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leaders in those mad enterprises settled; but it was not at all probable, that the semi-barbarous customs of the feudal system, which they brought with them, would confer any real benefit upon the people, or re-kindle the torch of science, which was nearly extinguished. The same remarks will hold good with regard to the knights templars, and the knights of St. John, who about the same time exercised an influence over some parts of this country; the blind devotees themselves of a senseless and degrading superstition, they were not likely to improve the manners, or advance the real prosperity of those whom they governed; and these falsely called Christian heroes of the middle ages only prepared the way for the more desolating and despotic sway of the Turks. Under the barbarous yoke of the Mussulman power, Greece has continued with very short intermissions, until in modern times it has begun to assert its claims to independence, and to commence that struggle for liberty which, whatever may be its termination, entitles it to the sympathy of every real friend of man. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the Venetians invaded the country, took Athens, and extended their power over a great part of the continent and some of the islands; but, republicans as they were, they treated in the most despotic manner the serfs of the Morea: still, as they wished to realise some advantage from their conquest, they encouraged the people to cultivate agriculture. It is to then that they owe the numerous plantations of olives, the remains of which are still found in the woods: some historians assure us, they contived to manage this country so well, that they realised a revenue of 300,000 crowns; they rebuilt several ancient fortresses, and were very anxious to keep a conquest which they judged necessary to secure their dominion in the Archipelago. But Venice experienced changes in her turn; she lost one possession after another, and at last, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Morea was wrested from her after the loss of Candia. Again the Turks became masters of the peninsula, made the inhabitants feel the weight of their iron sceptre, and imposed the karatch, or capitation tax, as a price at which they consented to spare the lives of the vanquished. The interference of Christian powers, however, especially of Russia in the year 1770, only tended to increase the miseries and aggravate the bondage of the unhappy Greeks. Peter the Great had, there is no doubt, laid the foundation of a plan for assisting them, and driving their oppressors out of Europe; and the empress Catherine, following up the views of her great predecessor, sent a fleet of twenty sail of the line, towards the close of the year 1769, which took possession of several islands, attacked the Turkish fleet, and finally succeeded in destroying it. The call to the Greeks on this occasion to arm themselves, and shake off the yoke, was instantly obeyed, and an insurrection took place throughout the Morea, and in many of the islands of the Archipelago. The Russian fleet, however, was re-called, and the r Greeks abandoned to their fate. The Alnians ravaged the country in conjunction with Vol. X.

the Turks, who carried off a great multitude of the inhabitants into slavery. It is confidently stated by Eton, in his Survey, that a deliberate proposal was made in the divan, to exterminate all the Christians in the Morea, innocent or guilty, of whatever sex or age, and that this blood-thirsty design was only stopped by the observation, that in case of a general massacre the Ottoman Porte would lose the benefit of the karatch or capitation tax, which they paid. The Albanians conducted themselves with so much cruelty, that at length the Turks were obliged to reduce them to a state of peace by force of arms. The brave Lambro, a native of Thebes, who had the courage to keep the sea against the power of the Turkish fleet, was proscribed, and compelled to wander from one country to another, as a miserable exile. Notwithstanding the diminution of the population, and the increased distress which prevailed in the Morea, the karatch was estimated in 1780 at 56,670 notes from three te eleven piastres each for the whole peninsula, with the exception of the Magne; and this large sum did not exempt them from the payment of the tenths, the customs, the taxes on wine, as well as the dues attached to the ancient feudal lands. “The rise of Ali Pacha,’ says Mr. Blaquiere, not long after the peace of Kaimardgi, rendered the situation of the Greeks more hopeless than ever; the enterprising and ferocious spirit of this chief had enabled him to extinguish the last remains of Christian freedom in Epirus, and his vicinity to the Morea gave him the power at all times of pouring in any number of those barbarous hordes, to whom it had recently been given up: and, in order to render such an operation still more easy, all the approaches and É. were occupied by Albanians devoted to is interests.'

Notwithstanding the persecutions which followed the fruitless struggle of the Greeks, in 1770, the spirit of the people was not yet broken, nor their anxiety to shake off the insupportable yoke, under which they groaned, at all diminished. For a while, however, they applied themselves to trade, and to the acquisition of useful knowledge, judging this the best mode of ultimately securing the object of their wishes. The French revolution, which took place in 1789, was very favorable to their interests in this respect, by bringing them into relation with the more civilised western nations, and opening a wider field for their commercial speculatious. No people ever manifested so much enthusiasm in the pursuit of knowledge as the Greeks have done É. thirty years past, and a wonderful change has been the consequence. “It is worthy of record,' adds Mr. Blaquiere, ‘that not more than half a century has elapsed since there was but one possessor of a map among the Fanariot Greeks, who from their residence in the capital, and admission to the highest political employments, might have been considered much more enlightened than the rest of their countrymen. Yet, before the recent explosion, there , was scarcely an individual in this class, who had not experienced the benefit of a liberal education, while many were distinguished for their varied and extensive erudition; even the yo; ladies


of the Fanar joined the study of Homer and Thucydides to that of modern languages and music. There have been numerous examples, both at Constantinople and in other places, of youths denying themselves the necessaries of life, that they might be able to attend the schools.’ In general the Turks did not oppose any im{. to this ardor, or to the progress of knowledge that was making such rapid advances; though individual instances of arbitrary conduct were sometimes too frequent. It is said, for instance, that the Turkish commandant of Dara, a village in the Morea, happening to pass the school, while pupils were taking their lessons, had the didascalos or master dragged out and bastinadoed, and it was then dangerous to complain. The most flourishing Greek academy, was that at Scio, attended by several hundreds of students, and furnished with books, chemical apparatus, and astronomical instruments. The colleges of Joannina, Athens, Bucharest, Aivali, and Cydonia, were also eminent; but they have been destroyed in the political struggle. Close to the eastern shore of the Peloponnesus lie the islands or rather barren rocks of Hydra and Spezzia, and near Scio is situated that of Ipsara. Furnished by nature with commodious havens, these islands afforded a refuge to some Albanian families, who were driven out of their own country by tyranny and want, and who, settling on them, built villages, and applied themselves to fishing. By degrees a coasting trade was opened to them, and their commerce extended, till they were at length able to purchase the right of governing themselves, paying a tribute, and annually furnishing the Porte with a number of sailors. Thus, at liberty to purchase the dictates of their own active minds, they became some of the most hardy and skilful seamen of Europe, the number and size of their vessels increased, and they were soon the carriers of the productions of Russia and Asia to different ports in the Mediterranean. As they were much exposed on these voyages, especially to the attacks of the Barbary pirates, it was necessary to have their vessels armed, and the transition was easy to the formation of a fleet for warlike purposes. Their wealth increased, and these io, soon had little to wish for; but they felt the political debasement of their countrymen, and in the recent struggle they have more than once boldly attacked and put to flight the Turkish squadrons. At the time of the expedition of the French into Egypt, the Greeks, strongly excited by the events of the war, which was thus approaching them, waited for them as liberators, j the firm resolution of going to meet them and conquering their liberty; but again their hopes were disappointed, and the succours they expected from France were removed to a distance. The brave Rhigas, at once a poet and a warrior, and the author of the famous national air in imitation of the Marseillois, which is to this day the war song of the Greek troops, perished at Belgrade by the hands of the oppressors of his country; but his blood, and that of other less celebrated chiefs, have only served to inflame the nation instead of discouraging it. Having

waited in vain, in the midst of the great event, which in several respects have changed the whor face of Europe in this century, the Greeks, taking counsel only of their despair, and indig. nant at living always as Helots on the ruins of Sparta and of Athens, when nations but of yes. terday were recovering their rights and reconising their social relations, rose against their despotic and cruel masters, perhaps with goals boldness than prudence. The first decided movement in these later times took place in the year 1800, when the Ser. vians, provoked by the cruelty of their oppresses the Turks, made a general insurrection, which was headed by their famous chief Czernigeone, who had served as a serjeant in the Austmen service, and afterwards became a bandit this He was possessed of much energy of chanto and bravery; but he was extremely despctic, and is said to have murdered his father, and caused one of his brothers to be hanged. Unk: him the Servians obtained several victories. He blockaded Belgrade; and, one of the gates being surrendered to him, he made his entry into to city and slaughtered all the Turks that were found in it. At this time the affairs of the Port were in great disorder; it had but just tennated its war with France, and the efforts, of which it had been endeavouring to reduce to savend Oglou, pacha of Widden, had failed and ended in disgrace. At home the Janissans were ever dissatisfied, and Roumelia was mi state of disturbance. The divan, however, to erted themselves to quell the Servians, and to were aided by the Bosnians, in consequence # which many sanguinary combats took pho Relying, however, on the promises of the Russins and receiving pecuniary succors from Ipsilo the hospodar of Walachia, the insurgents cotinued the contest, taking refuge in the helios when their enemies were too powerfu. for to: and, when these were obliged to retire into * ter-quarters, issuing from their fastness so marking their progress through the surrounding country, by spreading devastation in even o rection. In the mean time Russia openly * clared against the Porte in 1807, and carried". the war until the year 1812, when the treaty of Bucharest was négociated; and though so efforts were made to obtain a concession info" of their Servian allies, yet one difficulty after another being stated by the Porte, a peace” at length concluded, as before, upon such to as left the insurgents to their fate. The To in the summer of 1813 sent Chourshid Pio with nearly 100,000 men, who over-ran * country, meeting with scarcely any resisto and signalised his triumphs by treactero executing many, and among the rest a num" of persons who had returned to their home. under a false promise of an amnesty. It was " long, however, before the Servians took up * again, and obtained some advantages over to: enemies, and the Porte, at length wearied " sent a Greek bishop to conduct the neonto By the treaty then made, it was agreed, that * losh, brother-in-law to Czerni George, ano. should be their prince, that the sum of floo" should be paid yearly to the Turks, whose so sons in the fortresses of the Danube were to be limited, and that the prince should maintain a few national forces, for the regulation of the internal policy; stipulations decidedly evincing the real weakness of the Porte. The period that intervened between 1815 and 1820 was apparently tranquil: the Ottoman affairs seemed prosperous; the sultan, Mahmoud, by his vigorous measures, maintained peace with his neighbours, quelled the spirit of the mutinous Janissaries, suppressed several revolts in the eastern part of the empire, drove the Wechabites from Mecca, and gave more weight to the imperial firmans, than they had heretofore possessed. But, under this appearance of tranquillity, all those projects were forming which have produced the recent concussions. The Greeks soon became more open in their plots against their oppressors, and entertained some considerable hopes from the probable arrangements of the congress at Vienna: but that congress closed without effecting any result favorable to the liberties of Greece. This, however, did not damp the ardor of its friends, nor induce them to abandon the plans they had projected. About this time was formed the celebrated association of the Hetaeria, the true object of which was the emancipation of Greece, though this design was concealed under the show of distributing books and extending the benefits of education. Almost all the Greeks in Europe, and men of great note, repaired to St. Petersburgh where its head-quarters were fixed, under pretence of commerce and other business, but really to obtain by means of count Capodistrias, their countryman, some immediate or early support from Russia; and, though he told them that at present nothing could be attempted openly in their behalf, he displayed much interest in their affairs, and generally dismissed them with a present from the emperor. In the mean time Czerni George, who was then residing at Kiow, and count Galati, a native of Corfu, who was a relation of the Russian secretary, having no hope of immediate aid from abroad, in the year 1817 resolved upon a plan to begin the revolution, relying on their own resources for success. The former was suddenly to rake his appearance in Servia, and thus creating a diversion of the Turks to that quarter, to afford Galati, Colotroni, and other patriots an opportunity of making an effort in the south. He set out in disguise on this errand, and had weached his destination in safety, when he was treacherously assassinated by his relative and fermer friend Milosh, and his head sent to Constantinople. This event stopped, for the present, the progress of their scheme, and Galati retired to Bucharest, where he died soon afterwards, and the completion of his mission devolved upon other agents. The degree of independence enjoyed by Servia, was a source of disquietude to the sultan and the divan, and they seemed determined, if F. to violate it. The fortified posts on the iuhe were repaired, and well stocked with provisions and ammunition ; their garrisons, notwithstanding the treaty of 1815, were increased, and fresh troops called in from all sides, professedly to relieve their comrades; but none return

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ed. An attempt was also made to put Milosa out of the way, but he was too wary to be taken in the snare; he sent deputies to Constantinople, and was taking measures for defending himself, when the attention of the Turks was called off from him by the insurrection, which broke out in the south. It appears that the Hetaerists had not intended to commence their operations before 1825, leaving sufficient time for the arrangements they had to make ; but the rupture between Ali Pacha and the Porte, and the civil war that ensued, rendered it expedient to proceed to the execution of their design much earlier. The Albanian tyrant

had, until this period, kept the Greeks in awe; but,

the moment an attack upon himself seemed inevitable, he called upon them to arm in his defence; the Porte did the same, and some of his best troops forsook him on this occasion ; he found opponents also in the peasants of Mount Pindus; and the Souliotes, his old enemies, were brought to the continent to act against him. The Porte, however, did not fulfil its promises to those who lent it their assistance, and the Greeks, in the disappointments they experienced, forgot the despotic acts of their former tyrant. Ali learned all these circumstances with great pleasure, and availed himself of them. By means of his money and his intrigue he soon brought over the chiefs who had deserted him, and even gained the Souliotes to his party by surrendering to them their strong holds, with all the treasures and ammunition contained in them; so that Souliotes, mountaineers, and Klephtai were all soon engaged in harassing the Turks, and cutting off their communications. These again drew off the flower of their armed force from Livadia and the Peloponnesus, and left the field open in those quarters for the efforts of the friends of freedom. A subscription immediately commenced, and a commander-in-chief was appointed; the choice of the Hetaerists fellon Alexander Ipsilanti, the son of a former governor of Walachia, who retired and died at Kiow; he had been in the Russian service, and was at that time aid-decamp to the emperor. Prince Cantacuzene, another Russian general, of Greek extraction, also volunteered, though of higher rank, to serve under the generalissimo; and Michael Suggo, hospodar of Moldavia, engaged to join them on their reaching Yassy. A conspiracy was organised in the capital, and it was thought that on the news of the revolt the Servians would unite with the Greeks. Some of the chiefs of the Arnauts or Albanians had been treated with, that they might furnish a body of forces to act under Ipsilanti; but while the latter was making his arrangements, and about to give the signal, another individual appeared, influenced by private and interested motives, to raise the standard in Walachia. This was an adventurer named Theodore Vladimiresco, who had differed with the Boyards or nobles of his country, on account of some claims he pretended to have for money spent in the state service: but the divan would not judée the affair, till the new prince had arrived. He therefore entered the field against them, at the head of 300 well-armed men. Too re2 T 2


solved to call upon the pacha of the Danube for assistance; but the entrance of these troops was opposed by the Russian consul; and the Boyards upon this formed abody of Arnauthorse, Servians, Walachians and others, under the conduct of the aga, Nicolas Vacarisco. He had scarcely, however, proceeded a day's journey, when it was intimated to him by the troops, that he need not go farther, as it would be both useless and dangerous. Meetings of the divan were held daily, and more urgent representations made of the necessity of calling in the Turks, as Vladimiresco was rapidly approaching. In this situation of affairs, some news from the north gave the finishing stroke to the weak government of the divan. Vladimiresco was not connected with the Hetaerists; his only object was to enforce his o claims, and immediately on his arrival he put fouth a declaration, which soon brought Ipsilantito Yassy at the head of 200 men. Surprised at this sudden appearance, the Moldavians were about to resist, but their minds were quieted by prince Suzzo, who publicly testified his participation of Ipsilanti's measures, and withdrew his allegiance from the Porte. On the 7th of March 1821 prince Alexander addressed a spirited proclamation to his countrymen, calling upon them to shake off the Turkish yoke, to follow the standard of the cross, and in conjunction with him to attempt the liberation of Greece. The Hataerists wore a vniform entirely black, in token of mourning for their country, and a phoenix rising from its ashes was described on their banners, as a symbol of that regeneration they hoped to achieve. Tidings of these things soon reached Bucha1est, and excited great consternation; the hopes of the divan appeared to rest on Brancovano, the Boyard, who possessed most influence in the country; but in the midst of this anxiety he departed one morning early with his family and effects for Transylvania. The Russian and Austrian consuls also left the town, and, to increase the confusion and distress, Vladimiresco's troops fell upon the fugitives, and plundered and illtreated them without distinction; the women even, some of them of high rank and beauty, were insulted. That chief himself took possession of the city, and gave a loose to his disorderly forces to commit various excesses; he seemed, indeed, bent on making war on his own account, and nothing but the influence of Douka, his lieutenant, who had entered into Ipsilanti's views, made him agree to the propcsal of acting in conjunction against the common enemy. This was not the only mortification that the prince experienced; he had expected the co-operation of Russia, and the reception he had met with in Moldavia in a great measure was to be attributed to the expectations of this succour; but in the midst of these expectations, and while the Russian ambassador was daily insulted in the capital, the emperor published a manifesto, treating the Greek leader as a rebel and incendiary. This turned the whole tide of public opinion, and reduced the patriots to a state of mingled despair and rage. Prince Suzzo ceased to have any influence in Moldavia, and was obliged to leave the province: the plot laid in the capital was discovered and frustrated; the Servians made

no effort, but a Greek emissary, who was sent among them, was discovered and hung by the Turks. The state of his own army too was most discouraging to Ipsilanti; he wished to bring it into a state of discipline, and to arm it in the European manner; but the envy and intrigues of his lieutenants defeated his intentions, 3rd the soldiers were completely unmanageable. There was only one corps on which he could place any reliance, a body of Greeks, who had been brought up in Europe. consisting mostly of students and merchants' clerks, on whom, on account of their patriotism, he conferred the title of the Sacred Band, and who justly me. rited the distinction. In the beginning of April the Turks took the field, and, after a few skir. mishes, captured Galatz, the Greek garrison of which place, after making a brave but ineffectual resistance, were partly cut to pieces, and party obliged to seek refuge in dight. The Turks car. rying fire and sword wherever they came, and sparing neither age nor sex, entered Bucharest on the 10th, without meeting with any resis. ance. Women and children were indiscrimnately butchered in this neighbourhood. In ore monastery alone 300 women and children were ut to death; and the Turkish soldiers are sud y M. Blacquiere to have hung numbers of the latter by the feet on trees, along the publicro's Vladimiresco, whose motives were altogether selfish, and who was envious of Ipsilanti's having the chief command, was tampered with byte Turks, and promised the dignity of hospodar, she

would give up his associates; he therefore refused

to assist the prince, who wished to risk abattle in defence of Bucharest. The city was consquently abandoned, and a retreat to Tergo commenced: here, having arrested the traito, the prince had him tried, and on his belt; condemned he was immediately executed, and his troops united to those who served to Ipsilanti. This, however, did not put a so to the disaffection and treason that prevail: among the officers. On the 17th of June abo. tle took place between Ipsilanti's forces and . Turkish division that had advanced against him: for a long time the contest was obstinately mastained, but treachery was at work; the infamous Karavia fled with his Arnaut cavalry, and in his way threw the corps of Nicolas Ipsilant, to #". brother, into such disorder, that not all

is efforts could rally his men. The troopswo upon this seized with a panic, and, notwithso ing all that Alexander could do, re-crossed to Oltau, and abandoned the sacred band to * enemy. These, imbued with jo of the: ancestors at Thermopylae, prefe a glorios death to flight or dishonor, and thus nearly 4” Greek youths perished amidst slaughtered her of their enemies, who fell around them. Thebo less Ipsilantinow proceeded to Trieste to joins brother in the Morea; but the Austrian cabino arrested him, and shut him up in the case” Mongatz in Hungary. After this the province submitted; but two chiefs, of whom the bno Giorgaki was one, betook themselves to a covent on the Pruth, where they made a despero resistance. One of them died on his way " Constantinople, the other was beheaded P neroic Anastasius, with his small body of 500 men, continued to keep his position near the river for three days, until half his soldiers were cut off; he then, with his brave companions, lunged into the river, and was received by the ussians on the other side. Not fewer than 4000 Turks perished on this occasion. The news of the revolt in Moldavia produced in Constantinople the usual measures. All who were in any degree related to, or connected with, the revolters were immediately massacred; and it has been confidently said, that the divan resolved on the complete destruction of the Greek people; orders were sent to the provinces to disarm all of them, and the consequence was, that massacres took place at Salonica, Adrianople, Smyrna, Aivali, Rhodes, Cyprus, Candia, and in every place where any plunder was to be obtained. Before this revolt the secret of the Hetaerists had been confided to a few ecclesiastics, some of the primates, or municipal magistrates, and a select number of the klephtai in the Morea. A set of emissaries had arisen, called apostles by their employers,who went every where, spreading reports, that the sultan had determined to transport all the Greeks into Asia; that prince Alexander, aided by Russia, was marching with a large force to Constantinople, &c., the people greedily receiving their information, and engaging at once in the enterprise. The inhabitants of Sedena, a large village in the north of Arcadia, first took the field. The Turks, however, had taken the alarm and proceeded to Tripolitzato invite the Greek bishops and primates to a conference, detaining in confinement those who were so incautious as to venture into their power. A few were thus ensnared; but the attempt to make the people deliver up their arms was less suc..o. the governor of Patras, meeting with a decided refusal from the Christian inhabitants of that place, fired upon the town from the castle, and easily took possession of it; but the next day Germanos, §. archbishop, made a descent from the mountains with nearly 4000 peasants, and obliged him to take refuge again in the citadel. A rising immediately took place through every part of the peninsula, while the standard of independence was unfurled by the people of Hydra, Spezzia, and Ipsara, who with their numerous vessels began to cruise against the Turkish traders with the utmost celerity. Many richly laden vessels were taken by them at first; but, when the news of the revolt was spread, no merchantman would venture out into the Mediterranean. Samos and other islands declared themselves free, and Lesbos, Rhodes, and Scio were kept in awe only by the Ottoman garrisons. In Cyprus the introduction of 10,000 Syrians of the rising of the people, and 10,000 Christians perished here without any attempt to revolt. The Turks, astonished and affrighted, now betook themselves to their fortified places. The agas of Calavrita and Calamata were compelled

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to surrender; in Elis, the Mussulmans at Gas

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of count Metaxa, with a few pieces of cannon, could overcome them, and one of the best contested battles of the whole' war took place on this spot. The Laliots were forced to retire from their town, which they set on fire, with the loss of 300 men. Skirmishes occurred continually, and, both by the one party and the other, a number of towns and villages were barned, and of those that remain the greater part have been much injured four or five different times. The citadel of Patras at this time had nearly been taken by the Greeks, but was relieved by Yusuff, pacha of Negropont, who afterwards also raised the siege of Lala. About this time appeared, to aid the cause of the Christians, that hardy mountain race the Mainiotes. The whole peninsula by the middle of May, with the exception of a few fortresses, was in the hands of the Greeks, and a new government was established consisting of archons and bishops. In the mean time the seraskier Chourshid Pacha, who was blockading Ali Pacha in the citadel of Joannina, and cutting eff his communication with the Souliotes, dismissed what forces he could spare into Greece: 2000 Albanian cavalry, with his kiayah or lieutenant at their head, landed at Patras, raised the blockade of the acropolis, burnt Argos, and proceeded to Tripolitza, where he took the command, and began to make plundering excursions. In one of these excursions, Nicetas, or Nikitas, the bravest and most magnanimous of the Greek commanders, with only fifty soldiers, fell in with nearly 3000 Turks, and three pieces of cannon; he kept up such a spirited fire, that he repulsed the enemy with great loss. Ali Bey, the second in command, was killed by a musquet ball. On the 6th of June the Greeks, commanded by Colocotroni, assisted by Anagnostoras and the bey of Maina, were attacked by the kiayah. The infidels were so confident of victory, that they celebrated it beforehand by Albanian dances; but on the rocky and uneven ground on which they had to act, they were soon thrown into confusion, and the vigorous attack of the Mainiotes in flank, completed the rout; 200 of them, at least, were slain. After this the Turks did not take the field again, and the Greeks had only to watch the fortresses. Taking up their head quarters before Tripolitza, they laid siege to Modon, Coron, and Malvasia; Navarin was invested by 2000 Peloponnesians and a

band of Ionians; and a body of Achaians, with.

allies from Cephalonia and Zante, blockaded Patras. ... The Argolidan militia blocked up Napoli di Romania, and the Corinthians and Sicyonians besieged the Acrocorinthos. The vessels of Hydra and Spezzia cruised along the coast to prevent communication, and Bibolina, the heroine of Spezzia, took charge of blocking up Napoli, with seven armed ships, her own property, and fitted out at her expense. e insurrection in the northern provinces continued to gain ground. In Acarnania and Elis there were very few Turkish troops, and in Phocis, Attica, and Boeotia, the peasants assembled, but nothing very worthy of notice occurred. Omer Vrioni, a celebrated Albanian chief, marched to Athens with 700 horse; here a few Turks were

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