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one of these fastnesses by Mr. Morritt, who travelled through the country under the protection of the captains. “The house of this captain,' says Mr. W., “consisted of two stone towers, . much like those on the borders of England and Scotland, with a range of offices and lodgings for the servants, stables and coach houses built on the sides of a court by a door in an arcade flanked with bastions. An armed man came to meet us, and spoke to our guide, who had conducted us from Myla. He went in again and told the chief, who ran to the door to receive us, accompanied by a numerous suit, all surprised at the appearance of the English strangers. We were received with great kindness, and led to a commodious room in the principal apartment of the tower, inhabited by the chief himself, the other being the residence of his niece, who bore the title of capitaness. Zanetachi Koutouphari was a man of a respectable figure, about fifty-six years old ; he had a wife and four daughters, two of them under age, occupying the floor below ours. The old chief had dined early, out, according to the rites of hospitality peculiar to this country, he sat down near us to partake our repast; his wife and daughters waiting on us with much etiquette for some time notwithstanding our remonstrances, and afterwards retiring, leaving an old servant to attend us. In the evening feather beds and mattresses were brought and spread on the floor; then sheets and pillows bordered and made of broad bands of muslin and silk of various colors, all the manufacture of the females. As the Greeks always lie in their under clothes, this sort of bed is not found inconvenient. The next day being Easter Sunday, we had an opportunity of witnessing and partaking in the general rejoicings that took place not only in the castle but in the villages round. In every house, at this season, a lamb is killed, and every one gives himself up to joy. We dined with our host and his family at half past eleven in the morning, and afterwards had a solemn audience with his niece Helen in her own apartments. She was, in fact, mistress of the castle and of the surrounding district, which she received in inheritance from her father. She was a young widow, still handsome, and with much grace and dignity in her manners; she was assisted only by her sister, and some females richly dressed. . When we entered she was sitting alone; after inviting us to sit down, she made her sister take a seat near her, and ordered her suit to serve up coffee and refreshments. The women were all very beautiful, and this is commonly the case with the females of many of the Mainiote villages; their beauty is of a most delicate kind, that we should not expect from their mannerofliving: united with the fine physiognomy of the Italians and Sicilians, the Mainiotes join a smooth skin, a fine complexion, and clear chestnut colored hair, which would seem peculiar to colder climates. The men also are well proportioned, of a middle stature, and of a rather slender constitution, but muscular. The Capitaness wore a robe of blue cachemere, broidered with gold, fastened by a girdle, and a corset of crimson velvet broidered in the same manner; over this vesture she had a Polonese robe of deep

green velvet, with large open sleeves, and looded with a rich embroidery. Her head-dress cosisted of a green velvet cap, covered with gold, and o in the form of a crown, to which was attached a white veil worked with gold, which passed over her bosom, then under her arms, and fell down her back. Her uncle was dressel in pantaloons of a bright blue color, a tight ves: with open sleeves, broidered with white and gold, a red and gold girdle containing his pistols and poniard, gaiters of blue cloth broidered with gold, plates of silver protecting the joints of the thighs, and lastly a doliman of black velvet with sleeves bound with fur. When he went out, he threw over his shoulders a rich mantle of cloth blue outside and red within, with gold borders in the front and along the sleeves. His turban was green and gold, and his gray hair hung below this head dress.—The costume of the intery classes resembles this, only the quality is different and they have no ornaments. The Mainiotes are trained to arms from their childhood, especially shooting in which to women sometimes take part; the warlike sort of the men communicates itself to the other so, so that women have more than once been on fighting with the same bravery, and displayin: the same daring, and even the same cruelty, is their husbands and their brothers. They to more liberty and kinder treatment than the Grea women of other provinces; they are not shuto as in other places, and this may be one reason: their fidelity, which the fear of the terrible vo. geance with which the Mainiotes punish adulo may also tend to preserve. In default of mak issue, the daughters inherit the patrimony is the seignories or captainships; in the villae they are devoted to rustic labor, and bear fatigo, without seeming to feel it. The Mainiotes poes the Greek religion, but make it consist merely in acts of devotion and superstition; they at . multitude of little churches, to which they doo fail to repair, after having committed acts of robbery and violence. The chapels in to mountains are all dedicated to St. Elias; and * rocks on the coast have many excavations, mir bited by hermits. They believe in charms and amulets, and adore a multitude of saints, butu this does not soften their natural barbano. When attacked on land they take refuge in to mountains, with every pass of which they are acquainted, and from thence harass and deso their enemy in detail. In the bays and creo they have a great number of long boats, capabo of containing from twelve to twenty men, with which they venture out into the open sea, who they have any hope of a booty. In these to they watch for their prey like the wild best” his den, and woe to the imprudent traveller wo in unquiet times ventures into these countre without a sufficient protection. The bravery d independent mountaineers is generally with frankness and honesty; but among Mainiotes this does not seem to exist. Accords to M. Pongueville's description they are to ous, cowardly, ferocious, greedy, and finvo We would hope, however, that this characterd” not apply to all the Mainiotes without diso It is true that for many ages the pirates of M** have been the scourge of Greece, and that the Algerine corsairs have not been worse: they carred away Turks to sell them to Christians, and Christians to sell them to Turks Families who inhabit the neighbourhood of the Magne, or the Magne itself, find it very difficult to keep beautiful children: no one was sure even of his neighbour. La Guilletière relates the history of two Mainiote pirates who had often committed depredations together, but at last disputed as to the division of some booty. Animated with resentment Theodore carried away the wife of his old neighbour and associate Anapliottis, and took her to the vessel of a Maltese corsair, stationed in the road between Maina and Vitulo, in order to sell her. The Maltese, after having looked at the woman, refused to give him the price he asked, telling him that he had bought two hours before for half the sum a much more beautiful woman, and in order that the Mainiote might Judge for himself he sent for her. What were the surprise and rage of Theodore when he saw his own wife, whom his neighbour Anapliottis had already sold: he was less anxious to recover his own wife than to sell his enemy's, and therefore yielded his prey at the price which the Maltese chose to give him. In the mean time Anapliottis, hearing that his wife had been taken to the corsair,

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cutting his throat joined with him in forcing the Maltese to restore their wives: the two rascals were then reconciled and continued their occupation together. The Magne contains about ten captainships, not including the mountains of Cape Matapan, inhabited by a people hitherto unconquered, the Cacovouniotes. They are brigands by choice and by necessity; in the bays, near which their cabins and hamlets are built, they watch till some shipwrecked vessel is driven by the tempests on their shores. Wo to the men that are cast on these barbarous coasts' they are pillaged, and even massacred, without mercy, by these ferocious mountaineers, who rejoice in their misfortunes. They are, however, very strict in observing their fasts; and believe, that they would be much more culpable in eating meat on a fast day, than in putting to death an unfortunate traveller! At Marathonisi, a port on the gulf of Kolakyna, resides the bach-bagon of the Mainiotes; this is the chief place in the Magne; it is only a small town, divided into narrow streets, and built at the foot of a mountain near the sea. The market-place, which is in front of the church, is the only paved place; the houses are built artly of wood and partly of brick, of one story in height. The captain resides on a height near the town; and a few arms and straw mats form his whole furniture. There are some gardens, and the sides of the mountains are shaded with

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present city. A rivulet of salt-water issues from the rocks, which perhaps might have been the ancient fountain of Æsculapius. The ruins of some baths are still visible, and some fragments of marble have been sometimes dug out of the earth. Coutouphari, the residence of another captain, is a village built among mountains covered with oaks; Platza and Scardamoula have also their captains; that of Platza has his tower near the rocks of Pephnos, on which a town of that name formerly stood; the thick walls of this tower, and the barrels of gunpowder ranged on the platform, put his residence into a respectable state of defence. In these captainships, the people are so little accustomed to see strangers, that they run from afar, when a European, under the protection of their chiefs, passes through their villages. Scardamoula, the capital of Androvistas, is only a little village, with three or four towers, inhabited by chiefs. On a rock near, which has been rent by an earthquake, are some vestiges of the ancient acropolis of the city of Cardamila, and the remains of some sepulchres cut in the rock below. At the village of Armyros, to which vessels retire during the winter, there is a plentiful spring, which turns several mills, and which, they say, swells as often as the wind is in the north, and subsides when it is in the opposite quarter; they suppose that it has a communication with some cavern on the coast, where the waters are agitated by the wind. Vitulo, the ancient Hotilus, is built on the sea shore, on some rocks, bordering a deep and narrow bay, called Chiniova. It contains about 3000 or 4000 inhabitants, who are pirates; they have a bishop, and a few papas. Below the modern houses are found some of the foundations of that ancient city mentioned by Homer, and of which Pausanias describes the monuments; among others the temple of Serapis. Leuctra is only a mean village; and at Cape Gros there are some ruins which indicate the situation of the ancient Coenapolis. The manners of the Mainiotes are very similar in all these districts; they have the same warlike character, and manifest the same hospitality towards those who put themselves under their protection. We will add a few words on the customs practised by them at marriages and funerals. A Mainiote never sees a young woman in private before his marriage; these people do not understand jesting upon matters of this kind. A chief told an English traveller, that a German musician, who had been in the country, took a fancy one day to make a declaration of love to one of their females, when she drew out a pistol and shot him dead on the spot. A young man, who was betrothed to a damsel, but too impatient to wait for the wedding day, to speak to her whom he loved, took the opportunity of her going out of her house, to attempt to converse a moment with her. The young woman was near a rock, and, conceiving herself dishonored by , this attempted conversation before marriage, she preferred flying from her lover, and casting herself headlong from the precipice; and the young man threw himself after her. The marriage is celebrated with discharges of musquetry, and great festivals; dried fruits are thrown out of the window to the passengers; and, after eight days, the married couple return to the church, and the {. husband receives his wife's dowry. The ridegroom's dress consists of a garment, made of a brilliant colored stuff, with broidered seams, red drawers, with a tuft of silk, and very wide pantaloons. The women, like the men, wear no stockings; they cover themselves with a fringed veil, a silk cap, a robe without sleeves, and a scarlet tunic with very wide sleeves. On the death of a Mainiote, the corpse is exposed in the house with the face uncovered, the women utter lamentable cries, and accompany it, as well as the men, to its last home. As no fire is lighted in the house of the deceased, the relations and friends bring their food ready prepared, and eat it with the afflicted family; but, strict to their rules of subordination, the men never suffer the women to approach the table, till they are satisfied. Except in families of the first rank, the women jo a very low station among them, and are burdened with the most laborious avocations, both in the house and in the field. They have often, however, fought, as if they had been equals with the men, and not their slaves. Their common costume consists of a cotton petticoat, with a broad red or white border, an under waistcoat, and a little red cap, with a handkerchief rolled round it. The rich females adorn themselves with rings of gold and silver. IV. The third and last grand division of Greece is the ARchipelago, consisting of a number of islands, included between the thirty-fifth and forty-first degree of north latitude, and the twentieth and twenty-sixth degree of east longitude; lying scattered over the sea between the two Greek peninsulas on the one side, and the coast of Natolia or Asia Minor on the other. On this part our present limits will not permit us to say much; nor is it very necessary since some of these islands have been already described under their respective articles, and others will occupy a place in the succeeding pages of this work. We can only, therefore, specify the principal islands, remarking their situation and their most striking peculiarities, referring our readers for a more detailed account to the articles above mentioned. There are about sixty of these islands, some of them very mountainous and rocky, others almost flat .covered with a good soil; some well peopled and rich through industry or the gifts of nature, others sterile and almost deserted. Fruitfulness, however, is the general characteristic of the Archipelago; and it appears like a vast garden intersected by canals, or a labyrinth of verdant islands scattered over an immense lake of a light bluish color. Some of them have been overwhelmed by volcanic fires; but vegetation, far from being annihilated, only makes its way with greater vigor through cinders and pumice stones. The heat, which would otherwise be insupportable, is tempered by delightful breezes, and the inhabitants of the Archipelago scarcely know what winter means; not one mountain penetrates so far into the higher regions as to become the depository of perpetual snow; a constant spring prevails, uninterrupted either by the excessive heats of summer, or by floods and hurricanes. Olive and


mulberry trees, vines, grain, fruits, and cotto, abound in every island, and little labor and cut are necessary to obtain a harvestmore than equil to the consumption. The sea also furnises abundance of fish, and offers to the inhabitants of these islands most important advantages in regard to navigation. By crossing the Medite: ranean they can reach the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and would become factors to all the commercial states of these three parts of the world, if they did but unite with their * ral vivacity of mind, and habitual seafaring life, a genius for extensive speculations; or is ho had completed their civilisation and enable them to enter into a community of views in enterprises with the maritime aations of Euro Formerly every island had its king; the Greo of the Peloponnesus and of Great Greece sodued the greater part of these islands; but, since the fall of the Greek empire, the Archipelo has always enjoyed some degree of libery: * Venetians, the Genoese, and other Europe: powers have made some conquests in it; and the Turks have taken possession of all the sank but it would cost them too much to attend ot. government of each individual island, ani despots as they are, they have been obligo." leave to some of them a kind of liberty and to dependence, which has eminently facto to: development of the natural genius of the G* There exists in the Archipelago so great a yan" of temperature, of appearances, of soil, of no ners, and of customs, that it would be very dio to give a general view of them, and ever, a seems to need a particular description. Nearest to the Peloponnesus is Hydro, so senting the pleasing spectacle of a vigorous P. pulation, creating riches for itself from a him." and barren territory, and having a consid:” degree of naval power and enterprise. Fo several little islands surrounding it, among whi: is Spezzia, having, next to Hydra, the to powerful navy in the Archipelago. . At * entrance of the Archipelago, south of the so of Colochina, is Cerigo, formerly Cyther." famous island of Venus, having a rocky and exposed to the rays of a burning * There are here some ancient remains, but in " dilapidated a state, that it is difficult to * for what purpose they were designed little island of Cerigotto, about fifteen rol distant from Cerigo, to the south-east, is to to it on account of the pastures it affords** flocks; it has but one house, that of the koo whose family forms the whole popula”. Milo, anciently Melos, situated at a greate.” tance to the north-east, with its surrounding: islands, especially Antimilo, Policandro o lyandros, and Sicinos or Sikino, bears theo of volcanic fires, consisting of rocks of * lava, and a light and porous soil of the to of pumice stone. It was formerly celo for its medicinal baths, which are now st". between the town of Milo and its post o ceeding again to the south-east, we find To Santorin, the Callisto, or fair island. * * ancients; it has now, however, lost its to and is become one of the least beautiful** Archipelago. It is, as it were, on a * foundation, and is very subject to terrible convulsions; yet it is the best peopled island in the Archipelago. These convulsions and eruptions have at different times given birth to several new islands in the neighbourhood, as Hiera or Kammeni, Micri Kammeni, &c. At some distance to the north of Milo is Thermia, 'anciently Cythnos, celebrated in antiquity for its fine pasturage. The splendor of its two cities is still attested by the fragments of white marble that are yet to be seen. It has two convents and sixteen churches. To the south of Thermia lie Serpho or Seriphos, and Syphnos or Syphanto, where Perseus is fabled to have turned the men into stones. The former has a dry soil, but it conceals mines of iron and loadstone,which have never been worked to this moment; the soil of the latter is more fertile, and it is rich in mines of gold, silver, iron, lead, and loadstone, as well as in a few quarries of marble. Cimolis or Argentiere is a barren and volcanic island, producing only a little barley, wine, oil, and cotton; provisions are very scarce. The most useful production is a kind of talc, proceeding from the decomposition of the red porphyry, used in scouring wool, and exported to every part of the Levant. Paros and Antiparos lie between Siphanto and Naxos; they are rich in quarries of beautiful statuary marble. The latter is rendered remarkable for its fine grotto. To the north-east of Paros is the little island of Icaria, now Nicaria, the poorest island in the Archipelago, though formerly very flourishing, and having a fine temple of Diana. Naxie, anciently Naxos, once the seat of the worship of Bacchus, is the queen of the Cyclades; it is celebrated for the production of enormous grapes, as large as damascenes. It abounds also in grain, fruits, olives, aromatic plants, and has game in great plenty: it is in every respect a beautiful country. To the north of Paros is situated the island of Delos, famous in ancient times for the feasts of Apollo, frequented by all the Greeks. It has now become a wild desert, producing hardly any trees but mastichs, which grow among the ruins of ancient monuments. A narrow strait lies between Delos and Rhenea, which is much more fertile and of greater extent; but the inhabitants of Mycone use it only as a place of pasturage for their flocks. Syra, another of the Cyclades, is on the west of Delos; it answers pretty nearly to the description given of it by Homer, though its fertility does not equal what it enjoyed in those times. The inhabitants live in the same simple manner as formerly, and are still blessed with that longevity which Homer ascribes to them. There are but few ruins of the ancient city of Syros, and those but of little importance. To the north-west is situated the little island of Gyaros, now called Joura, whence, according to Pliny, the rats drove out the inhabitants, and which was a place of exile under the Roman emperors. To the east of Naxie lies the island of Amorgo, wnere formerly knowledge and industry flourished, and which furnished the Greek women with fine and brilliantly colored tissues for their dress, but all that once embellished it is destroyed, and its manufactures have left no traces behind

them. Nothing but the advantages of nature remain. Northward of Thermia is situated the little island of Ceas, now called Zea; it still enjoys a fine climate, and has excellent pasturage, but its monuments are fallen into ruins. Another of the Cyclades is Tine, or the ancient Tenos, lying north-east of Syra; it presents at first sight only barren rocks to the view of the traveller, but on the sides of the hills and in the plains the finest cultivation prevails, the soil being rendered very rich by the streams of two rivers which water it; but unfortunately this fertility is dearly purchased by the prevalence of diseases among the inhabitants, arising from the marshes around them. Opposite to Tine, to the south-east, is the island of Mycone, which is rocky and unfruitful, and very much in want of water; so that the inhabitants, not finding resources in the soil, devote themselves to seafaring pursuits. Not far from Euboea, or Negropont, is situated the well watered and fertile island of Andros, containing about thirty villages, and carrying on a considerable export trade to the continent of Greece. Very far to the north, in the fortieth degree of latitude, we meet with the island of Lemnos, of which Vulcan was, in ancient times, the tutelary god : it still bears on its surface the marks of volcanic eruptions, though the site of the volcano, in which Vulcan was fabled to have worked, is now matter of dispute among the learned. At some leagues distance to the west are three capes, forming the extremities of so many peninsulas, and being part of Macedonia; the most easterly of these is the famous Mount Athos, or the Holy Mountain, called by the Greeks Hagionoros; the principal seat of Greek monachism. It is altogether peopled by monks and hermits, who devote themselves to mortifications and abstinence of the most severe description. This country is visited by devotees from all parts of Greece. The summit of Mount Athos is discerned from a great distance, though it is by no means one of the highest mountains in Greece, being only 4278 feet above the level of the sea. A great variety of plants grow on its surface and fill the interstices of the rocks, and little gardens full of olives, vines, and different sorts of fruit-trees, adorn the neighbourhood of the hermitages. Sainte Laure is the principal of these monasteries, containing, it is said, with its dependent convents or hermitages, not less than 600 monks. Proceeding again eastward we fall in with Samotraki, anciently Samothrace, a colony of the Thracians. It is a very fertile spot, abounding in fine forests and charming valleys, supplying grain more than sufficient for the consumption of the islanders, and pasturage for their goats, from the milk of which they make excellent cheeses. To the south of Samotraki is situated the island of Imbra, on which the sea has made great inroads; wheat is its principal production, and the chief article of exportation. Still farther to the south lies the famous island of Metelin, anciently Lesbos, where the Turks, have more power than in any other place in the Archipelago, and consequently the ancient monuments, which are numerous, are crumbling to dust, the inhabitants disappear, and vegetation itself seems to fail. Scio, anciently Chios, lies still farther to


the south; it was, before the year 1822, well cultivated and fruitful, and its population industrious, lively, and contented, had, by their intercourse with other nations, gained an easiness of manners that rivalled the most polished nations; at that period it was devastated by the Turks, and the unfortunate inhabitants either cruelly slaughtered or dispersed. Its women are remarkable for their beauty, their natural gaiety, and the liberty which they enjoy, and which, according to the report of travellers, does not diminish from the virtue of their character. The monks were almost as powerful as the Turks, being lords over not fewer than thirtytwo villages, nearly half the population of the island. To the west of Cape Nicole is situated the little rocky island of Psyra, now Ipsara; the greater proportion of the population consists of mariners. Still smaller, and to the west, is the rocky and elevated island of Anti-Ipsara, serving as a shelter for the port of Ipsara. To the northwest of these is the island of Skiro, or Scyros, forming the extremity of the Cyclades, and containing only 300 Greek families, with scarcely a decent house within its limits. Its port, called Saint Georges, is dependent on the monastery of Saint Laure, on Mount Athos. Near the Ionian coast lies the island of Samos, once one of the richest and most brilliant in Greece, now covered with marshes, with only a few ruins to mark the situation of its ancient temples and palaces. The chain of mountains, which crosses it, is composed almost entirely of marble, and its natural resources are still so extensive, and so various, that the inhabitants would find abundant and profitable employment, if there existed among them any spirit of industry and enterprise. To the south-west of Samos is situated the little island of Patmos, the coasts of which are surrounded by rocks of black porphyry. On an elevated mountain is shown a grotto, where the banished apostle John is said to have written the Apocalypse; at the top is a monastery with about fifty monks. A number of little islands are scattered about on the sea to the east of Patmos, bearing the names of Nacri, Lipso, Agathonisi, Fermaco, &c., and on the southern side are those of Capra, o Calanc, and Lero. The charming island of Cos lies to the south-east, the native country of Hippocrates and Apelles. There is a number of ruins lying on the site of the ancient city of Cos, and the vast plane tree is still standing, which is said to have formerly covered forty shops with its shade. The island is yet subject to the Turks. Still farther to the south-east is the larger island of Rhodes, which has lost the importance it has at different periods assumed, but the inhabitants still retain their love for the sea. Two-thirds of its population are Turks, and there are about 1000 Jews. Its ancient cities have almost entirely disappeared, and but few remains of its ancient monuments are to be seen. Every thing in Rhodes used formerly to be gigantic, and its celebrated colossus, even without believing the fable of its legs reaching from one pier to the other of the harbour, must have been an astonishing monument, and well worthy of being

accounted one of the seven wonders of the world. In the neighbourhood are several small islands; particularly that of Castel Rosso, i. mous for its good port; and Symes celebrate for its sponge fishery. At an equal disax: from Syria and Caramania is the large island of Cyprus, now called Cypre or Chypre, who after having been successively governed by the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Romans, and Venetians, fell into the hands of the Turks in 157. The land is dry, and the climate unwholesome; to plague, the despotism of the Turks, the battam, of pirates, every thing conspires to the mino the Cypriots, and, without some remako change occurs, they will soon be extirpated. To wine of Cyprus is still very fine, and the island produces excellent wheat, its bread is indeed to best in the east. South of the Archipelago is the extensive island of Candia, anciently C*. being nearly 200 miles long. Of all its someo splendid cities only a few ruins are visible, a picturesque landscapes are now deserts, and to dominion of a foreign nation has extinguiso the genius of the people, who are now so din; nished in numbers as to be scarcely able to cotivate one-fourth part of the soil. Lepro 5 here so common, that most of the inhabits are infected with it, and many are oblood" separate themselves from the society of to friends. We shall mention but one more sis. that of Tenedos, near the coast of the Toi from which it received its celebrity, and * long as Troy flourished, it shared its prospo It is now remarkable for its vineyards, ords situation is important as overlooking the entro of the Dardanelles. It has but few trees, ro little verdure. The Troad, a large counts a the continent of Asia Minor, was in early time much connected with Greece. It is oppos." Tenedos, and contains many vestiges of * ancient splendor; but we must refer out ok ers for a full account of it, to its approarticle. History.—Since the year A. C. 146, * Greece became a Roman province, under name of Achaia, the history of this count o been more or less mixed and identified that of its successive conquerors. Though * splendor of Constantinople, during the to its prosperity, might have reflected some to upon Greece, yet it gained scarcely any to under the miserable emperors, who filled to throne, of which they were not worthy, to long time previous to its fall, and who ". most of them hurled from it by the ho violence. The Latins, the enemies of the to emperors, seized on the Morea, and laid it”. the Sicilians and the Normans afterwards themselves masters of part of the same * sula; a marquis of Montserrat succeeded to government of its ancient republics, and in * scure gentleman of French origin, Guy ..." Roche, became duke of Athens, while to * senians and Arcadians were condemo' " become the serfs of a lord, who was not * acquainted with their language. The cro which commenced in the eleventh century.” length of time affected Greece, particulo some of its islands, on which several * to

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