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neighbourhood of Calamata, owing to the pro- suitable care, equal that of the Merino breed. gress of caprification, which is practised almost Navarin and Napoli di Romania exported great throughout the archipelago. There are two quantities of it not long since. The butter, kinds of fig-trees, the wild and the domestic, though excellent when fresh, will not keep, from both of which bear fruit; but that of the latter a defect in the preparation. They export a quanfalls before it is ripe, if precautions be not taken tity of raw hides, and acorns. to prevent it. When the wild figs are ripe, Plains covered with rosemary, thyme, wild which is in the months of June and July, they thyme, mint, wild fennel, and other aromatic are gathered and fastened by strings to the plants, furnish the bees with materials for exceldomestic fig-trees; soon afterwards small gnats lent honey and wax; which, however, the people proceed from the wild figs, and introduce them- neglect to purify, and sell it in its coarse state. selves, by what is called the eye of the fruit, into Many other vegetables would grow here in abunthe still green figs of the domestic tree. This is dance, were the inhabitants to bestow more called caprification, which process gives to the attention on them : it seems even certain, that fruit great sweetness. The insect which con- the sugar-cane would succeed very well in some duces to the maturity of the fruit transforms parts of the Morea. itself into a worm; to prevent its hatching, the Planes, carob-trees, cypresses, mastich-trees, figs are placed in an oven, or kept in jars her- kermes-oaks, pines and firs, together with laurels, metically closed. The olive-tree seems to belong roses, and myrtles, grow near the towns and in peculiarly to the Morea, it shoots and multiplies the deserts of the Morea: the large pines furnish every where, though in a wild state; and there excellent wood for building; those of Elis might are still the remains of woods and forests of these be employed in the construction of men of war. trees. Under the government of the Venetians, The resinous wood of the Morea produces much the Morea furnished an immense quantity of oil, tar, pitch, and turpentine, and slips of it, lighted, the best of which is now chiefly produced in supply the place of lamps to the cottagers. Corinth, Napoli di Romania, and the district of They extract a kind of aromatic oil from the Maïna. Although in other parts the olives are berries of the laurel, which is efficacions in the not cultivated with equal care, the harvest is cure of rhzumatism and sprains. Another kind always abundant.
of oil is obtained from the pistachio: and the It is different with regard to the silk : mul- Moreans bave more than once in time of famide berry trees do not fail, or rather would not fail mixed the ground root of the arum maculatum were they to establish plantations; but there is with their bread. With the rhus cotinus, which a great mortality amongst the silkworms, which the Greeks call chrysoxulon or golden wood, the Greeks attribute to sorcerers, instead of their the Moreans dye an orange color : the fruit own want of precaution: in the Morea 100 serves to season their dishes. The agpus castus, pounds of balls only yield from seven to eight which grows on the borders of rivulets, furnishes pounds of silk. Neither is the Morea in its them with osiers. It may be supposed from the present state a wine country: vines are abun- state of agriculture, that farming is at a very low dant; but with the exception of that of Misitra, ebb in the Morea; notwithstanding which they and St. Gecrge in Corinthia, the wine is common, very well understand the conducting of water and in order to preserve it they mix it with even to the distance of some leagues, though resin, or even with turpentine, which renders it there is still much improvement required in that bitter. The Corinthian grape, which is the sort as well as in other branches of husbandry. The particularly cultivated by the husbandmen of the manufacturing interest is not more flourishing: Morea, appears to have been transplanted necessity has taught the Moreans to manufacture from the isle of Naxos, and to thrive best in a many articles, such as cotton, leather, felt, and dry and flinty soil which prevails in the penin- even in some places they fabricate silks, gauzes, sula. The vintage for these grapes is at the end stuffs, &c.; but for other merchandise they are of July and during the whole of the mouth of dependent on foreign nations. It is to be reAugust: a very good wine is extracted from marked however that the Morgans, though but them, but, as they yield but little, they are prin- indifferent manufacturers, are excellent mercipally dried for exportation. It is chiefly along chants: they have abolished all the foreign the gulf of Corinth, and in the Ionian isles bor- houses in their ports and engrossed the whole of dering on the Morea, that vineyards of this kind the commerce. There is no pation,' says Seroare found: they have succeeded to the planta- fani 'which can be compared with the Greeks tions of tobacco, with which the Morea was for- for avarice, parsimony, cunning, and activity.' merly filled, and the quantity of Corinthian It is a remarkable circumstance, that the isthraisins which is generally exported in time of mus of Corinth, which anciently served as a peace is valued at 6,000,000 or 8,000,000 of link between the Peloponnesus and Great pounds. The cotton of the peninsula may 'vie Greece, and contained an opulent city, should in fineness and whiteness with that of Salonica have become in 1822, after so many ages of and Smyrna : fax grows spontaneously in all nothingness, a rallying point for the free Greeks parts of the Morea, but hemp fails there and the seat of their government until the city
Argos, Messenia, and Arcadia, are capable of of Minerva shall be in a condition to receive it. feeding great numbers of cattle, and the pastoral In the foundations of the ramparts and bastions, productions would enrich the inhabitants, had which surround the acropolis, may be perceived not the race of domestic animals greatly dege- ancient layers of stone of Pelasgian or Cyclopean nerated; the wool of the sheep also, which is workmanship. The fountain of Pyrenus issues naturally long and silky, would, if treated with from the foot of the mountain, on which the
citadel stands; and, farther on, is the fountain of of the Massacre, which is to be passed, issues Lema; which rushes from the rock, and swell- from a ravine shaded with rose laurels, pines, ing in a rivulet, after having watered Corinth, maples, and other trees; it was here that in 1779 empties itself into the gulf of that name. a troop of Albanians were murdered. The Fragments of the fluted columns of the ancient ascent of Caki-scala leads to the summit of the temple of Minerva are remaining; and other torrent, which commands a 'fine view of the vestiges may still be seen on the declivity of the neighbouring country and sea. mountain.
Towards Megara the coast is guarded by the At a short distance from the town there are Scironian rocks. The fertile country around is seven Auted columns standing, which still sup- inhabited by Albanians, who, taking advantage port a part of their ancient architraves, and of the partial liberty granted them by the Turks, which the inhabitants of the country suppose have secured to themselves a lucrative trade in are the remains of the temple of the Sun. oil of turpentine, butter, wax, and honey: MeJudging by the descriptions of Strabo and Pau- gara, which was built on three hills, has lost its sanias we may also recognise the foundations of monuments, owing partly to the decomposition the theatre and gymnasium; but of the famous of the stones composing them : the more ancient temple of the Melanean Venus no traces are to foundations, which are still to be seen on one be found, and from the present melancholy aspect of the hills, being of the primitive rock of Mount of Corinth no one would suppose it to have Gerania, have been more lasting, and appear to deserved the name of the city of pleasures.' be of cyclopean construction. Megara is only a Its ancient port of Lechæum, on the gulf, still con- borough, inhabited by about 1400 Greeks and tains some small buildings and a custom-house; Albanians, having an episcopal see. The houses but this tract of land is become an unwholesome are pretty well built, and on the declivity there is marsh, impregnated with saltpetre. Cenchrea, a road from this place to Thebes, through the now Hachries, another port of Corinth at the defiles of the Ceralian mountains. mouth of the Helicon, is almost a desert. Returning to Corinth, we find a road, which Mosques and a few Greek churches, among leads along the gulf in a westerly direction to which the cathedral is distinguished, have suc- Sicyone, which district is bounded by the rivers ceeded the ancient temples : and since 1821, Nemeus and Sysais, the most fertile part of the probably, the minarets no longer announce the present Corinthia: the Schypetars, who inhabit supremacy of the Mussulman worship in this it, cultivate olives, vines, and cotton, and feed bulwark of Greece. The archbishopric of Co- cattle, goats, and poultry; their wives spin the rinth boasts of being more ancient than even cotton, and show much order and neatness in that of Rome. Besides the churches, a caravan
their houses. sera and a post house were the only public esta The ancient Sicyon is reduced to a borough : blishments here in 1821. With regard to military its ruins are found near the mouth of the Asopus, affairs, Corinth is important for the defence of where it is easy to recognise the Greek and the Peloponnesus against the attacks of land Roman acropoles ; but tħe temples, and the armies ; though, from its being situated between wood of the Eumenides, have disappeared. The two gulfs, an army may easily approach and present village is called Vasilika ; it is situated quickly disembark, especially on the side near in a deep ravine, through which runs a spring the isle of Ægina. Corinth has never been cele- called by the Greeks the Dropping Fountain, brated for the fertility of its soil ; scarcely any because it is supplied by drops falling from the trees are to be seen, except small pines, and roof of a cave. Sicyone, peopled by the Dorians, cypresses ; only a few of the gardens are adorned early distinguished itself by its love of peace, with citron and orange trees; and, after the har- and the culture of the fine arts : dancing, music, vest, the chalky lands, burnt up by the sun, tragedy, and the art of moulding in brass, were present the very picture of sterility.
carried to great perfection in this Dorian colony; The villages of the isthmus are now comprised even the women possessed cultivated minds : under the general name of Dervena Choria, and but the assertions of the ancients are the only have a population amounting to 10,430 inhabi- proofs of the former prosperity of Sicyone. The tants : Corinth itself contains about 360 houses. very small province of Phliasia, remarkable for Two roads diverge from the town, one, turning its wines, is inhabited by Greeks, who are, towards the east, leads to Megara; the other perhaps, descended from the ancient Dorians, westward to Sicyone.
mixture of other nations. On a hill On the road to Megara we pass through Ex- near the Asopus are the ruins of a town, which amili, a village divided into high and low, and may have been Phlius. inhabited by Greeks and Albanians : in this Argos, the kingdom of Agamemnon, has shared place is found an astonishing quantity of the fate of the other states of Greece; and, in ancient coins, which the women wear as orna later times, a pacha with two tails governed this ments; and near the village are the remains of formerly independent province. Many historical a temple and a theatre, fragments of marble recollections are awakened here, by every town, and granite, and pieces of antique pottery. From river, and mountain : ruins abound in this prothe number of pines found here, it has been con vince, partaking rather of the indestructible jectured that in this place the Isthmian games solidity of the Egyptian monuments, than of the were celebrated.
light and graceful character of the Grecian The passage of Mount Æneus was not, until architecture. Some of these ruins probably lately, free from danger, and various recollections equal in antiquity the pyramids on the banks of contributed to sadden the traveller. The torrent the Nile, and belong to the style called Cyclo
pean, indieating the gigantic stature and strength hid hinself: every word pronounced there is of the people who raised them. Instead, how- reverberated by the rocks in an astonishing manever, of cyclops and descendants of the ancients, ner. How many have been dupes to this cheat, there are now scarcely any inhabitants in Argos and how many hopes and fears has it excited, but Schypetars.
while the priests of Argos have laughed at the Passing through that mountainous district, credulity of the people! Within the walls of a which is bathed on one side by the gulf of large church, at the southern extremity of the Argos, and on the other by the sea of Saronica, town, are the fragments of some columns of the we arrive at Nauplie. At the bottom of the gulf Ionic order; and one of the mosques of Argos of Argos, now the gulf of Napoli di Romania, is said to be built with the remains of the grotto we find a town, which under the Venetian of Esculapius in Epidaurus. government was the capital of the Morea'; the The province of Argos is inhabited by Schy. port is still the depôt of the productions of the petars to the number of 8000 or 10,000, who Grecian continent and islands. To this place employ themselves mostly in agriculture, in the Samos sends its sponge, Laconia its silks, Mity- fine plains watered by the Inachus; their houses lene its excellent oils, and other parts of Greece are very neat, and their women, if not equal to their wines, acorns, and vermillion: ancient the ancient Argians in beauty, may at least pass medals of various sorts are also found here. It for their descendants. does not appear that any modern traveller has Two leagues further north are the ruins of explored the catacombs, or the subterraneous another celebrated city, Mycenæ, which five labyrinth, which, according to Strabo, lie be- centuries before the Christian era, was reduced tween Nauplie and the city of Argos. The to its present state of dilapidation by the Aracropolis of Nauplie, still bearing the name of gians, who were jealous of the glory its inhabithe hero Palamedes, is yet visible; but the most tants had acquired in an engagement with the remarkable remains of antiquity here are the Spartans at Thermopylæ. An acropolis, surruins of Tyrinthia, at the distance of half a rounded by cyclopean walls, rises amidst the league from the town. The walls of Tyrinthia unformed ruins. The entrance to the ancient are mentioned in the Iliad as existing long before citadel is still plainly seen; and is composed of the Trojan war; nor have thirty centuries been enormous blocks of stone, upon which are others able to destroy them; travellers who have ex- lying one against another, and forming a kind amined these masses of stones laid one upon of rude arch, finished with a 'stone, on which are another without cement, think that they may still cut two lions or panthers standing against a pilremain as many more. Amongst other peculi- lar; similar to the animal figures used in modern arities, the use of the ogive is observed here, heraldry. Sculpture of this kind and of this which proves that this kind of arch is of great antiquity is surely one of the most curious ob antiquity, although it was seldom much employed jects among the ruins of Greece: it is nine feet till the middle ages.
in height, and more than eleven in width at its In going from Tyrinthia to the ancient Argos, base: the gate over which it is placed is menthe Inachus must be crossed : the bed of this tioned by Sophocles and Pausanias. river during a part of the year is dry, but at On the outside of the acropolis is a tumulus, other times almost the whole plain of Argos is something resembling the hypogæa of Egypt; inundated. The ruins of the acropolis are in the some old steps lead to the entrance gate of this same cyclopean style as those of Tyrinthia, at massy structure. On the top of this entrance, least in the foundations; for the rest is modern, which widens as it advances, is an enormous and composed partly of a collection of more lintel, composed of a single bræchia stone, ancient ruins. Many classic writers mention twenty-seven feet in length, seventeen in width the cyclopean walls of Argos, which, from their and about four and a half in thickness, being great solidity, the inhabitants of Mycenæ were perhaps one of the largest ever employed in not able to demolish. Few remains of the build- an edifice. In the interior of the building is a ings of this city are to be found, except the plan room terminating in a point like that in the seof the theatre, south-east of the acropolis : it is cond pyramid of Egypt, from which we pass cut in a rock, and had apparently two wings, into a smaller apartment, where we find over the which is not the case with other Grecian theatres. entrance a kind of ogive like that over the citadel. A chapel, situated near this theatre, appears to This monument has been called the treasury of have taken the place of the Hieron of Venus, in Atrea, from a supposition that the ancient Grewhich the inhabitants erected a statue to Tele- cian kings were accustomed to deposit their silla, a woman distinguished equally for her treasures in such buildings:some learned persons, poetic genius, and her valor, displayed against however, believe it to have been a tomb; and the Lacedemonians, in their attack upon Argos. there are others who think that it was a place for On a rock, to the north-east of the ancient cita- mystical worship. del, is a monastery, probably built upon the The tombs of Ægisthus and Clytemnestra hare ruins of the temple of Apollo Diradiotes; and not yet been found. M. de Chateaubriand we are assured, that this rock encloses a cavern, imagined he had discovered them; but what he which was formerly used for oracles, of which took for Grecian tombs are those of a MussulArgos had several. Modern travellers have dis- man and his servant, who were murdered there covered near the acropolis, on the site of the thirty years ago. sanctuary of an ancient temple, a subterraneous A little further to the north, through the woody passage, which led to the altar, and in which the defile of Treta,' we arrive at the ancient city of impostor, who made the oracle speak, probably Nemea, of which the hamlet of Colone, so
named from some columns of a temple of Jupi- ceeded the ancient Thyræa; anu the towns of ter, is all that remains, and a few solitary trees in Prasto and Saint Reontas, which form the see the neighbourhood indicate the site of the forest of an archbishop, point out the site of the maritime which formerly covered the country: here the town of Prasica : since the last century a new celebrated games were solemnised, and the in- town, called Neoprasto has been built at a short habitants still assemble annually on the 15th of distance from the two preceding ones. The temple August, to celebrate the festival of the Virgin, of Diana appears also to have given place to the near a ruined church under a very old wild chapel of Notre Dame de Carga, where the mounpear-tree.
taineers perform their devotions with the same Following the course of the Nemean river, zeal as their ancestors. The Tzaconic dialect, through the plaiu of Coutzomati, we enter the a kind of gibberish, in which some remains of canton of St. George, which belongs to Coun- the ancient Doric have been discovered, is thia, and is justiy celebrated for its vineyards. spoken here. _A few centuries since, the lanThe lion subdued by Hercules is supposed to guage of the Tzaconians, that is of the district have had its den near Nemea. In the way from comprising the towns of Prasto, Kastanitza, and Argos to Epidaurus we pass near a hill on Satina, was not understood by the other Greeks ; which are the ruins of Lessa, on the borders of the but commerce, by increasing the communication territory of Argos; and all along the road are to among the different states, is gradually abolishbe seen tonebs of great antiquity, composed of ing this particular language, and, as it has perrough stone; there is one in the shape of a py- haps never been written, no traces of it will ramid, like the Egyptian tombs.
probably be left. Cotton, corn, mulberry, and pomegranate trees Achaia, the northern extremity of the Peloand myrtles, cover the beautiful plains and val- ponnesus, is as poor and unfruitful as in ancient leys. On the way, and near the sea, are fine times, although it possesses one of the principal woods of olive trees. Epidaurus, the chief city cities of the peninsula, that of Pairas, a maritime of this province, which now belongs to Corinth, city built at the foot of Mount Panachaïkos. was situated in sight of the isle of Ægina, and This place has always preserved the imporhas been succeeded by the maritime town of tance which it owes to its situation, being Epiada. The temple of Esculapius was situated with Lepanto the key of the Corinthian Gulf; in a place now called Ligoris, and adorned with the walls, of which ruins are still to be seen, myrtles, Indian fig-trees, and other shrubs. The formerly reached to the sea, but the present temple of the god of health is no longer stand- town, falling far short of the ancient in beauty, ing, but the plan is still visible. The ancient is situated at the distance of a mile from the Trezenia and Hermionides form the extremity coast. In the modern fortress, itself become of a peninsula, and are badly peopled, unculti- a ruin, are the remains of the acropolis, vated, and unhealthy. Methone still exists un- where, in a niche, is a mutilated statue appader the name of Methana,but it is merely a village rently of Diana ; this goddess being venerated like most of the other cities of ancient Greece. at Patras, on account of the chase in the for At Hermione, now called Thermis, the girls no rests of Panachaïkos, now infested with lynxes longer, as in the golden days of Greece, conse and other wild animals. Bacchus shared with crate their hair to Venus at the time of their Diana the homage of the Patracians, and justly, marriage ; and the sacred wood is no longer for the vines here are still magnificent, the foliage preserved in honor of the Graces. Quantities very thick, and the grapes of a considerable size. of the shells used in the manufacture of purple, These vines cover a valley crossed by a Roman which formerly rendered this town famous, are aqueduct on two rows of arches, which furnishes still to be seen; but Hermione is now only water to a fountain supplying the citadel. There known in commerce by the fine sponge found on is another fountain, or rather covered pit, near its coasts. The ancient Calauria, now known the ancient port, and the ruins of the church of by the name of Poros, is inhabited by Albanians. Saint André, erected, as is supposed, on the site
The Cymeria of the ancients, now Saint of the temple of Ceres. This fountain was apPierre, a province which reaches to the moun- plied to in the time of Pausanias by invalids: tains of Laconia and Arcadia, is on the other the present inhabitants, more cautious than their side of the gulf of Argos. The inhabitants ancestors, draw water here on Saint Andrew's feed a number of sheep on their mountains, part day as a preventive of evil. Saint Andrew is of the wool is exported, and the remainder is manu the patron of the Patreans, and these have made factured into felt and carpets ; they likewise make vain efforts to obtain permission from the Turks, annually 5000 quintals of cheese, and 3000 barrels for the rebuilding of his church, which was deof olive oil; also some silk and vermillion. Be- molished by the Albanians in 1770. On the fore the insurrection of 1821 they were accustomed day of his festival, the Greeks crowd to the ruins, to repair to Constantinople, in order to sell but- worship the sarcophagus, which contained his ter, and, after enriching themselves at the ex- bones, and devoutly drink the water of the pit pense of Christians and Mussulmans, they consecrated to him; small wax tapers are lighted returned to their mountains, and laid out their each night upon his tomb. money in ammunition from the neighbouring Near the temple of Ceres was formerly a saislands of Hydra and Spezzia. In the summer cred wood, used as a promenade for the inhabithe inhabitants of the coast visit these mountains tants: it is succeeded by the vines of Calamogin order to escape the damp and unhealthy va- darti, where have been found some relics. The pors prevalent near the sea at the equinoxes. ruins of two piers, and the bases of two towers,
The town of Saint Pierre seems to have suc are all that remain of the port which was an.
oiently decorated with temples and statues: its has lost its splendor, and the small town of Tog. waters are stagnant, and produce fevers. A titza, which has replaced it, has experienced too badly screened bay receives the ships, which many calamities to admit of its attaining to prosload principally with Corinthian raisins, for perity: there are some remains of this town and which production there are magazines near the à fountain formerly dedicated to the goddess of custom-house, also store-houses for fish and salt health. The inhabitants of this district are exprovisions. The bazaar of St. George appears to posed to earthquakes, a variable climate, and a be on the site of the ancient market; and ac- violent wind, which blows from Marrichiotis; cording to M. Pongueville, who caused this land and, what is still worse, they are the vassals of to be cleared, the garden of the French consul some Turkish families, to whom this province still contains the Mosaic which served as a pave- was given on the conquest of Achaia. They ment to the temple of Bacchus Esymnetus. console themselves, however, by the abundant This gentleman thinks that researches in the ba- fishery of their gulf, by the fertility of their soil, zaar would bring to light other antiquities, and by that resignation which makes us endure
The present Patras will transmit scarcely any an evil that we know cannot be remedied. At monuments to posterity: streets badly paved, the ancient Bura, near Tostitza, Hercules delidirty, narrow, and in some places shaded by vered oracles in a grotto, which is still seen: it is roofs of ivy; houses built on ground dried by opposite Delphos, which may be seen on the the sun, small churches, and mosques, are all other side of the gulf of Lepanto. The Greek that compose a city which passes for one of the priests have never been able to impart to the first ports of the Levant, and which contains 16,000 oracle of Bura the reputation which was attached inhabitants, three parts of whom are Greeks. to that of Apollo: they pretend that the monks of This town possesses natural advantages which, Negaspelion have deprived them of their tithes. under a free government, might render it one of The ancient Pellenia, whose barren soil is covered the first cities in Greece and the Levant: under with pines which exhale an aromatic odor, is that of the Turks the safety of the inhabitants now inhabited by Albanians: they make in their was threatened at the gates. So common were woods pitch and oil of turpentine. assaults in the road which passes through the With the name of Arcadia we naturally assowoods of mount Panachaïkos into Arcadia, that ciate the idea of the golden age, and the Arit was abandoned and stigmatised by the name cadian shepherds. Their country, which occupies of the road of murders ;' it is more safe to go the middle of the peninsula, is an elevated plain to Arcadia by sea. Besides vines, the neigh- overlooked by mountains, from which rivers bourhood of Patras is planted with mulberry flow in all directions and water the provinces and fig-trees, myrtles and mastichs: hysop, inclining toward the sea : the principal of these stocks, and other flowers, enamel the shore, are the Alpheus, the Erimanthus, the Eurotas, Notwithstanding the beauty of the situation, we and the Inachus. Fountains of water gushing rarely find in Patras that hardy and robust race from all parts of the plain impart to the air a which formerly peopled Achaia : those born in delightful freshness; the forests which clothe the Patras are generally afflicted with rickets, per- sides of the mountains, and which must formerly haps owing to the want of cleanliness and proper have been larger and thicker; charming pastures; diet. More negroes are found here than in other a soil abundantly fruitful; mountains sheltering Grecian cities; they generally succeed in obtain- the inhabitants from invasion; a poverty, which, ing their liberty, and establishing themselves, though not amounting to indigence, served to and then become exceedingly arrogant.
discourage the greedy conqueror; liberty, withIn ancient times Patras was the chief place of out which all other enjoyments are unstable; and only a small district, which was increased by the a simple and frugal life undisturbed by violent Romans: at present it extends from the Larissus passions; in these advantages consisted the hapto Meganitas, and comprises ninety-five villages piness of the ancient Arcadians: they enjoyed with a population of 10,700 souls. To the south- that felicity which poor, weak, and free nations east of Patras, after crossing the river Melas at seem alone destined to enjoy. But in proporCamenitza, are found the ruins of the ancient tion as the population around Arcadia increased, city of Phares, on which the Christians have the inhabitants felt the influence of foreign manbuilt a chapel to St. John. The small village of ners: their simple worship was loaded with the Cato-Achaia, which contains all the population pomps of superstition; the priests subdued the of this district, abounds in mulberry, almond, spirit of the people; ambition and jealousy exand fig trees : rivers, fields of maize, wheat, cited civil feuds; proud of their own liberty and cotton, form, together with a forest of oaks, they filled their country with slaves; the shepthe resources of the modern Phareans. The herds forsook their mountains and shed their greatest number of relics in this district are to blood in the contests of the neighbouring states, be seen near the village of Chalanthistra, which indifferent as to which side they took in those some centuries ago had an archbishopric and quarrels which ended by desolating the once several churches; and which probably stood on happy Achaia. Under the Turks they preserved the site of the ancient Tritea: thus this city has a kind of liberty, at least in their mountains, but fallen twice. In the mountains of Craca stands it was not that of their ancestors. It is a singuthe richly endowed monastery of St. Michael lar circumstance that many of the Arcadian rivers, the archangel, which maintains about eighty after having inundated the country and formed monks, and up to the present time is one of the lakes, hollow for themselves subterraneous paslargest convents in Greece,
sages, disappear for a considerable distance, and The ancient Ægeum, built on a promontory, are then found in other parts : wben the canals