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now general, he was twice wounded, and at last carried off from the field expiring; the struggle, however, was maintained till day-light, when the Greeks were victorious on all points, and the loss of the enemy was not less than 3000. One of the first acts of the capitan pacha, on his arrival with his fleet, had been to declare Messolonghi, and every other Greek port in a state of blockade. The entrance of a few Greek gun-boats, however, was sufficient to set the capitan pacha at defiance; having remained inactive for above three months, and lost nearly a third of his crews by epidemics, he at length made the best of his way to the Archipelago. At the commencement of the year 1824 proclamation was issued by the president and senate of the United States of the Ionian Islands, declaring their neutrality, and their firm resolution not to take any part in the contest; also #. hibiting any foreigner, who should do so, from residing in the Islands. Among the Greeks dissentions still prevailed, every faction following its own plans, and seeking to advance its own influence. Mavrocordato, Colocotroni, and Ipsilanti, headed different factions, among the members of which there was neither unanimity of counsel, nor uniformity in action. The Turkish fleet sailed on the 23d of April. The Greek senate summoned Colocotroni to surrender himself, and to deliver up Napoli and Tripolitza, but he refused; the troops that were investing Patras quarrelled about the division of some of their booty, and were withdrawn; in the mean time the Turks sailed from Lepanto with fourteen ships, and blockaded Messolonghi. In order to encourage the Greeks a loan of £800,000 was contracted for in London. About this period Ipsarta was threatened by the Turkish fleet, which was now at Mitylene. The island of Caso was attacked on the 8th of June by an Egyptian squadron, and after an obstinate resistance was taken on the 9th; 400 died with arms in their hands, the rest took refuge in the mountains, leaving behind most of the women and children, who fell a prey to the Turks. On the 3d of July the capitan pacha again attacked ipsara, having previously gained over the Schypetars, who garrisoned the principal forts. The first victims that fell by the swords of the invaders were the treacherous Schypetars. The triumph of the Turks, however, was but short; the Ipsariots sent most of their wives and children to Syra. One of the forts was garrisoned by sixty men, and surrounded by mines. A Greek named Maroaki, finding himself unable to keep the place hoisted a flag, with the words, “liberty or death,’ and blew up the fort destroying 1200 Turks. The Ipsariots then returned upon the Turks, and took seventy gun-hoats. In Thessaly several Mussulman corps were attacked in the month of June, and defeated by the Greeks. The long delay in paying the loan in London at this time threatened Greece with a total want of funds; the government, however, found means to fit out two flects; the first drove away the Egyptian squadron, recaptured Casa, and destroyed the Turkish troops in the island; the
other, by the brilliant successit obtained, repaired
the fortunes of Ipsata.
fiture of their fleet. The Greek cause now continued to prosper. Daily successes were obtained in the west, over the remains of Dervish Pacha's army. Athens was in a good state of defence, the garrison continually making sallies against the Turks, who were besieging them: and though new levies were made by the Turks, the commanders complained, that the recruits were continually leaving the service. Partial actions took place on the 5th and 9th of September, between the Turkisn and Greek fleets, and on the 10th an action ensued between the Greeks and the united fleets of Turkey and Egypt, when the former burned a frigate, a corvette, and two brigs, and took sixteen transorts. After this another action took place at atmos, in which the Greeks burned two frigates and four brigs, and took prisoner Ismael Gibraltar, the Tripolitan commander, and the brotherin-law of the pacha of Egypt. The Turks of. fered 200,000 piastres for his ransom, but Miaoulis demanded eight frigates, and whatever Gibraltar had under his command. The combined fleets were pursued to the Dardanelles. On the 18th ..? died at Messolonghi, of an inflammatory fever, after having zealously devoted himself to the cause of the Greeks from the time he first landed in August, 1823, up to the period of his death We have not referred to these exertions in the preceding narrative, having given a very full account of them under the article BYRoN, which see. But one of the great topics of his lordship's anxiety, the divisions among the Greek leaders, has continued to this day deeply to injure their cause. Instead of spending the winter, now drawing on, in preparations for the approaching campaign, they seemed almost wholly taken up with their internal dissentions. The people of the Morea broke out into an open insurrection, at the head of which were co and his sons, Niketas, and others. They attempted the capture of ...}} after some bloodshed, however, by the end of the year, the rebellion was quelled. The porte, on the other hand, was very active in its preparations, and the troops of Mahomet Ali, pacha of Egypt, were directed to land in great force upon the Morea: and it now became evident, that the neighbourhood of Navarino was destined to be the seat of war; the Greek troops were drawn off from Patras, to march southward; while Conduriottis, the commanderin-chief, and prince Mavrocordato, were preparing to set off with fresh troops, Ibrahim received reinforcements from Candia, which made his force 15,000 strong, and a battery was immediately erected against Neo-Castro, or Navarino. Conduriottis had assembled about 6000
April, this year, lord Byron men at Cremidi, about the middle of April ; but on the 19th Ibrahim attacked and routed all the :roops which he had been able to collect. On the 1st of May the Egyptian fleet, from sixty-five to seventy sail, left the port of Suda, where it had been watched by a Greek squadron under Miaoulis. Miaoulis sailed to Navarino, and sent in seven vessels, of which Isammados was to take the command. On the 8th Miaoulis's squadron, amounting to twenty-two vessels, was near Yante; the Egyptian fleet, forty-six in number being off Sphacteria, and Tsammados's eight vessels inside the harbour. In about an hour from 2000 to 3000 troops effected a debarkation from the Egyptian fleet, on the island. The garrison of Old Navarino capitulated on the 10th, and the garrison of Navarino, on the 23d, marched out, leaving water for four days and bread for ten. After the surrender of Sphacteria, a great part of the Egyptian fleet was followed by Miaoulis into the harbour of Modon, and more than half of it destroyed by fire-ships. A body of Greeks was now defeated by part of Ibrahim's army at Mount Aghiaon, which overloooks the town of Arcadia, anciently Cyparessus, and he himself took possession of Calamata. He then proceeded into the interior, and, having met with a loss in the mountains from the division under Colocotroni (restored to command by the Greek government), he took up his osition on the 20th at Tripolitza, which was alf in ruins, and soon after made his appearance before Napoli di Romania. Having made several attacks without success, and failing in his design of surprising the town, he retreated. The Turks also about this time made a descent from Epirus and Thessaly, upon the shores of the Corinthian Gulf, and seized Salona, while Redschid Pacha o before Messolonghi. In the end of May the Turkish admiral left the Dardanelles, and on the 1st of June was encountered by the Hydriote Sakhturi, who, by means of his fireships, destroyed three men of war and some transports. Soon after the capitan pacha entered Suda, and joined the Egyptian fleet from Navarino, at the expense of three fireships. The Greek fleet was dispersed by a tempest, and, having no fire-ships, they retired to Hydra, while the Turkish admiral landed a reinforcement of 5000 men at Navarino, and went to Messolonghi with seven frigates and many smaller vessels. The siege was now vigorously pressed; the Lagune was penetrated on the 21st of July, and Anatolico, an island to the north, surrendered to the Turks. The supply of water was now cut off, batteries had been erected near the main works of the place, the ramparts had been injured, and part of the ditches filled up; at length a general attack was ordered on the
1st of August, and the town -ssalied in tour places at once. The Turks were every where repulsed. On the 3d the Greek fleet, consisting of twenty-five brigs, attacked and destroyed two simall ships of war and all the boats in the Logune, relieved Messolonghi, and obliged the enemy's fleet to retire. On the 20th the fleet of the Greeks, about thirty sail, commanded by Miaoulis, engaged the Turks between Zante, Cephalonia, and Chiarenza, and an action ensued, which lasted with little intermission for two days and nights, when, the wind, blowing hard from the eastward, the Greeks were obliged to retire. On the 29th another naval action took place, and skirmishes on the two next days, when at length, on the 2d of December, the Greeks forced the enemy to take shelter in the Gulf. On the 10th of August preceding, the Greeks had attempted, but without success, to burn the Turkish fleet in the port of Alexandra. During the year 1826 the affairs of the Greeks began to wear a much more discouraging aspect. After a lengthened blockade, in which every effort was made by the Greeks to defend it, and every privation endured, the important fortres of Messolonghi was, towards the autumn of this year, taken by assault and sacked by the Turks. One of the most remarkable and disastrous events of this year (1827) has been the capture of Athens, the news of which arrived while we were writing this article. It was taken in the month of May by the Turks under Kiutaki, wo long after the arrival of the gallant lord Cocorane in its neighbourhood, with a considerable naval force. The loss of the Greeks on this cocasion amounted to 700 men killed on the field of battle, and 240 taken prisoners, including eighteen Philhellenians of different countries. Kiutaki, supposing that lord Cochrane and general Church were among the Europeans, had the prisoners brought before him, and, after elamining them carefully, caused the eighteen Elropeans to be poniarded before his eyes. He afterwards ordered the 222 Greeks to be mr. sacred; and, if he manifested any degree of clemency at the taking of the city, it was forced on him by the presence of the English and French ships of war. Ibrahim has resumed his excursions, but he is suffering from want of provisions, and no susplies can reach him while the Greek fleet is cruising off the coast. In the public papers appears this day (July 13th), a most important treaty between Gre: Britain, France, and Russia, destined, we trust to close the sufferings of the Greeks. It binds to high contracting powers to put an end to the war, and virtually to establish the independence of Greece, with the exception of a tribute and a nominal suzerainship being given to Turkey.
If thou wert the wolf, thy greediness would afflict thee, Shakspeare. Timon. Greedy to know, as is the mind of man, Their cause of death, swift to the fire she ran. Fairfax. He made the greedy ravens to be Elias's caterers, and bring him food. King Charles. He swallowed it as greedily As parched earth drinks rain. D I with the same greediness did seek, As water when I thirst, to swallow Greek. Id. Greedily she engorged without restraint. Milton. Stern looked the fiend, as frustrate of his will, Not half sufficed, and greedy yet to kill. Dryden. While the reaper fills his greedy hands, And binds the golden sheaves in brittle bands. Id. Even deadly plants, and herbs of poisonous juice, Wild hunger sceks: and, to prolong our breath,
We greedily devour our certain death. Id. How fearful would he be of all greedy and unjust ways of raising their fortune ! Law.
GREEk Church is that part of the church which is established in Greece, Russia, and various parts of Turkey. It is so called, in contradistinction from the Latin or Romish church; also the Eastern church, in distinction from the Western. . The Romanists call the Greek church the Greek schism; because the Greeks do not allow the authority of the pope, but depend wholly, as to matters of religion, on their own patriarchs. They have treated them as schismatics ever since the revolt, as they call it, of the patriarch Photius. The Greek church may be considered under two main divisions, i. e. that which maintains religious communion with the patriarch of Constantinople, and that which is established under its own synod, bishops, and rulers, in Russia. The Georgians and Mingrelians also adopt the doctrines and ceremonies of the Greek church; but are independent of all jurisdiction of the Constantinopolitan prelate. That part of the Greek church connected with the patriarch of Constantinople, is divided, as in the early ages of Christianity, into four large districts or provinces; Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; over every one of which a bishop presides, who has also the title of patriarch, and whom the inferior bishops and monastic orders unanimously respect as their common father. This prelate has the privilege of nominating other patriarchs, though that dignity still continues elective, and of approving the election that is made; nor is any ". of moment undertaken or transacted in the church without his express permission, or his special order. Indeed, in the present decayed state of the Greek churches, whose revenues are small, and whose former opulence is almost annihilated, their spiritual rulers enjoy little more than the splendid title of patriarchs.
The 'spiritual jurisdiction and dominion of .
the patriarch of Constantinople are very extensive, comprehending a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Walachia, Moldavia, and several of the European and Asiatic provinces that are subject to the Turks. The patriarch of Alexandria resides generally at &. and exercises his spiritual authority in Egypt,
Nubia, Lybia, and a part of Arabia. Damascus is the principal residence of the patriarch of Antioch, whose jurisdiction extends to Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and other provinces. In Syria there are three bishops who claim the title and dignity of patriarch of Antioch. The first is the bishop of the Melchites, a name given to the Christians in Syria who follow the doctrine, institutions, and worship of the Greek church: the second is the spiritual guide of the Syrian Monophysites; and the third is the chief of the Maronites, who hold communion with the church of Rome. The patriarch of Jerusalem o within the bounds of his pontificate, Palestine, Arabia, the country beyond Jordan, Cana in Galilee, and mount Sion. The episcopal dominions of these three patriarchs are indeed extremely poor and inconsiderable; for the Monophysites have long since assumed the patriarchal seats of Alexandria and Antioch, and have deprived the Greek churches of the greatest part of their members in all those }. where they gained an ascendant. And as erusalem is the resort of Christians of every sect, who have their respective bishops and rulers, the jurisdiction of the Grécian patriarch is consequently confined there within narrow limits. The right of electing the patriarch of Constantinople is vested in the twelve bishops who reside nearest that famous capital; but the right of confirming his election, and of enabling the new chosen patriarch to exercise his spiritual functions, belongs only to the Turkish emperor. But this institution is subject to the grossest perversion and abuse by the corruption and avarice of the reigning ministers. The so of this patriarch among a people dispirited by opression, and sunk into the grossest superstition y extreme ignorance, must be, and actually is,
very considerable and extensive. Besides, his
own prerogatives are numerous; for he not only convenes councils by his own authority; but by the special permission of the emperor, he administers justice and takes cognizance of civil causes among the members of his communion. His influence is maintained on the one hand by the authority of the Porte, and on the other by his right of excommunicating the disobedient members of the Greek church. The revenue of this patriarch is drawn particularly from the churches that are subject to his jurisdiction; and its produce varies according to circumstances. The Greek church acknowledges as the rule of its faith, the Holy Scriptures, and the decrees of the first seven general councils; but no private person has a right to explain, for hinself or others, either the declarations of Scripture, or the decisions of these councils; the patriarch and his brethren being the only pe sons who are authorised to consult these oracles, and to declare their meaning. The Nicene and the Athanasian creeds are allowed by them, and they hold the doctrine of the Trinity, but with this qualification, that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only, and not from the Father and the Son. The invocation of saints is
al,ke received in the Greek and Roman communion. The Greek church admits the use of pictures to instruct the ignorant, and to assist the devotion of others by those sensible representations. In the Greek church there are seven mysteries, or sacraments, as they are called in the Latin church, viz. baptism, the chrism, or baptismal unction, the eucharist, confession, ordination, marriage, and the holy oil or extreme unction. As to baptism, they practise the trine immersion. Chrism is called the unction with ointment, and extreme unction is called the consecration with holy oil. The chrism is a mystery peculiar to the Greek communion, and holds the place of confirmation in the Roman. It immediately follows the immersion at baptism, when the priest anoints the person baptised on the principal parts of the body with an ointment, consecrated with many curious circumstances for that purpose by a bishop; this ceremony is always used at the reception of a proselyte from any other church. Children immediately after baptism may receive the communion. Predestination is a dogma of the Greek church, and a very prevailing opinion among the people of Russia. The Greek church admits prayers and services for the dead as an ancient . pious custom, and even prayers for the remission of their sins; but it disallows the doctrine of purgatory, and determines nothing dogmatically concerning the state and condition of departed souls. It also pays a regard to the relics of saints and martyrs of which too superstitious a use is made. Supererogation, indulgencies, and dispensations are utterly disallowed in this church; nor does it affect, like the Latin, the character of infallibility.
The best modern summary of its doctrines and pratices is that published by Platon, late metropolitan of Moscow; and which Mr. Pinkerton some years ago translated. We shall avail ourselves of his labors; and particularly of his description of that most important part of this church, the Greek church of Russia.
On the introduction of Christianity into Russia, the first dignitaries of the church were the metropolitans, who were chosen by the grand princes and the bishops, and ordained by the patriarch of Constantinople. Hence the patriarchs, not unfrequently, without consulting either the Russian princes or clergy, sent them metropolitans of bishops of their own choosing, though the grand princes generally opposed such an infringement on their prerogative, and often sent them back again to Constantinople; and even some of the grand princes, in place of applying to the patriarch, commanded the Russian bishops to ordain their own metropolitans. But, in general, the person chosen to be metropolitan of all Russia, went to Constantinople for ordination; and this usage continued till the taking of that city in 1453 by the Turks, when a final stop was put to the free communication which had so long subsisted between the patriarchs and the Russian church. On this account, Tzar Theodore Ioanovitch, in 1588, appointed his own patriarch in the Russian church; in which appointment the four patriarchs of the east having acquiesced, Jeremias, the patriarch of Constan
tinople, came into Russia, and ordained Job,"e metropolitan of Moscow, patriarch of all Rus. conferring upon him equal authority and power, with the eastern patriarchs. This office lase! till the beginning of the eighteenth century, when the disturbances which had taken place in the preceding reigns between the princes in the patriarchs, induced Peter the Greatu allish this office, in order the better to carry to effect his plans of reformation, both in churchas state. When Peter the Grcat ascended the thro, the power of the patriarch was almost equalo that of the tzar, after whom he took the is seat, and had a chief voice in all the affist the empire, both civil and religious. Willo: his blessing, neither war was undertaken, or peace concluded. From these pecular stor leges, and the influence he possessed over to clergy and people, an influence which wo times augmented by his own extensive domus and family connexions, it not unfrequently ho pened that the patriarch opposed his wo that of the tzar and nobles, in national affino importance, for no other reason but becausk had not been previously consulted. On this: count, Peter, on the death of the last paño Adrian, in 1700, abolished the patriarchal of . and appointed an exarch, or vicegerent of Holy See, with limited powers, who coul: * nothing without the consent of the otherbso and was obliged to refer all affairs of moment" the decision of the tzar himself. The person appointed to the exarch ot Stephen, metropolitan of Rezan, under who residency the schools of the clergy wer: improved, the priests and monks more to looked after, and arrangements made for to further reformation in the government of * church which soon followed. * In 1721 Peter abolished-the exarchy to and, in place of it, instituted the Holy Leo tive Synod, and furnished it with instro for the government of spiritual affairs, uno own particular cognizance. This spiritual to cil was at first to consist of twelve memo chosen from amongst the Archires, Archiro drites, and Protoires; but the number 5 o' indefinite, and the choice and appointmon'." members depend entirely on the will of to vereign. i-i-tire Swo At the head cf the Holy Legislative S. there is always a layman, denominated to o Procurator, who is considered as sitting tho. the part of the crown, and has a negative ** its resolutions till laid before the emperor. The Russian clergy are divided into o and secular. The former are all monks, ano latter are the parochial clergy. The *: clergy are divided into metropolitans, . bishops, and bishops, who are indiscrimo styled Archirès; but the title of meiopo. bishop is merely personal, and not propo”. tached to the see; and, though there : ** difference among the superior clergy in denoor nation, rank, and dress, yet it scarcely evo pens that one archire is subordinate to *. Before the time of Peter the Great too shops were absolute in their own diocess; * though, at consecration, they took a general oath to walk in the spirit of their office, according to : the Holy Scriptures and councils of the fathers, yet Peter found it necessary, in 1716, to make their duties and obligations more clear and specific, as the moral conduct of many of them was * * highly unworthy their sacred office, and others so were remiss in H. performance of their spiritual of duties. so Promotion to the rank of bishop depends entirely on the will of the sovereign. hen a vaog cancy takes place in a diocese, the holy legisla-at tive synod presents to his imperial majesty two or or three candidates from among the eldest of the ... archimandrites, or chiefs of monasteries, out of as whom he selects one, and orders him to be or...a dained an archire; though he is not restricted is in his choice to any of the candidates brought , forward by the holy synod. Thus, the metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops, compose the tors highest class of the Russian clergy; of whom the ... greater part in the present day are men of learning, and many of them possessed of distinguished ... abilities, whose theological writings, especially of late years, have done honor to their profession o and country ; but, unfortunately for their literary reputation, they write in a language which is unknown to the other nations of Europe. . After the archires, the next in order of dignity are those who in Russia are called tschornoe duhovenstvo, or the black clergy, to which class o, belong the archimandrites, or chiefs of monasteories, from amongst whom the bishops are always , chosen; the hegumins, chiefs of small convents, of which they have the direction; ieromonachs, and ierodiacons, who perform divine service in to the monasteries; and last of all the monks. ** All the black clergy, and also the archires, aco cording to the regulations of the Greek church, 2 are obliged to lead rigid and recluse lives; are * forbidden animal food; and are not permitted to omarry, after entering into this order. They comopose the regular clergy, and consider themselves o, as superior to the secular priests, in respect both oof rank and learning; for the whole powers and a dignities of the Russian church are exclusively s: vested in them. ... The secular priests are called beloe duhovena stvo, or the white clergy, and consist of protoires, soor, as they were formerly called, protopopes, priests, and deacons, together with the readers and sacristans. According to the statement pubolished by the Holy Synod in 1805, the number of protoires, priests, and deacons, in actual em2 ploy was 44,487; and of readers and sacristans, 254,239; in all 98,726. ... The protoires, priests, and deacons, must all have been educated in the spiritual schools, and must be married before they can be ordained to hese offices; but are restricted from marrying ... widows. The death of their wives, however, does not now prevent them, as formerly, from officiating as priests, though they are not allowed to marry a second time. . . But they are at liberty to enter into the order of the black clergy, by becoming monks; and thus the way is open before them to the first dignities of the Russian church. Those, again, who desire to marry a second time, must first resign their office in the
priesthood, and are for ever excluded from that order. The duties of a secular priest in Russia are peculiarly laborious. The service of the church which must regularly be performed three times a day, and which, from its excessive length, is evidently of monastic origin, and only adapted for such as are entirely withdrawn from the world, together with the numerous and complicated ceremonies attending the administration of baptism, marriage, burial of the dead, visiting of the sick, &c., occupy the greater part of his time, and leave him but little leisure for study. To this cause, in part, must probably be attributed that want of zeal and activity in advancing the true interests of religion and morality, which, in general, forms such a conspicuous feature in the character of the Russian clergy. Perhaps their being, as it were, a distinct tribe, tends also greatly to produce this general characteristic; for, since the time of Peter the Great, who, in order to reform the irregularities which then existed among the clergy, ordered them all to be registered, and obliged them to send their sons to the spiritual schools, to receive a suitable education for the ministry, none have been admitted to the offices of secular priests, but the sons of the clergy. Hence, many thousands of these men have entered into the priestly order, not from choice, but from necessity. It is but justice, however, to add, that many of the secular priests are learned and worthy characters, who diligently perform the duties of their office, and spend their days in promoting the spiritual interests of the flocks committed to their charge. Nor is it unworthy of remark, that the Russians of all ranks are in general void of that persecuting rancor against other religious persuasions, which is so characteristic of Roman Catholics: and, though they adhere strictly to the doctrines and ceremonies of their own church, yet not only the laity, but even the clergy, are far from thinking that there is no salvation without her pale. In most of the churches now, both in towns and villages, a sermon is preached every Sunday, and on the chief holidays. Some of these discourses, which are delivered in different parts of the empire, for sound reasoning and clear views of the leading doctrines of the gospel, might have done honor to a British clergyman. In some of the churches, may also be heard a homily read by the priest from a printed book, a practice which is not unfrequent in the country, J. larly in large congregations, where the duties of a priest leave him but little time for study. Among the peculiar privileges of the clergy, may be mentioned their complete exemption from all civil taxes. They are also exempted from corporal punishment, even in the case of committing capital crimes: and, according to an ukaz of 1801, they are permitted to hold lands. The greater part of their *: is derived from the free-will offerings of their parishioners, and their revenues are comparatively small. With the view of adding to their respectability, and exciting them to diligence in their sacred calling, the emperor Paul began to bestow upon the superior clergy the orders of knighthood; and, in 1797, he appointed golden crosses to be made