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leaders in those mad enterprises settled ; but it the Turks, who carried off a great multitude of was not at all probable, that the semi-barbarous the inhabitants into slavery. It is confidently customs of the feudal system, which they brought stated by Eton, in his Survey, that a deliberate with them, would confer any real benefit upon proposal was made in the divan, to exterminate the people, or re-kindle the torch of science, all the Christians in the Morea, innocent or which was nearly extinguished. The same re- guilty, of whatever sex or age, and that this marks will hold good with regard to the knights blood-thirsty design was only stopped by the templars, and the knights of St. John, who observation, that in case of a general massacre about the same time exercised an influence over the Ottoman Porte would lose the benefit of the some parts of this country; the blind devotees karatch or capitation tax, which they paid. The themselves of a senseless and degrading super- Albanians conducted themselves with so much stition, they were not likely to improve the man- cruelty, that at length the Turks were obliged to ners, or advance the real prosperity of those whom reduce them to a state of peace by force of arms. they governed ; and these falsely called Christian The brave Lambro, a native of Thebes, who had heroes of the middle ages only prepared the way the courage to keep the sea against the power of for the more desolating and despotic sway of the the Turkish fleet, was proscribed, and compelled Turks.
to wander from one country to another, as a Under the barbarous yoke of the Mussulman miserable exile. Notwithstanding the diminution power, Greece has continued with very short of the population, and the increased distress intermissions, until in modern times it has begun which prevailed in the Morea, the karatch was to assert its claims to independence, and to com- estimated in 1780 at 56,670 notes from three to mence that struggle for liberty which, whatever eleven piastres each for the whole peninsula, may be its termination, entitles it to the sympa- with the exception of the Magne; and this large thy of every real friend of man. Towards the sum did not exempt them from the payment of end of the seventeenth century the Venetians the tenths, the customs, the taxes on wine, as invaded the country, took Athens, and extended well as the dues attached to the ancient feudal their power over a great part of the continent and lands. The rise of Ali Pacha,' says Mr. Blasome of the islands; but, republicans as they were, quiere,' not long after the peace of Kaimardgi, they treated in the most despotic manner the rendered the situation of the Greeks more hopeserfs of the Morea: still, as they wished to rea- less than ever; the enterprising and ferocious lise some advantage from their conquest, they spirit of this chief had enabled him to extinguish encouraged the people to cultivate agriculture. the last remains of Christian freedom in Epirus, It is to then that they owe the numerous plan- and his vicinity to the Morea gave him the power tations of olives, the remains of which are still at all times of pouring in any number of those found in the woods : some historians assure us, barbarous hordes, to whom it had recently been they contived to manage this country so well, given up: and, in order to render such an opethat they realised a revenue of 300,000 crowns; ration still more easy, all the approaches and they rebuilt several ancient fortresses, and were passes were occupied by Albanians devoted to very anxious to keep a conquest which they his interests.' judged necessary to secure their dominion in the Notwithstanding the persecutions which folArchipelago. But Venice experienced changes lowed the fruitless struggle of the Greeks, in in her turn; she lost one possession after ano 1770, the spirit of the people was not yet broken, ther, and at last, at the beginning of the eigh- nor their anxiety to shake off the insupportable teenth century, the Morea was wrested from her yoke, under which they groaned, at all dimiafter the loss of Candia.
nished. For a while, however, they applied Again the Turks became masters of the penin- themselves to trade, and to the acquisition of sula, made the inhabitants feel the weight of useful knowledge, judging this the best mode of their iron sceptre, and imposed the karatch, or ultimately securing the object of their wishes. capitation tax, as a price at which they consented The French revolution, which took place in 1789, to spare the lives of the vanquished. The inter- was very favorable to their interests in this reference of Christian powers, however, especially spect, by bringing them into relation with the of Russia in the year 1770, only' tended to in- more civilised western nations, and opening crease the miseries and aggravate the bondage of a wider field for their commercial speculatious. the unhappy Greeks. Peter the Great had, there No people ever manifested sn much cnthusiasm is no doubt, laid the foundation of a plan for as in the pursuit of knowledge as the Greeks have sisting them, and driving their oppressors out of done for thirty years past, and a wonderful Europe; and the empress Catherine, following change has been the consequence. It is worthy up the views of her great predecessor, sent a of record,' adds Mr. Blaquiere,' that not more fleet of twenty sail of the line, towards the close than half a century las elapsed since there was of the year 1769, which took possession of sevee but one possessor of a map among the Fanariot ral islands, attacked the Turkish fleet, and finally Greeks, who from their residence in the capital, succeeded in destroying it. The call to the Greeks and admission to the highest political employon this occasion to arm themselves, and shake off ments, might have been considered much more the yoke, was instantly obeyed, and an insurrec- enlightened than the rest of their countrymen. tion took place throughout the Morea, and in Yet, before the recent explosion, there was many of the islands of the Archipelago. The scarcely an individual in this class, who had not Russian fleet, however, was re-called, and the experienced the benefit of a liberal education, poor Greeks abandoned to their fate. The Al- while many were distinguished for their varied banians ravaged the country in conjunction with and extensive erudition; even the young ladies Vol. X.
of the Fanar joined the study of Homer and waited in vain, in the midst of the great events, Thucydides to that of modern languages and which in several respects have changed the whole music. There have been numerous examples, face of Europe in this century, the Greeks, both at Constantinople and in other places, of taking counsel only of their despair, and indigvouths denying themselves the necessaries of nant at living always as Helots on the ruins of life, that they might be able to attend the schools.' Sparta and of Athens, when nations trut of yes
In general the Turks did not oppose any im- terday were recovering their rights and recogpediments to this ardor, or to the progress of nising their social relations, rose against their knowledge that was making such rapid advances; despotic and cruel masters, perhaps with greater though individual instances of arbitrary conduct boldness than prudence. were sometimes too frequent. It is said, for in- The first decided movement in these later stance, that the Turkish commandant of Dara, a times took place in the year 1800, when the Servillage in the Morea, happening to pass the vians, provoked by the cruelty of their oppressors school, while pupils were taking their lessons, the Turks, made a general insurrection, which had the didascalos or master dragged out and was headed by their famous chief Czerni George, bastinadoed, and it was then dangerous to com- who had served as a serjeant in the Austrian plain. The most flourishing Greek academy, service, and afterwards became a bandit cbief. was that at Scio, attended by several hundreds of He was possessed of much energy of character students, and furnished with books, chemical and bravery; but he was extremely despotic, apparatus, and astronomical instruments. The and is said to have murdered his father, and colleges of Joannina, Athens, Bucharest, Aivali, caused one of his brothers to be hanged. Under and Cydonia, were also eminent; but they have him the Servians obtained several victories. He been destroyed in the political struggle.
blockaded Belgrade; and, one of the gates being Close to the eastern shore of the Peloponnesus surrendered to him, he made his entry into the lie the islands or rather barren rocks of Hydra city and slaughtered all the Turks that were and Spezzia, and near Scio is situated that of found in it. At this time the affairs of the Porte Ipsara. Furnished by nature with commodious were in great disorder; it had but just termihavens, these islands afforded a refuge to some nated its war with France, and the efforts, by Albanian families, who were driven out of their which it had been endeavouring to reduce Pasown country by tyranny and want, and who, savend Oglou, pacha of Widden, had failed and settling on them, built villages, and applied ended in disgrace. At home the Janissaries themselves to fishing. By degrees a coasting were ever dissatisfied, and Roumelia was in a trade was opened to them, and their commerce state of disturbance. The divan, however, exextended, till they were at length able to pur- erted themselves to quell the Servians, and they ehase the right of governing themselves, paying were aided by the Bosnians, in consequence of a tribute, and annually furnishing the Porte with which many sanguinary combats took place. a number of sailors. Thus, at liberty to pur- Relying, however, on the promises of the Russians, chase the dictates of their own active minds, and receiving pecuniary succors from Ipsilanti, they became some of the most hardy and skilful the hospodar of Walachia, the insurgents conseamen of Europe, the number and size of their tinued the contest, taking refuge in the heights vessels increased, and they were soon the car when their enemies were too powerfu. for them, riers of the productions of Russia and Asia to and, when these were obliged to retire into windifferent ports in the Mediterranean. As they ter-quarters, issuing from their fastnesses and were much exposed on these voyages, especially marking their progress through the surrounding to the attacks of the Barbary pirates, it was country, by spreading devastation in every dinecessary to have their vessels armed, and the rection. In the mean time Russia openly detransition was easy to the formation of a fleet clared against the Porte in 1807, and carried on for warlike purposes. Their wealth increased, the war until the year 1812, when the treaty of and these islanders soon had little to wish for; Bucharest was negociated ; and thongh some but they felt the political debasement of their efforts were made to obtain a concession in favor countrymen, and in the recent struggle they have of their Servian allies, yet one difficulty after more than once boldly attacked and put to flight another being stated by the Porte, a peace was the Turkish squadrons.
at length concluded, as before, upon such terms At the time of the expedition of the French as left the insurgents to their fate. The Turks into Egypt, the Greeks, strongly excited by the in the summer of 1813 sent Chourshid Pacha events of the war, which was thus approaching with nearly 100,000 men, who over-ran the them, waited for them as liberators, with the firm country, meeting with scarcely any resistance, resolution of going to meet them and conquer- and signalised his triumphs by treacuerously ing their liberty; but again their hopes were executing many, and among the rest a number disappointed, and the succours they expected of persons who had returned to their homes, from France were removed to a distance. The under a false promise of an amnesty. It was not brave Rhigas, at once a poet and a warrior, and long, however, before the Servians took up arms the author of the famous national air in imita- again, and obtained some advantages over their tion of the Marseillois, which is to this day the enemies, and the Porte, at length wearied out, war song of the Greek troops, perished at Bel- sent a Greek bishop to conduct the negociation. grade by the hands of the oppressors of his By the treaty then made, it was agreed, that Micountry; but his blood, and that of other less losh, brother-in-law to Czerbi George, a native, celebrated chiefs, have only served to inflame should be their prince, that the sum of £100,000 the nation instead of discouraging it. Having should be paid yearly to the Turks, whose garri
sons in the fortresses of the Danube were to be ed. An attempt was also made to put Milosa limited, and that the prince should maintain a few out of the way, but he was too Wury to be taken national forces, for the regulation of the internal in the snare; he sent deputies to Constantinople, policy; stipulations decidedly evincing the real and was taking measures for defending himself, weakness of the Porte.
when the attention of the Turks was called off The period that intervened between 1815 and from him by the insurrection, which broke out in 1820 was apparently tranquil : the Ottoman the south. affairs seemed prosperous; the sultan, Mahmoud, It appears that the Hetærists had not intended hy his vigorous measures, maintained peace with to coinmence their operations before 1825, leavhis neighbours, quelled the spirit of the mutinous ing sufficient time for the arrangements they had Janissaries, suppressed several revolts in the to make; but the rupture between Ali Pacha and eastern part of the empire, drove the Wechabites the Porte, and the civil war that ensued, renderfrom Mecca, and gave more weight to the impe ed it expedient to proceed to the execution of rial firmans, than they had heretofore possessed. their design much earlier. The Albanian tyrant But, under this appearance of tranquillity, all had, until this period, kept the Greeks in awe; but, those projects were forming which have pro- the moment an attack upon himself seemed ineduced the recent concussions. The Greeks soon vitable, he called upon them to arm in his defence; hecame more open in their plots against their the Porte did the same, and some of his best oppressors, and entertained some considerable troops forsook him on this occasion ; he found hopes from the probable arrangements of the opponents also in the peasants of Mount Pindus; congress at Vienna : but that congress closed and the Souliotes, his old enemies, were brought without effecting any result favorable to the li- to the continent to act against him. The Porte, herties of Greece. This, however, did not damp however, did not fulfil its promises to those who the ardor of its friends, nor induce them to lent it their assistance, and the Greeks, in the abandon the plans they had projected. About disappointments they experienced, forgot the this time was formed the celebrated association despotic acts of their former tyrant. Ali learner of the Hetæria, the true object of which was the all these circumstances with great pleasure, and emancipation of Greece, though this design was availed himself of them. By means of his concealed under the show of distributing books money and his intrigue he soon brought over and extending the benefits of education. Almost the chiefs who had deserted him, and even all the Greeks in Europe, and men of great note, gained the Souliotes to his party by surrendering repaired to St. Petersburgh where its head-quar- to them their strong holds, with all the treasures ters were fixed, under pretence of commerce and and amaunition contained in them; so that other business, but really to obtain by means of Souliotes, mountaineers, and Klephtai were all count Capodistrias, their countryman, some im- soon engaged in harassing the Turks, and cutting mediate or early support from Russia ; and, off their communications. These again drew though he told them that at present nothing off the flower of their armed force froin Livadia could be attempted openly in their behalf, he dis- and the Peloponnesus, and left the field open in played much interest in their affairs, and gene- those quarters for the efforts of the friends of freerally dismissed them with a present from the dom. A subscription immediately commenced, emperor. In the mean time Czerni George, who and a commander-in-chief was appointed; the was then residing at Kiow, and count Galati, a choice of the Hetærists fell on Alexander Ipsilantı, native of Corfu, who was a relation of the Rus- the son of a former governor of 'Walachia, who sian secretary, having no hope of immediate aid retired and died at Kiow; he had been in the from abroad, in the year 1817 resolved upon a Russian service, and was at that time aid-deplan to begin the revolution, relying on their own camp to the emperor. Prince Cantacuzene, resources for success. The former was suddenly another Russian general, of Greek extraction, to make his appearance in Servia, and thus also volunteered, though of higher rank, to serve creating a diversion of the Turks to that quarter, under the generalissimo; and Michael Suggo, to afford Galati, Colotroni, and other patriots an hospodar of Moldavia, engaged to join them opportunity of making an effort in the south. on their reaching Yassy. A conspiracy was organHe set out in disguise on this errand, and had ised in the capital, and it was thought that on reached his destination in safety, when he was the news of the revolt the Servians would unite treacherously assassinated by his relative and with the Greeks. fermer friend Milosh, and his head sent to Con- Some of the chiefs of the Arnauts or Albanians stantinople. This event stopped, for the present, had been treated with, that they might furnish a the progress of their scheme, and Galati retirer body of forces to act under Ipsilanti; but while to Bucharest, where he died soon afterwards, the latter was making his arrangements, and and the completion of his mission devolved upon about to give the signal, another individual apother agents.
peared, influenced by private and interested The degree of independence enjoyed hy motives, to raise the standard in Walachia. Servja, was a source of disquietude to the sultan This was an adventurer named Theodore Vladiand the divan, and they seemed determined, if miresco, who had differed with the Boyards or possible, to violate it. The fortified posts on the nobles of his country, on account of some claims Daruhe were repaired, and well stocked with be pretended to have for money spent in the provisions and ammunition; their garrisons, state service: but the divan would not judge notwithstanding the treaty of 1815, were increased, the affair, till the new prince had arrived. He and fresh troops called in from all sides, profess- therefore entered the field against them, at the edly to relieve their comrades; but none return head of 300 well-armed men. The divan re
solved to call upon the pacha of the Danube for no effort, but a Greek emissary, who was sent assistance; but the entrance of these troops was among them, was discovered and hung by the opposed by the Russian consul; and the Boyards Turks. The state of his own army too was most upon this formed a body of Arnaut horse, Servians, discouraging to Ipsilanti; he wished to bring it Walachians and others, under the conduct of the into a state of discipline, and to arm it in the aga, Nicolas Vacarisco. He had scarcely, European manner; but the envy and intrigues however, proceeded a day's journey, when it was of his lieutenants defeated his intentions, and intimated to him by the troops, that he need not the soldiers were completely unmanageable. go farther, as it would be both useless and dan- There was only one corps on which he could gerous. Meetings of the divan were held daily, place any reliance, a body of Greeks, who had and more urgent representations made of the ne- been brought up in Europe, consisting mostly of cessity of calling in the Turks, as Vladimiresco students and merchants' clerks, on whom, on was rapidly approaching. In this situation of account of their patriotism, he conferred the affairs, some news from the north gave the finish. title of the Sacred Band, and who justly meing stroke to the weak government of the divan. rited the distinction. In the beginning of April Vladimiresco was not connected with the Hetæ- the Turks took the field, and, after a few skirrists; his only object was to enforce his private mishes, captured Galatz, the Greek garrison of claims, and immediately on his arrival he put which place, after making a brave but ineffectual foith a declaration, which soon brought Ipsilanti to resistance, were partly cut to pieces, and partly Yassy at the head of 200 men. Surprised at this obliged to seek refuge in right. The Turks carsudden appearance, the Moldavians were about rying fire and sword wherever they came, and to resist, but their minds were quieted by prince sparing neither age nor sex, entered Bucharest Suzzo, who publicly testified bis participation on the 10th, without meeting with any resistof Ipsilanti's measures, and withdrew his allegi- ance. Women and children were indiscrimiance from the Porte. On the 7th of March 1821 nately butchered in this neighbourhood. In one prince Alexander addressed a spirited proclama- monastery alone 300 women and children were tion to his countrymen, calling upon them to shake put to death; and the Turkish soldiers are said off the Turkish yoke, to follow the standard of by M. Blacquiere to have hung numbers of the the cross, and in conjunction with him to attempt latter by the feet on trees, along the public roads. the liberation of Greece. The Hatærists woré Vladimiresco, whose motives were altogether a vniform entirely black, in token of mourning selfish, and who was envious of Ipsilanti's having for their country, and a phænix rising from its the chief command, was tampered with by the ashes was described on their banners, as a symbol Turks, and promised the dignity of hospodar, if he of that regeneration they hoped to achieve. would give up his associates; he therefore refused
Tidings of these things soon reached Bucha- to assist the prince, who wished to risk a battle in jest, and excited great consternation; the hopes defence of Bucharest. The city was conse. of the divan appeared to rest on Brancovano, quently abandoned, and a retreat to Tergousto the Boyard, who possessed most influence in the commenced : here, having arrested the traitor, country; but in the midst of this anxiety he de- the prince had him tried, and on his being parted one morning early with his family and condemned he was immediately executed, and effects for Transylvania. The Russian and Aus- his troops united to those who served under trian consuls also left the town, and, to increase Ipsilanti. This, however, did not put a stop the confusion and distress, V'ladimiresco's troops to the disaffection and treason that prevailed fell upon the fugitives, and plundered and ille among the officers. On the 17th of June a battreated them without distinction; the women tle took place between Ipsilanti's forces and a even, some of them of high rank and beauty, Turkish division that had advanced against him ; were insulted. That chief himself took posses- for a long time the contest was obstinately mainsion of the city, and gave a loose to his disor- tained, but treachery was at work; the infamous derly forces to commit various excesses; he Karavia fled with bis Arnaut cavalry, and in bis seemed, indeed, bent on making war on his own way threw the corps of Nicolas Ipsilanti, the account, and nothing but the influence of Douka, prince's brother, into such disorder, that not all his lieutenant, who had entered into Ipsilanti's his efforts could rally his men. The troops were views, made him agree to the proposal of acting upon this seized with a panic, and, notwithstandin conjunction against the common enemy. This ing all that Alexander could do, re-crossed the was not the only mortification that the prince Oltau, and abandoned the sacred band to the experienced; he had expected the co-operation enemy. These, imbued with the spirit of their of Russia, and the reception he had met with in ancestors at Thermopylæ, preferred a glorious Moldavia in a great measure was to be attributed death to flight or dishonor, and thus nearly 400 to the expectations of this succour; but in the Greek youths perished amidst slaughtered heaps midst of these expectations, and while the Russian of their enemies, who fell around them. The hopeambassador was daily insulted in the capital, the less Ipsilanti now proceeded to Trieste to join his emperor published a manifesto, treating the brother in the Morea ; but the Austrian cabinet Greek leader as a rebel and incendiary. This arrested him, and shut him up in the castle of turned the whole tide of public opinion, and re- Mongatz in Hungary. After this the provinces duced the patriots to a state of mingled despair submitted; but two chiefs, of whom the brave and rage. 'Prince Suzzo ceased to have any in- Giorgaki was one, betook themselves to a confluence in Moldavia, and was obliged to leave vent on the Pruth, where they made a desperate the province: the plot laid in the capital was resistance. One of them died on his way to discovered and frustrated; the Servians made Constantinople, the other was beheaded. The neroic Anastasius, with his small body of 500 of count Metaxa, with a few pieces of cannon, men, continued to keep his position near the could overcome them, and one of the best conriver for three days, until half his soldiers were tested battles of the whole war took place on cut off; he then, with his brave companions, this spot. The Laliots were forced to retire plunged into the river, and was received by the from their town, which they set on fire, with the Russians on the other side. Not fewer than 4000 loss of 300 men. Skirmishes occurred contiTurks perished on this occasion.
nually, and, both by the one party and the other, The news of the revolt in Moldavia produced a number of towns and villages were barned, and in Constantinople the usual measures. All who of those that remain the greater part have been were in any degree related to, or connected with, much injured four or five different times. The the revolters were immediately massacred; and it citadel of Patras at this time had nearly been has been confidently said, that the divan resolved taken by the Greeks, but was relieved by Yusuff, on the complete destruction of the Greek pacha of Negropont, who afterwards also raised people; orders were sent to the provinces to the siege of Lala. disarm all of them, and the consequence was, About this time appeared, to aid the cause of that massacres took place at Salonica, Adriano- the Christians, that hardy mountain race the ple, Smyrna, Aivali, Rhodes, Cyprus, Candia, Maïniotes. . The whole peninsula by the middle and in every place where any plunder was to be of May, with the exception of a few fortresses, obtained.
was in the hands of the Greeks, and a new Before this revolt the secret of the Hetærists government was established consisting of archons had been confided to a few ecclesiastics, some and bishops. In the mean time the seraskier of the primates, or municipal magistrates, and a Chourshid. Pacha, who was blockading Ali select number of the klephtai in the Morea. A Pacha in the citadel of Joannina, and cutting eff set of emissaries had arisen, called apostles by his communication with the Souliotes, dismissed their employers,who went every where, spreading what forces he could spare into Greece : 2000 reports, that the sultan had determined to trans- Albanian cavalry, with his kiayah or lieutenant port all the Greeks into Asia ; that prince Alex- at their head, landed at Patras, raised the blockander, aided by Russia, was marching with a ade of the acropolis, burnt Argos, and proceeded large force to Constantinople, &c., the people to Tripolitza, where he took the command, and greedily receiving their information, and enga- began to make plundering excursions. In one ging at once in the enterprise. The inhabitants of these excursions, Nicetas, or Nikitas, the of Šedena, a large village in the north of Arca- bravest and most magnanimous of the Greek dia, first took the field. The Turks, however, had commanders, with only fifty soldiers, fell in with taken the alarm and proceeded to Tripolitza to in- nearly 3000 Turks, and three pieces of cannon ; vite the Greek bishops and primates to a confer- he kept up such a spirited fire, that he repulsed ence, detaining in confinement those who were so the enemy with great loss. Ali Bey, the second incautious as to venture into their power. A few in command, was killed by a musquet ball. were thus ensnared; but the attempt to make On the 6th of June the Greeks, commanded the people deliver up their arms was less suc- by Colocotroni, assisted by Anagnostoras and cessful; the governor of Patras, meeting with a the bey of Maïna, were attacked by the kiayah. decided refusal from the Christian inhabitants of The infidels were so confident of victory, that that place, fired upon the town from the castle, they celebrated it beforehand by Albaniar. and easily took possession of it; but the next dances; but on the rocky and uneven ground day Germanos, the archbishop, made a descent on which they had to act, they were soon thrown from the mountains with nearly 4000 peasants, into confusion, and the vigorous attack of the and obliged him to take refuge again in the Maïniotes in flank, completed the rout; 200 of citadel. A rising immediately took place them, at least, were slain. After this the Turks through every part of the peninsula, while the did not take the field again, and the Greeks standard of independence was unfurled by the had only to watch the fortresses. Taking up people of Hydra, Spezzia, and Ipsara, who with their head quarters before Tripolitza, they laid their numerous vessels began to cruise against siege to Modon, Coron, and Malvasia; Navarin the Turkish traders with the utmost celerity. was invested by 2000 Peloponnesians and a Many richly laden vessels were taken by them band of Ionians; and a body of Achaians, with at first; but, when the news of the revolt was allies from Cephalonia and Zante, blockaded spread, no merchantman would venture out into Patras. The Argolidan militia blocked up the Mediterranean. Samos and other islands Napoli di Romania, and the Corinthians and declared themselves free, and Lesbos, Rhodes, Sicyonians besieged the Acrocorinthos. The and Scio were kept in awe only by the Ottoman vessels of Hydra and Spezzia cruised along the garrisons.. In Cyprus the introduction of 10,000 coast to prevent communication, and Bibolina, Syrians prevented the rising of the people, and the heroine of Spezzia, took charge of blocking 10,000 Christians perished here without any up Napoli, with seven armed ships, her own attempt to revolt.
property, and fitted out at her expense. The Turks, astonished and affrighted, now The insurrection in the northern provinces betook themselves to their fortified places. The continued to gain ground. In Acarnania and Elis agas of Calavrita and Calamata were compelled there were very few Turkish troops, and in Phocis, to surrender; in Elis, the Mussulmans at Gas- Attica, and Bæotia, the peasants assembled, but touni and Lala had sharp contests with the nothing very worthy of notice occurred. Omer Greeks; those in the latter place gave them' Vrioni, a celebrated Albanian chief, marched to much trouble, and nothing but the appearance Athens with 700 horse; here a few Turks were