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shut up, in great straits for provisions, and the and excited the troops to a pitch of fury; a conllydriots had landed a body of men with some siderable number of the garrisons were therefore ship-guns at the Piræus. Hearing, however, of sacrificed, and it was with great difficulty, that Omer's approach, the Hydriots sailed away, and the generals interposed to save any of them. the Athenians took refuge in the mountains. In Ipsilanti, indignant at these disorders, published Macedonia the Greeks had, in the first instance, a proclamation, severely reprehending them; and been rather successful, and had advanced as far resigning the command, retired to Leondari, as Salonica; but they pursued no settled plan. until the alarmned primates and captains sent á Being routed in a few skirmishes, they were deputation to his retreat, and prevailed on him seized with a panic, and fled to the treble penin- to return. sula of Cassandra, Torone, and Athos. The All eyes were fixed on Tripolitza, which Greek inhabitants, too, of Mount Pelion, were was now in a state of close blockade, and its fall excited to take up arms, but they were soon daily expected. The usual population was overpowered by the Turks.
about 15,000 souls ; it is also computed, that At sea the Greeks were greatly superior, keep- the garrison, with all the Albanians of the Kiaing the Turkish ports and islands of the Ægean yah, amounted to 8000 men; there could not, in complete blockade. Two Turkish ships of therefore, have been fewer than 20,000 persons the line, however, and some vessels of smaller within the walls; yet they allowed themselves to size, left the Hellespont about the end of May, be blockaded by 5000 undisciplined and illand proceeded to Lesbos. The Greek fleet armed Greeks without artillery or cavalry. While met with one of them of seventy-four guns, the Turkish horse were in a state for service, the which ran into the gulf of Adramiti; when the Greeks did not attempt any thing in the plain; but Greeks sent in two fire-ships, chained together, their forage soon failed, and the only food they while the Mussulmans stood still on the deck, could get was vine leaves. Provisions were thinking they meant to board them, and mistak- become very scarce ; and the Greeks had cut the ing some figures they had dressed up for men. pipes, and thus intercepted the supply of water. In a few minutes the Turkish vessel was in Ipsilanti, however, was impatient and felt anxious flames; and though the captain cut his cables, to begin a regular siege; but he had neither proand let her drive to the shore, the crew took to per ordnance nor engineers. Some cannon and the sea to save themselves, but were opposed in mortars had inded been brought from Malvasia their attempts to land; so that hardly one out of and Navarin, and were entrusted to the care of 800 escaped. The other part of the squadron now an Italian adventurer, but in the first essay he made for the Dardanelles with all possible haste. burst a mortar, and was dismissed. Things were
Early in June Demetrius Ipsilanti reached the in this state, when prince Mavracordato arrived, island of Hydra. He bore a commission from bringing with him some French and Italian his brother, appointing him commander-in-chief officers. About the same time arrived Mr. Gorof all the Greek forces, and was accompanied by don of Cairness, who, sympathising with the Cantacuzene and others. He was received with condition of the Greeks, loaded a vessel with every demonstration of joy. Proceeding to the cannon, arms, and ammunition, and raised a Morea, he assumed, at Tripolitza, the command few followers on whom he could rely. Ipsiof the army. As soon, however, as the disastrous lanti now resumed his design of disciplining his termination of the campaign in the north was troops; and Mr. Gordon, who had been an officer divulged, the ardor of his troops cooled, and the in the late wars, assisted in forming companies. ephors, or primates, were deaf to all his propo- In the beginning of October the Turks began sitions. Candiotti soon left the Morea, suspected to make propositions for a capitulation, and the of having appropriated part of the subscription treaty was proceeding, on the 5th, when an money he had received. "Affendouli also, another accidental circumstance rendered it of no avail, partizan of Russia, went to Crete, and obtained and hastened the catastrophe. Some Greek the command of the independent forces; but he soldiers, having approached one of the gates, was soon considered as an impostor, and very began to converse, and, as usual, to barter fruit nearly lost his life. Ipsilanti's wish was to or- with the sentinels. The Turks imprudently ganise a general and central government for all assisted them in mounting the wall, but no sooner Greece; and to put the army into a state of dis- had they gained the top than they threw down cipline. In these plans he met with much oppo- the infidels, opened the gate, and displayed the sition; the captains and ephors uniting to oppose standard of the cross above it: immediately the him. The events, too, that attended the sur- Christians rushed from all quarters to the assault, render of the two strong fortresses of Malvasia and the disorder became general. The Turks imand Navarin in the month of August gave him mediately opened a brisk fire of cannon and still greater disgust. The garrisons of both these small-shot; but the gates were carried ; the walls places were reduced to a state of starvation, scaled; and a desperate struggle was kept up in being obliged to eat their slippers; and, in the the streets and houses. Before the end of the case of the former, to feed on human flesh, eating day the contest was over, and the citadel, wbich their prisoners, and even their own children. held out till the next evening, surrendered at The one surrendered to Cantacuzene, and the other discretion. About 6000 Turks, it is said, perished, to Tipaldo, the Cephalonian, on the faith of being some thousands were made prisoners, and numtransported in Greek vessels to the coast of Na-bers fled to the mountains." tolia; while, however, these treaties were pend. While these transactions were occurring at ing, the news arrived of the murder of the Tripolitza, four pachas proceeded in the month patriarch, and of the Greek clergy, at Adrianople, of August from the frontiers of Thessaly and
Macedonia to Zeitouni, with the design of forc- Demetrius advanced, summoning the garrison of ing the straits of Thermopylæ, and in conjunc- the acropolis at Corinth on his way, and warn tion with the Ottoman troops, at Thebes and ing them by the fate of Tripolitza; having Athens, relieving the besieged fortresses in the stopped a day or two at Argos, and visited Morea. Odysseus was stationed on a height Napoli, he reached Tripolitza on the 15th. The above the defiles at a place called Fontana. appearance of the town was most wretched; They sent a body of 300 horse to reconnoitrw the Maïniotes had carried every thing off, and his position, but this detachment was cut to the prince was assailed on all sides by compieces. The next day they attacked him with plaints about the unequal distribution of the their whole force; at first the Greeks gave way, booty. but a brave chief, named Gouraz, made a stand, An assembly was now called to meet at Argos and rallied the fugitives. They returned to the for the purpose of organising a government, and charge, and the infidels were routed with the the prince repaired thither to attend it; while loss of 1200 men. One of the pachas was slain, deputies in the mean time arrived from different and vast quantities of baggage and ammunition parts to demand succours from the administrataken. This was on the 31st of August, and was tion of the peninsula, and to report what was a victory of immense importance to the cause. doing in their districts. In Macedonia the About the same time the bishop of Carystus monks of Mount Athos, provoked by the violent raised an insurrection in Eubea, and endea- proceedings of the Turks, were driven into revoured to intercept the communication between volt. The pacha of Salonica had summoned Athens and that island.
them to receive a Turkish garrison, and, without The grand Ottoman fleet left the Dardanelles waiting for a reply, seized a number of servants on the 14th of August; it consisted of thirty who cultivated their lands, and had them pubsail; four of them of the line, and one three- licly executed. The monks, upon this, inipridecked vessel. After an unsuccessful attempt soned the Turkish governor, and opened a on Samos, the commander, Kara Ali, the communication with the forces at Potidea and capitana buy, steered his course northward, Torone. The Turks Sent expeditions twice the Greeks with 109 vessels pursuing him, against Cassandra, and were as often repulsed; but only attempting to separate his fleet, at- in the latter attack the Christians sallied out and tacking it with fire ships. The Turks, how- took nine pieces of heavy artillery. Being disever, took care to avoid these machines, and tressed for provisions they applied to the Pelo. kept in a close body, always sailing. After this ponnesians for assistance; but, the new pacha of Kara Ali proceeded to Peloponnesus, exciting Salonica coming up with an overpowering force, a general consternation. From Modon the Cassandra was taken by storm on the 12th of capitana proceeded to Patras, where 3000 November, and its garrison put to the sword. Achaians and Ionians blockaded the place on Mount Athos capitulated soon after. the land side, and several light vessels cut off About the middle of October a deputation the supplies by sea. The latter, on the appear- froin Mount Olympus arrived at Tripolitza, ance of the feet, fled, and either took shelter at bringing information that 7000 Macedonians Galaxidi, or ran aground in the shallows of were ready to rise there, and requesting cannon, Messolonghi, where they were burned by the gun-powder, and officers. Two mortars were Turkish boats. Having arrived in the roads, sent to them, but they were no sooner landed, Kara Ali discharged his artillery upon the camp than the Turks seized them; the insurrection, of the Greeks, and the garrison made a sally at however, took place, and has ever since conthe same time; one post resisted, but the re- tinued. In the Peloponnesus nothing vigorous mainder of the besiegers fled to the mountains, was effected except at Patras and Napoli. leaving the few guns they had in the power of After the capitana bey had supplied the fortress the Turks. This event led Ipsilanti to abandon on the coast, and added to his own fleet the Tripolitza, for the purpose of renewing the squadron that had acted against Ali Pacha, he blockade and obviating the consequences of this prepared to return to the Dardanelles. On this defeat. On the 30th of September, at day break, the siege of Patras was renewed; towards the having learned that the forces of the sultan end of the month it was carried by assault, and had landed at Vostizza, he marched to meet the garrison again retired into the citadel; but, them, and, approaching the coast, took his sta- on the 15th of November, Yusuff Pacha, who tion on an eminence. On the 1st of October, at had retired into the castle of the Morea, came noon, the fleet steered to the north-east, and in up with 400 horse and foot, unperceived by the the evening arrived off Galixidi, a commercial Greeks, entered the gates, and commenced an town on the bay of Cyrrha, near the entrance, attack. The garrison of the citadel sallied out and immediately summoned it to surrender. The at the same time, and the Christians were routed. Galaxidiotes answered the summons by firing on Mavrocordato and Caradja with difficulty reached the boat that brought it. Immediately the at- a boat, which conveyed them to Messolonghi; tack commenced, and the place was battered for their cannon, baggage, and 1500 muskets were two hours, till night came on, and at day-break taken for two hours more, when a cloud of fame and Ipsilanti wished at this time to hasten the siege black smoke announced but too plainly the of Napoli, and colonel Voutier, a French officer, issue. The inhabitants had fled to Salona in had been making preparations, but they were the mountains, after destroying their batteries greatly deficient in means for attacking so strong and vessels. The wind changing to the east, a place. A report was spread, that it was on the Turkish fleet cow proceeded towards Patras. the point of capitulating, and not less than
12,000 peasants were attracted to share its spoils. might fall into their hands, prohibiting it unde Scaling ladders were provided, and on the 15th the severest penalties; they also passed another of December at night, arrangements having been edict for a compensation for military services, made, the attack was commenced, but the as- and a provision for the widows and orphans of sailants were completely driven back. After those who should fall in battle ; and a third reguthis failure, prince Demetrius went to Argos, laung the internal administration of the provinces. and held frequent meetings of deputies, until The organisation of the army was also comMavrocordato arrived, when Ipsilanti's visitors menced; a corps called the first regiment of the immediately diminished, and a rivalship was line was formed and officered from the volunevident between these leaders. Ipsilanti, there- teers of different nations, and, as there were more fore, despairing of carrying his plans into effect, of them than were requisite for this service, a directed his attention to the war, and soon after second was formed of the remainder, which took went to Corinth with Kiamel Bey, by whose in- the name of Philhellenes. Patras was blockfluence it was hoped the surrender of that place aded again by 3000 men, and a smaller oody under would be hastened; while, in order to carry on the French colonel Voutier was sent to Athens, the siege of Napoli without interruption, it was to reduce the acropolis; the forces before Napoli determined that the congress should be removed were augmented, and Modon and Coron closely to Epidaurus.
invested by the armed peasantry around. The assemblage of a congress has been regard An event, the most terrific and atrocious that ed as a new and important era in the Greek Re- history has ever recorded, marked the commence volution; the anxiety of the nation for the or- ment of the second campaign: the destruction ganising of a government was evident from the of Scio, and its miserable inhabitants. The eagerness with which the people elected the de- Sciots had taken no part in the movement of puties. By the middle of December not less 1821. In the beginning of May, in that year, a than sixty had arrived, including ecclesiastics, small squadron of Ipsariots appearing off the coast land-owners, merchants, and civilians, most of furnished the aga with a pretext for his oppressions, whom had been liberally educated. They first and he began by seizing forty of the elders and named a commission to draw up a political code; bishops; who were immured as hostages for the the rest were occupied in examining the general good conduct of the people. state of the nation, and laying plars for the next “On the 23d of April,' says Mr. Blaquiere, 'a campaign. On the 27th of January, 1822, the fleet of fifty sail, including five of the line, anchorindependence of the country was proclainned, ed in the bay, and immediately began to bombard and its code published amidst the joyful acclać the town, while several thousand troops were mations of the deputies, the army, and the people. landed under the guns of the citadel, which also The government was for the present, styled opened a heavy fire on the Greeks. It was in vain 'provisional,' while the promulgation of the con- for the islanders to make any resistance : destitution was accompanied with an address, ex- serted by the Samians, most of whom embarked hibiting the reasons for shaking off the Turkish and sailed away when the Turkish fleet hove in yoke. Five members of the congress were nomi- sight, they were easily overpowered, and obliged nated as an executive, and prince Mavrocordato to fly. From this moment, until the last direful was appointed president. Ministers were ap- act, Scio, lately so great an object of admiration pointed for the different departments of war, to strangers, presented one continued scene of finance, public instruction, the interior and police; horror and dismay. Having massacred every and a commission named of three individuals to soul, whether men, women, or children, whom superintend the naval affairs.
they found in the town, the Turks first plunderIn the mean time the siege of Corinth was vi- ed and then set fire to it, and watched the flames gorously pushed; but so impregnable was this until not a house was left, except those of the fortress, that every effort was made to induce foreign consuls. Three days had, however, been the garrison, consisting of not more than 600 suffered to pass, before the infidels ventured to men, to surrender. For this purpose Kimail Bey, penetrate into the interior of the island, and even who had fled from Coginth, leaving his family then their excesses were confined to the low there, was hrought from Tripolitza, in the hope grounds. While some were occupied in planthat he might use his influence with the garrison. dering the villas of rich merchants, and others He, however, proved treacherous, and thwarted setting fire to the villages, the air was rent with the design. A new turn was then given to the the mingled groans of men, women, and children, operations before Corinth by the arrival of Pa- who were falling under the swords and daggers nowria, a popular chief of Salona, who persuaded of the infidels. The only exception made during the Albanian portion of the garrison to capitulate. the inassacre was in favor of young women and On their leaving the place, the Turks declared boys, who were preserved to be afterwards sold themselves willing to surrender, and it was stipu- as slaves. Many of the former, whose husbands lated that they should lay down their arms, and had been butchered, were running to and fro he transported by the Greeks to the coast of Asia frantic, with torn garments and dishevelled hair, Minor; but, before the last of these conditions pressing their trembling infants to their breasts, could be fulfilled, the peasants, who had suffered and seeking death as a relief from the still greater much from the oppressions of Kiamil Bey, burst calamities that awaited them. into the place and wreaked their vengeance on "Above 40,000 of both sexes had already manyof them. The new government signalised their either fallen victims to the sword, or been selectliberality by a decree for the abolition of slavery, ed for sale in the bazaars, when it occurred to as well as the sale of any Turkish prisoners, who the pacha, that no time should be lost in persuad
ing those who had fled to the more inaccessible massacre, affirm, that it was extremely difficult parts of the island to lay down their arms and to obtair. even temporary protection under the submit. It being impossible to effect this by Christian flags, without first gratifying the avaforce, they had recourse to a favorite expedient ricious demands of those who conceived this ap with Mussulmans; that of proclaiming an am- palling event a legitimate object of mercantile nesty. In order that no doubt should be enter- speculation.' tained of their sincerity, the foreign consuls, At the commencement of the campaign Colomore particularly those of England, France, and cotroni with 300 inen was despatched to Patras, Austria, were called upon to guarantee the pro- where a part of the Turkish Aleet had landed a mises of the Turks': they accordingly went forth, great body of men in the latter end of February. and invited the unfortunate peasantry to give up on his approach the Turks went to meet him their arms and returu. Notwithstanding their with almost all their force. Colocotroni, not long experience of Turkish perfidy, the solemn considering himself strong enough for them, repledge given by the consuls at length prevailed, treated to the mountains; but suddenly stopped, and many thousands, who might have success- addressed his men, and wheeling about advanced fully resisted until succours arrived, were sacri- towards the enemy. Upon this the Turks, struck ficed : for no sooner did they descend from the with a panic, thinking he had received notice of heights, and give up their arms, than the infidels, a reinforcement, turned their backs and were totally unmindful of the proffered pardon, put pursued by the Greeks up to the walls of the thein to death without mercy. The number of town; 500 of them were slain in less than two persons of every age and sex who became the hours, and Colocotroni blockaded the place. victims of this perfidious act was estimated at The Ottoman fleet was pursued by the Greeks 7000.
under Mianli and Tombasi, and the admiral's After having devoted ten days to the work of frigate nearly fell into the hands of the Greeks. slaughter, it was natural to suppose that the Marco Bozzaris and Rango gained many advanmonsters who directed this frightful tragedy tages in Epirus, and took Arta, the key of would have been in some degree satiated by the Albania; but, owing to the treachery of Tairabos, blood of so many innocent victims; but it was it was abandoned. Odysseus and his companions when the excesses had begun to diminish, on the endeavoured to check the enemy in Livadia and part of the soldiery, that fresh scenes of horror Negropont; but the disaster of the Greeks at were exhibited on board the fleet, and in the Cassandra so much strengthened them, that they citadel. In addition to the women and children advanced again and threw some reinforcements embarked for the purpose of being conveyed to into Athens. the markets of Constantinople and Smyrna, se- The fall of Ali Pacha had now so much inveral hundreds of the natives were also seized, creased the resources of Choursid, that he conand, among these, all the gardeners of the island, certed measures, which would have been the who were supposed to know where the treasures destruction of the Greek cause, had they been of their employers had been concealed. There skilfully executed. Mavrocordato, in order to were no less than 500 of the persons thus col- frustrate them, laid a plan to undertake an expelected hung on board the different ships; when dition into Epirus, draw off the Turks from the these executions commenced, they served as a Morea, relieve the Souliotes, and carry the war signal to the commandant of the citadel, who into the heart of Albania. He communicated his immediately followed the example, by suspend- plan to the executive, and it was determined to ing the whole of the hostages, to the number of place 5000 men at the disposal of the president, seventy-six, on gibbets erected for the occasion. who was to lead the expedition in person. The With respect to the numbers who were either only forces, however, which could be mustered, killed or consigned to slavery, during the three were the corps of the Philhellenes, and the first weeks that followed the arrival of the capitan regiment of the line, neither of thein complete, pacha, there is no exaggeration in placing the with 700 men commanded by general Norman former at 25,000 souls. It has been ascertained and Kiriakouli, to relieve the Souliotes. He arthat above 30,000 women and children were rived at Patras on the 12th of June; but Colocondemned to slavery, while the fate of those cotroni here opposed many difficulties to any of who escaped was scarcely less licalamitous. his troops being detached, and he was obliged Though many contrived to get off in open boats, to leave without the expected assistance. Acor such other vessels as they could procure, cordingly he sailed to Messolonghi with only a thousands, who were unable to do so, wandered few hundred men. A large force of the enemy about the mountains, or concealed themselves in was in the mean tiine collected at Larissa and caves, without food or clothing for many days Zetonni; Colocotroni suddenly left the blockade after the massacre had begun to subside on the of Patras and proceeded with all his army to plains. Among those who had availed themselves Tripolitza, leaving an opportunity for the Turkish of the pretended amnesty, many families took garrison either to enter the Morea, or cross the refuge in the houses of the consuls, who were Lepanto. Consternation prevailed in the Peloindeed bound by every tie of honor, and human- ponnesus; Corinth was abandoned and re-occuity, to afford them protection. It has, however, pied by the enemy, not without the suspicion of been asserted, upon authority which cannot well treachery. be doubted, that the wretched beings thus saved The situation of Ipsilanti was at this time very from Mussulman vengeance, were obliged to pay critical, he had no money or provisions, and Jarge ransums before they could leave the island. hardly 1300 men to oppose to 30,000; he thereNay more, numbers of those who escaped the fore, in order to stop the enemy's progress, threw
himself into the citadel of Argos, while Coloco- of November, when the blockading squadron troni took up the strong position of Lerno on the was chased away by six vessels bearing the Greek west of the gulf. The first body of the Turks, flag; and on the 14th Mavromichalis arrived consisting of 7000 cavalry and 4000 foot, halted with the long expected succours; a sortie was near Argos, and part of it proceeded to Napoli; then made. But it was of little avail, and the soon after Marchmput Pacha arrived with 10,000 garrison was so much weakened, that Omer more, The Pacha, however, entered Napoli, Vrioni determined to attack the place. Accorand continued several days inactive; when, dingly on the morning of Christmas-day, at threatened with the extremities of famine and five o'clock, 800 men approached the walls drought, he gave orders for the return to Corinth, with scaling ladders unperceived, and had and bis army set out in the greatest disorder.. even fixed some, but they were instantly cut Colocotroni attacked and destroyed 5000 of them down; the conflict that followed was desperate in a few hours; the advanced guard was attacked and sanguinary, and the Turks were obliged to in the defles by the Maïniotes under Nikitas, retire with the loss of 1200 men and nine pieces and 1200 perished in the first onset. These of colors. The rising now became general successes happened between the 4th and 7th of through the country, and the retreat of the enemy August. On the 18th the Pacha attempted to was intercepted in all quarters; so that of the draw the Greeks into an ambuscade, but they whole force brought into the country, only three got into his rear and he was defeated with great months before, not half escaped. Mavrocordato loss; the next day, determining to regain the arrived in the Peloponnesus in the early part of position they had lost, the Turks again attacked April 1823, after an absence of ten months. under Hadji Ali, who was slain in the engage- The national congress met at Astros, a small ment, and nearly 2000 of his men were lost, as town in Argos, on the 10th of April, 1823, in a well as a large quantity of baggage and several garden under the shade of orange trees; nearly hundred horses. "The Greeks, however, had no 300 deputies were occupied in the debates, means of following up their successes.
which began at sun-rise. The following oath Ipsilanti advanced to Napoli to assist in its was taken at the first meeting by each member:reduction, while the troops left under the com- 'I swear, in the name of God and my country, mand of Coliopulo, not being supplied with to act with a pure and unshaken patriotism, to rations or pay, became so weary of the service promote a sincere union, and abjure erery that the greater part withdrew, leaving Coloco, thought of personal interest in all the discussions troni's eldest son, with 200 or 300 men to con- which shall take place in this second national tinue the blockade of Corinth. Soon after this congress.' Having settled a number of importColocotroni, at the passes near the isthmus, ant points, its labors ended on the 30th. The stopped the Turks who wished to bring succours third meeting of the congress was deferred for to Napoli; and they being driven to the greatest two years; and the executive and legislative extremity of famine, and the Palamida or citadel body was transferred to Tripolitza, where meahaving been surprised, the garrison had no alter- sures were immediately taken for opening the native left them but to surrender: The Greeks third campaign. took possession of this important place on the the enemy was not idle as the summer ad11th of January. The Turkish commanders, on vanced; a fleet of seventeen frigates, and sixty the surrender of Napoli, determined to proceed sinaller vessels, was sent with stores to supply to Patras, which the Greeks had lately neglected the remaining fortresses in Negropont, Candia blockading. Setting out in the middle of January, and the Morea; and, after accomplishing this obthey had reached Akrata near Vostitza, when ject, the capitan pacha arrived at Patras about a detachment from Messolonghi stopped one of the middle of June. Yusuff pacha led on a the passes, and shortly after another body blocked large body to Thermopylæ, and Mustapha conup the other; so that the Turks were reduced ducted another to the pass of Neopatra, near to the greatest straits, feeding upon horses, the Zeitouni, the former especially laying waste the herhs on the rocks, their saddles, and at last one whole country, and committing all manner of exanother. For nearly three weeks longer the place cesses. Odysseus in the mean time arrived from held out, when Odysseus arriving, and on one Athens, and Nikitas from Tripolitza, and a sort of the beys being acquainted with him, a nego. of guerrilla warfare was commenced, which so ciation was commenced, by which the garrison harassed the Turks under Yusuff that they reobtained permission to embark, and the beys treated in the greatest disorder. Mustapha was were sent prisoners to Napoli. The number of attacked, and forced to take refuge in Negropont the enemy that perished on this occasion without at Carystos, where he was closely blockaded. firing a shot amounted, it is said, to 2000. Thus Marco Botzaris, who commanded the Greeks at ended the second campaign in the Morea, costing Crionero, fell on the Turks, and either killed or the Turks not fewer than 25,000 men in the Pe- captured two-thirds of their number. The loponnesus alone.
same brave leader undertook a forced march The operations in Epirus, though on a smaller against Mustapha, who had 14,000 men, while scale, were little less interesting. Mavrocor- he had only 2000. On assigning each man's dato put his forces in motion, and first making part at midnight on the 19th, his last words a feint, as if he wished to reach Salona, re- were, 'If you lose sight of me during the combat, turned on the village of Therasova and entered seek me in the pacha's tent' On his arrival at Messolonghi on the 17th of October, where the centre, he sounded his bugle, as agreed upon, greater difficulties than ever awaited him. Here and the enemy, panic-struck, fled in all direche was besieged by the Turks, until the oth tions. In the midst of the attack, which was