this chain was called Lycorea, and one leading to Delphos, seem to mark the situation of of the most ancient places in the country Lyco- the ancient Charadra; and the village of Agourea reia. At a village in the mountains, bearing the is probably on the site of ancient Lilæa. There same name, it is said, there are some antiquities; are also remains of the foundations of walls and in winter the snow forces the inhabitants to leave towers in the modern villages of Ladon and V'eit, and betake themselves to the neighbouring lizza, the latter the Tithorea of the Greeks. Near villages. Parnassus is a third rate mountain : the village of St. Blaise must be sought the site the snow rests on it only a part of the year; and of Panopeus; the circuit of the city is marked, it is thought that none but subalpine plants and the ruins of the citadel are on a steep rock. grow on it; yet a most extensive prospect is en- There is the appearance of an acropolis near the joyed from its summits, on the one side beyond village of Thavlia, the ancient Daulis probably, Eubæa, and on the other across the gulf of pleasantly situated on the Parnassus." On this Corinth, as far as the mountains of Pelopon- mountain, and at the foot of the chain, there nesus. The whole of Phocis lies under the feet were eight ancient places, not less fortified by of the spectator, with the poor villages that art than by their situation, being founded on occupy the places of the little flourishing re- precipices and heights very difficult of access; publics of the Phocenses. There is only the walls, flanked with round or square towers, folplain watered by the Cephisus, now Mauronero, low the inequalities on the surface of the rocks, between Parnassus and the mountains of Thes- on the declivities and at the foot of which are saly. Upon a platform of Parnassus is a grotto some towns : forts only, without towns, protected of 300 feet long by 200 broad, which receives the most important defiles of the country. only a feeble light through a narrow and low The half savage district of Ætolia presents itentrance ; stalactites hang from the roof in the self on passing the mountains of Pindus, which form of draperies and chandeliers; the stalag- leads from the frontiers of Epirus and Macedonia mites, that rise from the ground, assume the to Thermopylæ, and forms the barrier of the north most singular forms; and the water, dropping of Thessaly. TheAchelous and the Evenus, descenfrom the top of the grotto, renders the floor very ding from the same chain, bound it on its two sides slippery. At the end of this cave there is a pas- as far as the sea, into which they empty themselves. sage, which perhaps leads to another. An an- Upper Ætolia bas always been the resort of robcient inscription on the rocks shows that the bers, and left uncultivated; but lower Ætolia, with place was dedicated to the nymphs and the god Æolia the maritime district,was more civilised and Pan.

contained some flourishing cities, the names and Proceeding along the gulf of Aspra Spitia, to monuments of which have disappeared, and we the east of that of Salone, we arrive at Dystome. can now scarcely recognise a single trace of anThe country round it is planted with the Ker- tiquity. Aspropotamos and Fidari are the momes oak, which must have been very ancient; dern names of the country, and the chain of the as, according to Greek authors, the town of Pindus, separating it from Thessaly, is called Ambryssus was formerly engaged in the culti- Agrapha. Foreign people and foreign manners vation of this article. This town must have have been imported into this country; and the nearly occupied the site on which Dystome now true descendants of the ancient Greeks are to be stands. From Aspra Spitia, formerly the gulf of found among the poor goatherds, who forsake Anticyra, hellebore is no longer exported, but a the soft climate of the plains to take refuge from pretty brisk trade is carried on in the productions oppressions among rocks and forests on the of Livadia. Near a barren coast is situated the Agrapha, buried in snow during a great part of the monastery of St. Luke Styrites, built in the Gothic year. These shepherds have some vivacity, style; the church, which attracts many pilgrims, is energy, and, above all, the love of liberty, and

are worthy of that improvement which we may distance, eighteen miles long, occupies the bottom hope is awaiting them. The climate of their of a hasin crowned with woody hills; it is he mountains is not so rough as that of Switzerland; ancient Trichonium, now Souli; it is divided by a fine forests, wholesome springs, valleys delight- marsh, and its waters flow by two branches into ful in summer, flocks which furnish them with the Acheloüs; a great causeway, resting on 366 every necessary of life, and liberty are their in- arches, encircles a part of it, a work taking its heritance. They have a bishop residing at Gar- date from ancient times, when the lake presented diki, and there are some anchorites dispersed to view an active and prosperous population; over the deserts of the mountains. The canton now there are only the huts of a few butchers of Carpénitzé, near that of Agrapha, is inhabited and fishermen. There are to be seen in this by Walacks and Mahommedan Albanians; other country the ramparts and gate of Arsinoë; AnWalacks, formerly living peaceably in Apodotia, gelo-Castron now stands on its site, built under of which Cosina was the capital, forsook their the later Greek emperors : there is nothing reestablishments, harassed by the despotism of markable here, but an ancient monastery bearing Ali Pasha, preferring a life of freedom on Mount the name of Pontocrator, or the ruler of all Aninas.

things. Through a defile of the Aracynthus, Cavari, a dreary province of Upper Ætolia, infested by banditti, we enter the maritime appears to be composed of rocks separated by district of Zigos; the valley of the Tombs reprecipices, with a few cabins here and there, minds one by its name of the crimes often comcompletely isolated by the snow during several mitted here, and it is necessary to have a good months of the year; so that the inhabitants are, escort, in order to pass this place without fear : during that time, obliged to live on provisions but the precipices with which it is bordered warn which they have collected in the fine season, and travellers of another sort of danger. On the sea which are generally very miserable. Chestnuts shore and at the mouth of the Acheloüs we find serve them for bread, and to these they add some a more hospitable country, and softer manners; salted meat, &c. The chief place is Amourani; the chief employments of the people lie in the the district contains sixty-three villages, a fisheries and Olive-plantations. The little islands bishop, and about 12,000 inhabitants, nearly one- of the Echipades almost join the shore; but fifth of the whole population of Upper Atolia. Anatolico, the ancient Pemili, remains separated These miserable creatures are reduced to the by a channel ; 300 Turkish and Christian families most abject state. They are seen in crowds in inhabit it; the climate is unwholesome and disthe lower regions even as far as Constantinople, eases frequent. and the Ionian Isles, displaying to the Greeks and The Ætolian coast presents scarcely any place Turks the wounds and disgusting diseases which of note, except Missolonghi, or Messologgion, they have partly provoked or brought upon them- situated on a channel abounding in excellent fish. selves in order to excite compassion. They say The inhabitants carry on a little coasting trade, that these beggars have medicaments to give salt fish ; make salt and boutargue; and exthemselves the gutta-serena, and to bring out port acorn cups for dyeing and tanning. The livid wounds. Expert in every art of begging, oak of Ætolia suits better for this purpose than they gain considerable sums, and, though taxed that of Peloponnesus. There are about 800 by the Turks on the way, carry home sufficient houses in the town, a few small Greek churches, to live upon till they are able to take new ex- and a mosque; the merchants have some warecursions, and even lay up something against old houses and about thirty small vessels. The age. Their wives, in the mean time, are bur- Greek women here are very fond of gowns of a dened with all the labors of the family and the very striking color, as red, blue and yellow, and field. These people are supposed to be derived wear over them a shawl of a color equally lively. from a tribe of those Bohemians which still infest The marshes extend some miles along the coast, Albania, and it appears sufficiently probable so that the vessels cannot approach very near from their swarthy complexions, their thick and the shore: on the one hand, the sight is offended matted hair, their intemperate habits, and wan- by these stagnant spots, which are the resort of a dering manner of life. All the advantage they multitude of aquatic birds; and on the other it have over the Ghiftis, or Bohemians, they owe is astonished by the vigor of the vegetation to the influence of Christianity, which they pro- around, especially in the gardens. Cotton, tofess, and which preserves them from still greater bacco, sesamum, and maize are equally thriving. barbarism. Amourani is surrounded with the The coasts of Carthaga furnish excellent wine; rocks of Mount Corox, and contains about 1000 and near this town there appear some ruins, propeople ; the way to it is very dangerous, leading bably those of ancient Acragas. Hippochon, at along frightful precipices, and over mountains the mouth of the Avenus, seems to occupy the that beasts of burden cannot climb.

site of Chalcis. The most considerable ruins, In proceeding along Southern Ætolia, towards in the neighbourhood of Missolonghi, are those the sea, we cross the district of Vlochos, bounded which the Greeks call the Castle of St. Irene; on the west by the Acheloüs, and abounding in on an oblong hill there are some walls flanked corn, maize, olive-oil, cotton and currants. Ther- with square towers, and at the western end the mus and other cities used to embellish this remains of the acropolis still more ancient; charming country; now there are only a few rubbish, intermixed with tiles and earthenware, villages, the principal of which is Vrachori, in- fill the interior of this ancient city; and on the habited by Mussulmans, Christians, and Jews; south side is a theatre, some of the seats of which the latter carry on a trade in silk, and the former are still visibie. Near the theatre is perceived manufacture morocco leather. A lake at some a square space cut in the rock, below the level of the soil, which seeins to have been a granary: ruin; it is now called Loutraki, and has a near the middle of the town there are some custom-house and some warehouses, but attracts walls of a beautiful construction, but as there scarcely any vessels. There is little more activity is no marble, no sculpture nor any inscriptions, in the small port of Candili, at a short distance the name of this place is quite unknown. from which are some ruins, probably of the city

On the west of the Evenus or Fidari extends of Alyseus. So great has been the decline of another district, answering to the ancient Ætolia this district, that of 224,000, which constituted Epictetes, called in the Levant the Venetian. It the former population, there are said to be not has sixteen miserable villages, and about 1357 more than 3000 remaining, including Agrais and Greek and Mahommedan families, and offers du Valtos, and its depopulation is continuing. nothing remarkable, except the castle of Lepanto, The little trade that is carried on by the inhabformerly Naupacte, commanding with that of itants, is transacted at Dragomestre, but a part Patras in the Morea, the entrance of the great of this town, near the sea has fallen into decay ; gulf of Corinth; it occupies the extremity of the remainder is inhabited by about 100 Greek the cape once called Antirrhium. Taphius is families and some Mahommedans; the only anthe highest mountain of this depopulated district. tiquity to be met with is found in the remains of In a grotto, not far from Naupacte, the young a fort. It is surrounded by deserts, the great Greek girls consult the lot about the choice of a forest of Menine, and the monastery of Vederhusband, as once they addressed their prayers to nico. Venus. The country on the gulf of Crissa, to On the west, towards the gulf of Previsa, are the east, inhabited formerly by the Locrians, now the ruins of a place very celebrated in Grecian forms the province of Malandrino, inhabited by history, or rather in that of Rome-the city of about 6000 people, and infested by robbers, who Actium. Here the monuments, both of the vicfind a refuge in retreats inaccessible to those tors and the vanquished, have sunk into decay, who pursue them. The village of Malandrion, and we can scarcely recognise the foundations of in a valley watered by the Hyleus, and Galaxidi the temple, the theatre, and the site of the nauwith its port, are the principal places; the poverty machiæ. The city of Nicopolis, built by Augusof the latter port sufficiently proves the stagnation tus opposite to Actium, no longer exists, though of trade on this coast.

the principal monuments, and even the houses, The aspect of the country and the manners of are standing, having survived the existence of the inhabitants of Acarnania have undergone the Roman people. At some distance from little change since the days of antiquity. It con- Actium is the lake of Bulgaria, surrounded by tains, as formerly, only fortified towns, or groups thick forests, and the monastery of Pleya, almost of houses; the little islands and bays are favorable as wild as the country. Warm and moist vapors to piracy, as they once were, and the interior rise from the marshes near the sea, and noxious still serves for a retreat to bands of robbers, animals, such as serpents, vipers, and troublewhose ferocity has not diminished since the some insects abound. The most considerable earliest historical times of Greece: the district place in the west of Acarnania is Vonitza, a town of Heromerus, opposite to Ithaca, is a favorite inhabited by 100 Greek families, and the capital retreat for them. The forests, chiefly consisting of a canton containing 2550 people; it stands in of oaks and chestnuts, abound in wild boars and a valley watered by the Kiphalo-Vrysi, and is deer; meadows and desert valleys, lakes, rivers and commanded by a mountain fortified by the mountains, shaded with pines and cypresses; and Venetians. Dye-stuffs, rice, and maize, are exthe absence of all traces of the plough, and of the ported from this place to Sainte Maure. There haunts of civilised society, remind us of the im- is a convent near, bearing the fine name of Paramense savannahs and heights of South America. disi, whither pilgrims resort to be cured by the A few poor villages widely scattered form the Virgin of the fevers with which they are afflicted. residence of the modern Acarnanians; while The gulf of Ambracia, now Previsa, strait at some solitary chapels, or monasteries show the the entrance, and incumbered with pieces of religion which they profess. Not one flourishing rock, will not admit large vessels; it washes the city has assumed the situation of those of the canton of Vonitza, and the whole of Acarnania. ancient people, the ruins of which have for the A number of creeks and bays indent the shores most part disappeared ; Metropolis, the ancient of this gulf, inhabited by pelicans, cormorants, capital, and Stratos lying in the east of the swans, and other aquatic birds; crabs and shellcountry, cannot be discovered with certainty; fish of different kinds, as well as dolphins, mulbut the ford of the Acheloüs is still practicable, lets, eels, and a variety of other fish, employ the except in winter. In the environs of Lepenou, hands, that under the despotism of the Turks do supposed to occupy the site of Stratos, is seen not find security in agriculture. A north-west the monastery of Licobiti, the most considerable wind, called Imbat, blows on this gulf from in Acarnania, containing about twenty monks, eleven o'clock till sun-set, and during this time and the village of Machala, consisting of seventy the fleets carry their shell-fish and other marine houses; not more than ten families form the productions to the coast of Acarnania; at the population of Medenico, on the declivity of close of the day the sea is calm, and the fishermount Vips. Here the ruins of ancient Medeon men apply themselves to their fishing during the are visible in several large blocks of stone, near night. The island of Sainte Maure or Leucawhich is the defile of Porta, by which it com-· dia, once a part of the continent, and separated municates with the sea; in this pass is situated in fact only by a narrow strait, is now reckoned the little monastery of Saint George. The among the Ionian Isles, under the protection of ancient port of Limpea is in the same state of England. The neighbouring islets are favorable

for pirates, and the channel itself was much in It remained for the ferocious Ali to complete fested previous to the arrival of the English; its ruin, and the expatriation of its people, as we Leucadia, however, has a fortress which com- shall see in the slight sketch of modern Grecian mands part of it, but that can be bombarded history, which we intend to present to our reafrom the coast of Acarnania. There are still to ders. Souli, which has sustained a more bloody be seen the remains of a bridge built over the and obstinate struggle against the same oppresstrait by the Turks. For about twelve leagues sor, is composed of several villages situated round Leucadia presents good pasturage, and among the rocks, and surrounded with fields, fields fertile in corn and fruits, such as oranges, pasturage, and plantations. A river, which apa citrons, figs, and almonds; yet the harvests do pears to be the Acheron of the ancients, and not furnish much more than half the quantity which falls into the sea near Parga, waters this consumed by about 18,000 people, contained in mountainous territory, a little nearer to the sea the capital and about eight or ten villages, the than Janina, the capital of Epirus. Its popularemains of thirty, which once existed. For fur- tion is greater than that of Parga ; it was not able, ther particulars of this island, as well as of however, to protect it from the forces of Ali Ithaca, Cephalonia, &c., see IONIAN ISLES. Pacha, who attacked it with 12,000 men; but of

Beyond the gulf of Arta, and at the foot of the this barbarous and unwarrantable outrage we mountains of Albania, two little republics have shall hereafter speak. not long since displayed the heroic valor of their III. The Peloponnesus has received the moancestors, or rather that austere courage and in- dern name of the Morea, according to some, flexibility of the ancient Spartans, which some- from its plantations of mulberry trees; and to times bordered on ferocity. Parga and Souli others from the epithet of Oraia, the Beautiful, have acquired some celebrity in the records of which was given to it by the ancients. Here, as their country. Ancient Epirus, or Lower Albania, in Great Greece, a few ruins are the only remains is a mountainous but fertile country, supporting of flourishing kingdoms and republics; and it is a population of Greek origin, but as warlike and surprising even to find these, after the many energetic as the other Greeks were mild and natural and political revolutions which this pepeaceable. The situation of their villages is such ninsula has experienced. Of the 2,000,000 inas to induce them to form themselves into in- habitants once living here in splendor, not more dependent tribes, and to carry on a warfare than 300,000 now remain, scattered chiefly in against their neighbours, or any troops that might mean villages, and barely subsisting by the probe disposed to subjugate them. They cultivate duce of their land, their flocks, and other rethe soil no farther than is necessary to afford sources which nature has provided for them. them a supply of miserable food, but they like Almost the whole of the peninsula is surrounded to possess large flocks; and, while the life of a by mountains of a small elevation, barren on shepherd is in other places peaceful, here it is their summits, but fertile at their bases. Mount intimately connected with the profession of arms. Pholoe, in Arcadia, and the Taïgetus in the counPrivations do not affright them; they delight in try of the Spartiots, are distinguished in those danger; if their enemy injures them, they live in chains which stretch to the southern extremities. the hope of taking signal vengeance; their fiery The Alpheus, the Eurotas, and the Pamisus, passions know no moderation, and, if despair which issue from the mountains of the interior, seizes them, they are the first to sacrifice every flow through the valleys, the fertility of which thing that is dear to them. When they lose their has been justly celebrated by the ancients. liberty, and their native soil, nothing any longer T he corn harvest here is abundant. The attaches them to life; they are totally unmanned, wheat is gathered in the month of June, and become incapable of any generous resolution, yields ten or twelve per cent. A clayey soil, reand brutalise in servitude. We refer here to the quiring little culture, constitutes the fields desEpirots, who practise the Greek worship, and tined for the growth of corn ; but the defects in speak the Greek language; the Armaouts, or in- their instruments of husbandry necessarily dimidigenous Albanians, unite the greater barbarism nish the harvests. The barley of the peninsula with the fanaticism of the Mussulmans. From is gathered in May, but is not equal to the wheat, some remains of antiquity it would appear, that which, notwithstanding the bad cultivation, is the Parginots very early established themselves exported in great quantities; and the Ionian lain this country ; but it has been in modern borers, who come to assist in the harvest of the times, that they occupied and fortified the steep peninsula, are paid in this commodity, which is rock on which they lately established themselves, scarce in their islands. The bread of the Morea perhaps to shelter themselves from the inroads of is however bad, on account of their negligence other Albanians. Their citadel was on the in the grinding and baking. rugged summit of a precipice, beaten by the The soil of the peninsula is not less favorable waves, and commanding a little territory of to the cultivation of vegetables. Instead of those unequal level, but well watered and covered large forests of lemons, oranges, and citrons, with corn, groves of cedars and cypress, and which formerly stretched as far as the eye could plantations of olive and orange trees. Parga, reach in the environs of the principal towns, we notwithstanding the weakness of its population, now see only small orchards of them; and the amounting only to 5000 souls, made its inde- lemons are small, and rather acrid: the peaches, pendence to be respected by the Venetians, pomegranates, and almonds, also partake of this though it could not hinder them from putting a flavor, as well as other stone fruits, which they garrison into its port, which had become im- have no idea of improving by grafting. The figs portant for the protection of the coast of Epirus. have a more agreeable taste, especially in the

Vol. X.

2 S

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