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One of these fastnesses by Mr. Morritt, who tragreen velvet, with large open sleeves, and loaded velled through the country under the protection with a rich embroidery. Her head-dress conof the captains. The house of this captain,' sisted of a green velvet cap, covered with gold, says Mr. Morritt, "consisted of two stone towers, and arranged in the form of a crown, to which was very much like those on the borders of England attached a white veil worked with gold, which and Scotland, with a range of offices and lodg- passed over her bosom, then under her arms, ings for the servants, stables and coach houses and fell down her back. Her uncle was dressed built on the sides of a court by a door in an ar- in pantaloons of a bright blue color, a tight vest cade flanked with bastions. An armed man with open sleeves, broidered with white and gold, came to meet us, and spoke to our guide, who a red and gold girdle containing his pistols and had conducted us from Myla. He went in poniard, gaiters of blue cloth broidered with gold, again and told the chief, who ran to the door to plates of silver protecting the joints of the thighs, receive us, accompanied by a numerous suit, all and lastly a doliman of black velvet with sleeves surprised at the appearance of the English bound with fur. When he went out, he threw strangers. We were received with great kindness, over his shoulders a rich mantle of cloth blue and led to a commodious room in the principal outside and red within, with gold borders in the apartment of the tower, inhabited by the chief front and along the sleeves. His turban was himself, the other being the residence of his niece, green and gold, and his gray hair hung below who bore the title of capitaness. Zanetachi this head dress.—The costume of the inferior Koutouphari was a man of a respectable figure, classes resembles this, only the quality is diffe about fifty-six years old ; he had a wife and four rent and they have no ornaments. daughters, two of them under age, occupying the The Maïniotes are trained to arms from their Aoʻr below ours. The old chief had dined early, childhood, especially shooting in which the wul, according to the rites of hospitality peculiar to women sometimes take part; the warlike spirit this country, he sat down near us to partake our of the men communicates itself to the other sex, repast; his wife and daughters waiting on us so that women have more than once been seen with much etiquette for some time notwithstand- fighting with the same bravery, and displaying ing our remonstrances, and afterwards retiring, the same daring, and even the same cruelty, as leaving an old servant to attend us. In the their husbands and their brothers. They enjoy evening feather beds and mattresses were brought more liberty and kinder treatment than the Greek and spread on the floor; then sheets and pillows women of other provinces; they are not shut up bordered and made of broad bands of muslin as in other places, and this may be one reason of and silk of various colors, all the manufacture of their fidelity, which the fear of the terrible venthe females. As the Greeks always lie in their geance with which the Maïniotes punish adultery under clothes, this sort of bed is not found incon- may also tend to preserve. In default of male venient. The next day being Easter Sunday, issue, the daughters inherit the patrimony and we had an opportunity of witnessing and par- the seignories or captainships; in the villages taking in the general rejoicings that took place not they are devoted to rustic labor, and bear fatigue, only in the castle but in the villages round. In without seeming to feel it. The Maïbiotes profess every house, at this season, a lamb is killed, and the Greek religion, but make it consist merely in every one gives himself up to joy. We dined acts of devotion and superstition; they have a with our host and his family at half past eleven multitude of little churches, to which they do not in the morning, and afterwards had a solemn fail to repair, after having committed acts of audience with his niece Helen in her own apart- robbery and violence. The chapels in the ments. She was, in fact, mistress of the castle mountains are all dedicated to St. Elias; and the and of the surrounding district, which she re- cocks on the coast have many excavations, inhaceived in inheritance from her father. She was bited by hermits. They believe in charms and a young widow, still handsome, and with much amulets, and adore a multitude of saints, but all grace and dignity in her manners; she was as- this does not soften their natural barbarity. sisted only by her sister, and some females richly When attacked on land they take refuge in the dressed. When we entered she was sitting mountains, with every pass of which they are alone; after inviting us to sit down, she made acquainted, and from thence harass and destroy her sister take a seat near her, and ordered her their enemy in detail. In the bays and creeks suit to serve up coffee and refreshments. The they have a great number of long boats, capable women were all very beautiful, and this is com- of containing from twelve to twenty men, with monly the case with the females of many of the which they venture out into the open sea, when Maïniote villages; their beauty is of a most deli- they have any hope of a booty. In these bays cate kind, that we should not expect from their they watch for their prey like the wild beast in mannerofliving: united with the fine physiognomy his den, and' woe to the imprudent traveller who of the Italians and Sicilians, the Mainiotes join a in unquiet times ventures into these countries smooth skin, a fine complexion, and clear chest- without a sufficient protection. The bravery of nut colored hair, which would seem peculiar to independent mountaineers is generally mixed culder clinates. The men also are well propor- with" frankness and honesty ; but among the tioned, of a middle stature, and of a rather slen- Mainiotes this does not seem to exist. According der constitution, but muscular. The Capitaness to M. Pongueville's description they are treacherwore a robe of blue cachemere, broidered with ous, cowardly, ferocious, greedy, and fanatical. gold, fastened by a girdle, and a corset of crim- We would hope, however, that this character does son velvet broidered in the same manner; not apply to all the Maïniotes without distinction. over this vesture she had a Polonese robe of deep It is true that for many ages the pirates of Mayne
have been the scourge of Greece, and that the present city. A rivulet of salt-water issues from Algerine corsairs have not been worse : they car- the rocks, which perhaps might have been the ried away Turks to sell them to Christians, and ancient fountain of Asculapius. The ruins of Christians to sell them to Turks Families who some baths are still visible, and some fragments inhabit the neighbourhood of the Magne, or the of marble have been soinetimes dug out of the Magne itself, find it very difficult to keep beautiful earth. Coutouphari, the residence of another children:
: no one was sure even of his neighbour. captain, is a village built among mountains La Guilletière relates the history of two Maïniote covered with oaks; Platza and Scardamoula pirates who had often committed depredations have also their captains; that of Platza has his together, but at last disputed as to the division tower near the rocks of Pephnos, on which a of some booty. Animated with resentment Theo- town of that name formerly stood; the thick dore carried away the wife of his old neighbour walls of this tower, and the barrels of gunpowder and associate Anapliottis, and took her to the ves- ranged on the platform, put his residence into a sel of a Maltese corsair, stationed in the road respectable state of defence. In these captainbetween Maïna and Vitulo, in order to sell her. ships, the people are so little accustomed to see The Maltese, after having looked at the woman; strangers, that they run from afar, when a Eurorefused to give him the price he asked, telling pean, under the protection of their chiefs, passes him that he had bought two hours before for through their villages. Scardamoula, the capital half the sum a much more beautiful woman, and of Androvistas, is only a little village, with three in order that the Maïniote might judge for himself or four towers, inhabited by chiefs. On a rock he sent for her. What were the surprise and near, which has been rent by an earthquake, are rage of Theodore when he saw his own wife, some vestiges of the ancient acropolis of the city whom his neighbour Anapliottis had already of Cardamila, and the remains of some sepulchres sold: he was less anxious to recover his own cut in the rock below. At the village of Armyros, wife than to sell his enemy's, and therefore yield- to which vessels retire during the winter, there is ed his prey at the price which the Maltese chose a plentiful spring, which turns several mills, and to give him. In the mean time Anapliottis, hear- which, they say, swells as often as the wind is in ing that his wife had been taken to the corsair, the north, and subsides when it is in the opposite came in an armed shallop : Theodore instead of quarter; they suppose that it has a communicacutting his throat joined with him in forcing the tion with some cavern on the coast, where the Maltese to restore their wives: the two rascals waters are agitated by the wind. Vitulo, the were then reconciled and continued their occu- ancient Ætilus, is built on the sea re, on some pation together.
rocks, bordering a deep and narrow bay, called The Magne contains about ten captainships, Chiniova. It contains about 3000 or 4000 innot including the mountains of Cape Matapan, habitants, who are pirates; they have a bishop, inhabited by a people hitherto unconquered, thé 'and a few papas. Below the modern houses are Cacovouniotes.' They are brigands by choice found some of the foundations of that ancient and by necessity; in the bays, near which their city mentioned by Homer, and of which Paucabins and hamlets are built
, they watch till sanias describes the monuments; among others some shipwrecked vessel is driven by the tem- the temple of Serapis. Leuctra is only a mean pests on their shores. Wo to the men that are village; and at Cape Gros there are some ruins cast on these barbarous coasts! they are pillaged, which indicate the situation of the ancient and even massacred, without mercy, by these Cænapolis. ferocious mountaineers, who rejoice in their mis The manners of the Maïniotes are very similar fortunes. They are, however, very strict in ob- in all these districts ; they have the same warlike serving their fasts; and believe, that they would character, and manifest the same hospitality be much more culpable in eating meat on a fast towards those who put themselves under their day, than in putting to death an unfortunate tra- protection. We will add a few words on the veller! At Marathonisi, a port on the gulf of Ko- customs practised by them at marriages and lakyna, resides the bach-bagon of the Maïniotes; funerals. A Maïniote never sees a young woman this is the chief place in the Magne; it is only a in private before his marriage; these people do small town, divided into narrow streets, and not understand jesting upon matters of this kind. built at the foot of a mountain near the sea. A chief told an English traveller, that a German The market-place, which is in front of the church, musician, who had been in the country, took a is the only paved place; the houses are built fancy one day to make a declaration of love to partly of wood and partly of brick, of one story one of their females, when she drew out a pistol in height. The captain resides on a height near and shot him dead on the spot. A young man, the town; and a few arms and straw mats form who was betrothed to a damsel, but too impahis whole furniture. There are some gardens, tient to wait for the wedding day, to speak to her and the sides of the mountains are shaded with whom he loved, took the opportunity of her pines and chestnut trees; but the Maïniotes are going out of her house, to attempt to converse a better soldiers than husbandmen: with the excep- moment with her. The young woman was near tion of fish, which their coasts supply in abun- a rock, and, conceiving herself dishonored by dance, they draw all their provisions from the this attempted conversation before marriage, she islands. The port of Marathonisi is large, but preferred Äying from her lover, and casting hernot one of the safest. Near the coast there are self headlong from the precipice;
and the some antiquities
of Roman construction, which man threw himself after her. The marriage is the Greeks call Paleopolis. The ancient Gythium celebrated with discharges of musquetry, and must have stood somewhere to the north of the great festivals ; dried fruits are thrown out of the
window to the passengers; and, after eight days, mulberry trees, vines, grain, fruits, and cotton, the married couple return to the church, and the abound in every island, and little labor and care young husband receives his wife's dowry. The are necessary to obtain a harvest more than equal bridegroom's dress consists of a garment, made to the consumption. The sea also furnishes of a brilliant colored stuff, with broidered seams, abundance of fish, and offers to the inhabitants red drawers, with a tuft of silk, and very wide of these islands most important advantages in pantaloons. The women, like the men, wear no regard to navigation. By crossing the Mediterstockings; they cover themselves with a fringed ranean they can reach the continents of Europe, veil, a silk cap, a robe without sleeves, and a Asia, and Africa, and would become factors to scarlet tunic with very wide sleeves. On the all the commercial states of these three parts of death of a Maïniote, the corpse is exposed in the the world, if they did but unite with their natuhouse with the face uncovered, the women utter ral vivacity of mind, and habitual seafaring life, lamentable cries, and accompany it, as well as a genius for extensive speculations; or if liberty the men, to its last home. As no fire is lighted had completed their civilisation and enabled in the house of the deceased, the relations and them to enter into a community of views and friends bring their food ready prepared, and eat enterprises with the maritime aations of Europe. it with the afflicted family, but, strict to their Formerly every island had its king; the Greeks rules of subordination, the men never suffer the of the Peloponnesus and of Great Greece subwomen to approach the table, till they are satis- dued the greater part of these islands; but, since fied. Except in families of the first rank, the the fall of the Greek empire, the Archipelago women hold a very low station among them, has always enjoyed some degree of liberty : the and are burdened with the most laborious avo Venetians, the Genoese, and other European cations, both in the house and in the field. They powers have made some conquests in it; and have often, however, fought, as if they had been the Turks have taken possession of all the islands: equals with the men, and not their slaves. Their but it would cost them too much to attend to the common costume consists of a cotton petticoat, government of each individual island, and, with a broad red or white border, an under despots as they are, they have been obliged to waistcoat, and a little red cap, with a handker leave to some of them a kind of liberty and inchief rolled round it. The rich females adorn dependence, which has eminently favored the themselves with rings of gold and silver.
development of the natural genius of the Greeks. IV. The third and last grand division of Greece There exists in the Archipelago so great a variety is the ARCHIPELAGO, consisting of a number of of temperature, of appearances, of soil, of manislands, included between the thirty-fifth and ners, and of customs, that it would be very difficult forty-first degree of north latitude, and the to give a general view of them, and every island twentieth and twenty-sixth degree of east longi- seems to need a particular description. tude; lying scattered over the sea between the Nearest to the Peloponnesus is Hydra, pretwo Greek peninsulas on the one side, and the senting the pleasing spectacle of a vigorous pocoast of Natolia or Asia Minor on the other. pulation, creating riches for itself from a narrow On this part our present limits will not permit us and barren territory, and having a considerable to say much; nor is it very necessary since some degree of naval power and enterprise. It has of these islands have been already described several little islands surrounding it, among which under their respective articles, and others will is Spezzia, having, next to Hydra, the most occupy a place in the succeeding pages of this powerful navy in the Archipelago. At the work. We can only, therefore, specify the prin- entrance of the Archipelago, south of the gulf cipal islands, remarking their situation and their of Colochina, is Cerigo, formerly Cythera, the most striking peculiarities, referring our readers famous island of Venus, having a rocky soil, for a more detailed account to the articles above and exposed to the rays of a burning sun. mentioned. There are about sixty of these There are here some ancient remains, but in so islands, some of them very mountainous and dilapidated a state, that it is difficult to ascertain rocky, others almost flat and covered with a good for what purpose they were designed. The soil; some well peopled and rich through indus- little island of Cerigotto, about fifteen miles try or the gifts of nature, others sterile and distant from Cerigo, to the south-east, is useful almost deserted. Fruitfulness, however, is the to it on account of the pastures it affords for its general characteristic of the Archipelago; and it flocks; it has but one house, that of the keeper, appears like a vast garden intersected by canals, whose family forms the whole population. or a labyrinth of verdant islands scattered over Milo, anciently Melos, situated at a greater disan immense lake of a light bluish color. Some tance to the north-east, with its surrounding little of them have been overwhelmed by volcanic islands, especially Antimilo, Policandro, or Phofires ; but vegetation, far from being annihilated, lyandros, and Sicinos or Sikino, bears the marks only makes its way with greater vigor through of volcanic fires, consisting of rocks of black cinders and pumice stones. The heat, which lava, and a light and porous soil of the quality would otherwise be insupportable, is tempered of pumice stone. It was formerly celebrated by delightful breezes, and the inhabitants of the for its medicinal baths, which are now situated Archipelago scarcely know what winter' means; between the town of Milo and its port. Pro not one mountain penetrates so far into the ceeding again to the south-east, we find Thera or higher regions as to become the depository of Santorin, the Callisto, or fair island of the perpetual snow; a constant spring prevails, un- ancients; it has now, however, lost its character, interrupted either by the excessive beats of sum- and is become one of the least beautiful in the mer, or by floods and hurricanes. Olive and Archipelago. It is, as it were, on a volcanic
foundation, and is very subject to terrible con- them. Nothing but the advantages of nature revulsions; yet it is the best peopled island in the main. Northward of Thermia is situated the Archipelago. These convulsions and eruptions little island of Ceas, now called Zea; it still have at different times given birth to several new enjoys a fine climate, and has excellent pasturage, islands in the neighbourhood, as Hiera or Kam- but its monuments are fallen into ruins. Another meni, Micri Kammeni, &c. At some distance of the Cyclades is Tine, or the ancient Tenos, to the north of Milo is Thermia, 'anciently lying north-east of Syra; it presents at first sight Cythnos, celebrated in antiquity for its fine pas- only barren rocks to the view of the traveller, turage. The splendor of its two cities is still but on the sides of the hills and in the plains the attested by the fragments of white marble that finest cultivation prevails, the soil being rendered are yet to be seen. It has two convents and very rich by the streams of two rivers which sixteen churches. To the south of Thermia lie water it; but unfortunately this fertility is dearly Serpho or Seriphos, and Syphnos or Syphanto, purchased by the prevalence of diseases among where Perseus is fabled to have turned the men the inhabitants, arising from the marshes around into stones. The former has a dry soil, but it con- them. Opposite to Tine, to the south-east, is ceals mines of iron and loadstone,which have never the island of Mycone, which is rocky and unbeen worked to this moment; the soil of the fruitful, and very much in want of water; so that latter is more fertile, and it is rich in mines of the inhabitants, not finding resources in the soil, gold, silver, iron, lead, and loadstone, as well as devote themselves to seafaring pursuits. Not far in a few quarries of marble. Cimolis or Argen- from Eubea, or Negropont, is situated the well tiere is a barren and volcanic island, producing watered and fertile island of Andros, containing only a little barley, wine, oil, and cotton; provi- about thirty villages, and carrying on a considersigns are very scarce. The most useful produc- able export trade to the continent of Greece. tion is a kind of talc, proceeding from the Very far to the north, in the fortieth degree of decomposition of the red porphyry, used in latitude, we meet with the island of Lemnos, of scouring wool, and exported to every part of the which Vulcan was, in ancient times, the tutelary Levant. Paros and Antiparos lie between god : it still bears on its surface the marks of Siphanto and Naxos; they are rich in quarries volcanic eruptions, though the site of the volcano, of beautiful statuary marble. The latter is in which Vulcan was fabled to have worked, is rendered remarkable for its fine grotto. To the now matter of dispute among the learned. At north-east of Paros is the little island of Icaria, some leagues distance to the west are three capes, now Nicaria, the poorest island in the Archipe- forming the extremities of so many peninsulas, lago, though formerly very fourishing, and and being part of Macedonia; the most easterly having a fine temple of Diana. Naxie, anciently of these is the famous Mount Athos, or the Holy Naxos, once the seat of the worship of Bacchus, Mountain, called by the Greeks Hagionoros; the is the queen of the Cyclades; it is celebrated for principal seat of Greek monachism. It is altothe production of enormous grapes, as large gether peopled by monks and hermits, who deas damascenes. It abounds also in grain, vote themselves to mortifications and abstinence fruits, olives, aromatic plants, and has game in of the most severe description. This country is great plenty: it is in every respect a beautiful visited by devotees from all parts of Greece. country.
The summit of Mount Athos is discerned from To the north of Paros is situated the island of a great distance, though it is by no means one of Delos, famous in ancient times for the feasts of the highest mountains in Greece, being only Apollo, frequented by all the Greeks. It has now 4278 feet above the level of the sea. A great, become a wild desert, producing hardly any trees variety of plants grow on its surface and fill the but mastichs, which grow among the ruins of interstices of the rocks, and little gardens full of ancient monuments. A narrow strait lies between olives, vines, and different sorts of fruit-trees, Delos and Rhenea, which is much more fertile adorn the neighbourhood of the hermitages. and of greater extent; but the inhabitants of Sainte Laure is the principal of these monasMycone use it only as a place of pasturage for teries, containing, it is said, with its dependent their flocks. Syra, another of the Cyclades, is on convents or hermitages, not less than 600 monks. the west of Delos; it answers pretty nearly to Proceeding again eastward we fall in with Samothe description given of it by Homer, though its trąki, anciently Samothrace, a colony of the fertility does not equal what it enjoyed in those Thracians. It is a very fertile spot, abounding times. The inbabitants live in the same simple in fine forests and charming valleys, supplying manner as formerly, and are still blessed with grain more than sufficient for the consumption of that longevity which Homer ascribes to them. the islanders, and pasturage for their goats, from There are but few ruins of the ancient city of the milk of which they make excellent cheeses. Syros, and those but of little importance. To the To the south of Samotraki is situated the island north-west is situated the little island of Gyaros, of Imbra, on which the sea has made great innow called Joura, whence, according to Pliny, roads; wheat is its principal production, and the rats drove out the inhabitants, and which the chief article of exportation. Still farther to was a place of exile under the Roman emperors. the south lies the famous island of Metelin, To the east of Naxie lies the island of Amorgo, anciently Lesbos, where the Turks have more woere formerly knowledge and industry flou- power than in any other place in the Archipelago, rished, and which furnished the Greek women and consequently the ancient monuments, which with fine and brilliantly colored tissues for their are numerous, are crumbling to dust, the inhabidress, but all that once embellished it is destroyed, tants disappear, and vegetation itself seems to and its manufactures have left no traces behind fail. Scio, anciently Chios, lies still farther to
the south; it was, before the year 1822, well accounted one of the seven wonders of the cultivated and fruitful, and its population indus- world. In the neighbourhood are several small trious, lively, and contented, had, by their inter- islands; particularly that of Castel Rosso, facourse with other nations, gained an easiness mous for its good port; and Symes celebrated of manners that rivalled the most polished for its sponge fishery. At an equal distance nations ; at that period it was devastated by the from Syria and Caramania is the large island of Turks, and the unfortunate inhabitants either Cyprus,' now called Cypre or Chypre, which cruelly slaughtered or dispersed. Its women after having been successively governed by the are remarkable for their beauty, their natural Phænicians, the Greeks, the Romans, and Venegaiety, and the liberty which they enjoy, and tians, fell into the hands of the Turks in 1572. which, according to the report of travellers, does The land is dry, and the climate unwholesome; the not diminish from the virtue of their character. plague, the despotism of the Turks, the barbarity The monks were almost as powerful as the of pirates, every thing conspires to the ruin c! Turks, being lords over not fewer than thirty- the Cypriots, and, without some remarkable two villages, nearly half the population of the change occurs, they will soon be extirpated. The island. To the west of Cape Nicole is situated wine of Cyprus is still very fine, and the island the little rocky island of Psyra, now Ipsara; the produces excellent wheat, its bread is indeed the greater proportion of the population consists of best in the east. South of the Archipelago lies mariners. Still smaller, and to the west, is the the extensive island of Candia, anciently Crete, rocky and elevated island of Anti-Ipsara, serving being nearly 200 miles long. Of all its formerly as a shelter for the port of Ipsara. To the north- splendid cities only a few ruins are visible, its west of these is the island of Skiro, or Scyros, picturesque landscapes are now deserts, and the forming the extremity of the Cyclades, and con- dominion of a foreign nation has extinguished taining only 300 Greek families, with scarcely a the genius of the people, who are now so dimidecent house within its limits. Its port, called nished in numbers as to be scarcely able to culSaint Georges, is dependent on the monastery tivate one-fourth part of the soil. Leprosy is of Saint Laure, on Mount Athos. Near the here so common, that most of the inhabitants Ionian coast lies the island of Samos, once one are infected with it, and many are obliged to of the richest and most brilliant in Greece, now separate themselves from the society of their covered with marshes, with only a few ruins to friends. We shall mention but one more island, mark the situation of its ancient temples and that of Tenedos, near the coast of the Troad, palaces. The chain of mountains, which crosses from which it received its celebrity, and, as it, is composed almost entirely of marble, and long as Troy flourished, it shared its prosperity. its natural resources are still so extensive, and It is now remarkable for its vineyards, and its so various, that the inhabitants would find abun- situation is important as overlooking the entrance dant and profitable employment, if there existed of the Dardanelles. It has but few trees, and among them any spirit of industry and enter- little verdure. The Troad, a large country on prise. To the south-west of Samos is situated the continent of Asia Minor, was in early times the little island of Patmos, the coasts of which much connected with Greece. It is opposite to are surrounded by rocks of black porphyry. On Tenedos, and contains many vestiges of its an elevated mountain is shown a grotto, where ancient splendor; but we must refer our readthe banished apostle John is said to have written ers for a full account of it, to its appropriate the Apocalypse ; at the top is a monastery with article, about fifty monks.
History. --Since the year A. C. 146, when A number of little islands are scattered about Greece became a Roman province, under the on the sea to the east of Patmos, bearing the name of Achaia, the history of this country has names of Nacri, Lipso, Agathonisi, Fermaco, been more or less mixed and identified with &c., and on the southern side are those of that of its successive conquerors. Though the Capra, Caprone, Calanc, and Lero. The charm- splendor of Constantinople, during the time of ing island of Cos lies to the south-east, the its prosperity, might have reflected some lustre native country of Hippocrates and Apelles. upon Greece, yet it gained scarcely any thing There is a number of ruins lying on the site of under the miserable emperors, who filled the the ancient city of Cos, and the vast plane throne, of which they were not worthy, for a tree is still standing, which is said to have for long time previous to its fall, and who were merly covered forty shops with its shade. The most of them hurled from it by the hand of island is yet subject to the Turks. Still farther violence. The Latins, the enemies of the Greek to the south-east is the larger island of Rhodes, emperors, seized on the Morea, and laid it waste; which has lost the importance it has at different the Sicilians and the Normans afterwards made periods assumed, but the inhabitants still retain themselves masters of part of the same penintheir love for the sea. Two-thirds of its popu. sula; a marquis of Montserrat succeeded to the lation are Turks, and there are about 1000 Jews. government of its ancient republics, and an obIts ancient cities have almost entirely disap- scure gentleman of French origin, Guy de la peared, and but few remains of its ancient Roche, became duke of Athens, while the Mesmonuments are to be seen. Every thing in senians and Arcadians were condemned to Rhodes used formerly to be gigantic, and its become the serfs of a lord, who was not even celebrated colossus, even without believing the acquainted with their language. The crusades, fable of its legs reaching from one pier to the which commenced in the eleventh century, for a other of the harbour, must have been an asto- length of time affected Greece, particularly in nishing monument, and well worthy of being some of its islands, on which several of the