Εικόνες σελίδας

for the secular priests, to be worn suspended from their necks, together with mitres like those of the archimandrites, and other marks of distinction in dress. These he bestowed on such of them as distinguished themselves in their holy calling. This emperor, also, in order that the country clergy might have more time to attend to their spiritual duties, commanded that their fields i. be cultivated by the peasants belonging to their respective parishes; a regulation, however, which has since been laid aside. The whole Russian empire is divided into thirty-six dioceses or eparchies, which, in extent, are nearly the same with the divisions of the empire into provinces, or governments. In these there are 483 cathedrals, and 26,598 churches, which are, in general, magnificent buildings. Formerly many of them were of wood, but now they are mostly built of brick; and comparatively few of the wooden churches remain. A foreigner, in particular, is forcibly struck with the elegance of these fine edifices, raising their gilded spires amidst the humble izbas, or huts of the peasantry. Some of the churches are large square buildings, but the most of them are built in the form of a cross. In general, they have five domes, with crosses, which, in monasteries and cathedrals, and even in some parish churches, are gilded, and have a splendid appearance. Adjoining to the church, or near to it, there is always a steeple or belfry, commonly of great height, provided with large bells; and, like the churches, overloaded with decorations. The church is divided into three parts; first, the sanctum sanctorum, called the altar, and into which females are not permitted to enter. In the middle of the altar stands the holy table, upon which a golden or silver cross, and a o ornamented copy of the o: are always laid. This part of the church is the east end, so that the congregation always worship with their faces towards the rising sun. The altar is separated from the nave or body of the church, by a screen, upon which pictures of our Saviour, the Virgin, the Apostles, and Saints, are always painted. This screen is called the ikonostas, in the middle of which are the royal doors, which are opened at different times in the course of the service. Upon a platform before the ikonostas, raised several steps, the readers and singers stand behind a low rail, to separate them from the congregation; and, in the middle, before the royal doors most of the service is performed. The second division is the nave or body of the church, which properly may be styled the inner court, where the congregation stand; for there are no seats in the Russian churches, neither do the congregation make any use of books. In some of the new churches in Petersburg and Moscow there are pulpits erected to elevate the speaker; but they are unknown in the churches in other parts of the empire, in which the preacher, while delivering his discourse, usually * before the royal doors, behind a moveable esk. The third division is called the trapeza, which

is the west end of the church, and may proofy be denominated the outer court. This past is usually as large as the inner court, where to congregation assembles; but, on holidays, to these divisions are generally filled with the wo shippers. he inner walls and domes of the churches are covered with scriptural paintings, which is general represent the most interesting scene of our Saviour's history. The ikonostasis alway richly gilded and ornamented, and the picture of the saints adorned with gold and silver, pass and precious stones. The service of the church is contained in upwards of twenty volumes folio, all in to Slavonian language, which, though the antial language of the country, is not well underso }. the greater part of the modern Rusas elve of these volumes, one for every month contain the particular services and hymns #: the festivals of the saints, who are so numero in the Greek kalendar, that there are no d them than there are days in the year. To twelve volumes are called the Minoon. To Octoechos compose two volumes, and aredo ded into eight voices or tones, each of who contains hymns for the days of one week, is are mixed in the service according to the so jects to which the days of the week are o riated. Thus, Sunday to the resumet” onday to the angels; Tuesday to John ” Baptist; Wednesday to the Virgin; Thus, to the apostles; Friday to the passion of Co and Saturday to the saints and martyrs. s: these two there is a supplementary volume. taining hymns, to supply the deficiency no Minoeon. The Psalter and the Hours take of another volume. The Book of Psalms so vided into twenty parts, one of which is relo a service; so that the whole is read thro" the course of a week. The Book of Pro contains the ordinary daily prayers and ecto for the priest and deacon, in the vespers, no and communion service. The Fast Trioso two volumes, which contain icular sessio for the great fast before Easter, and for the to of Pentecost, when the hymns in the Octo are discontinued. The . Gospels coro another volume, a portion of which is rai” every service. The Book of Offices coo the rites of baptism, marriage, burial service.” And, lastly, the Book of Regulation, which to tains directions how to use the rest The lives of the saints are contained in so folio volumes, which are not now to * churches, but are sometimes read in monaste” at the matins or morning service. The Russians make no use of a completo of the Bible in their churches; they have o' extracts from the Old Testament and the Pro interspersed throughout the Mineon and " echos; and even many of the clergy in.” country do not possess an entire copy Scriptures. Both in monasteries and so churches the service is performed three to: day. It begins in the evening of the pro day, as among the Jews; the vespers also the matins between four and five in the mom” and the liturgy or communion service be" nine and ten. The greater part of the service consists of psalms and hymns, which, according to the regulation, ought to be sung, but are now mostly read. The length of the service, also, has given rise to the unintelligible manner in which most of it is now performed; for the priests and readers, in order to get the more quickly through it, have fallen into the practice of repeating and reading the hymns and prayers so quickly, and in such a tone of voice, as renders the greater part of them impossible to be understood by the congregation. The Gospel, however, is always read slowly, and in a distinct and audible voice; so that it is much more intelligible, from being thus read, than many other parts of the service. Our limits forbid us to extract several able passages from Platon's ‘Orthodox Doctrine,’ which we had marked with that view. We can only take the following:— Of the death of Christ, he says, “The death of Christ is the true sacrifice. A sacrifice, because Christ offered up himself upon the altar of the cross, as an innocent lamb, slain by the justice of God, and consumed by the fire of love, with which he burned for the salvation of mankind; and his being thus consumed was a spectacle no less wonderful in itself, than acceptable to God, the Father. ‘Christ was also the true sacrifice; for all the other sacrifices were nothing, but a kind of types or images of this; and it alone was capable of satisfying divine justice, meriting for us God's mercy, cleansing us from our sins, and of restoring us to our original state of blessedness. The word of God bears testimony to this; “But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who, through the eternal Spirit, offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead o to serve the living God!' Heb. ix. 11, 12, 13, 14. * This sacrifice put an end to the sacrifices of Aaron or of the Old Testament, and Christ became the only and eternal priest. The only priest, because another sacrifice is impossible; the eternal priest, for, according to the words of the apostle, “He continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood; wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.' Heb. vii. 24, 25. “This great high priest is called of God a priest not after the order of Aaron, but'after the order of Melchisedec. Heb. v. 10. Now in this there is a great mystery; in which every one must be astonished to behold revealed three of God's excellencies, mercy, justice, and infinite wisdom. IMercy so great, that the only begotten Son of God, of the same essence with the Father, was deliver; up unt: death for us the enemies of ool. X.

657 God. Can there be a greater display of mercy Justice so holy and inviolable, that, without a complete satisfaction, it could not clear us of guilt. Infinite wisdom, that devised such a wonderful plan, not only to satisfy justice, but to pour upon us the whole fountain of goodness. O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! This most exalted mystery is to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the Greeks foolishness; but to us, who are thereby saved, it is the power of God and the wisdom of God: and we, with Paul, will declare, “God forbid that we should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ; Gal. vi. 14. “Of faith in Christ.—‘Verily, Christ died for all.’ 2 Cor. v. 15. And there is no one so great a sinner whom his grace alone is not able to save. But, in order that this grace may become effectual in us, faith is requisite, that is, we must heartily receive Jesus Christ as our Saviour, and without doubting rest assured, that only through him we can be made partakers of the mercy of God. Without the infinite merits of Christ all our attempts are in vain, and man can never be saved. This is clearly taught every where in the word of God, John iii. 15; ‘For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life;’ and verse 18, “He that believeth on him is not condemned, but he that believeth not is condemned already.’ When we consider faith as essential to salvation, it is to be understood, that we mean faith unfeigned, sincere, and living, that is, “faith which worketh by love, Gal. v. 6. “Of the true church.-From the beginning of the world to the present time, and to the very end of time, the church has been, and will be, always one and the same. One, because there is for ever one faith, one foundation of faith, and one head of the church, Christ; one way of salvation, and one hope for all. Thus, it is written to the Ephesians, “One body and one spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith.' Chap. iv. 4. Hence this church only cuts off all those who either do not receive the word of God, or mix their own improper opinions with it; therefore, the society of such people is not a church, but an assembly holding heterodox opinions, which is governed by the spirit of division, and not by the Spirit of God. Even at the present time, to the offence of Christians, we behold three chief sects or parties In Christianity: Papists, Lutherans, and Calvinists. They are mutually in opposition to one another. Popery, exclusive of its being filled with the most pernicious superstitions, and the edicts of Popes, in contradiction to the word of God, blindly holds the tenet in regard to the proceeding of the Holy Ghost above mentioned, and explains itin opposition to the clear testimony of Holy Scripture. It has also taken away from the common people the cup in the communion, and the reading of the Holy Scriptures. It has further devised some sort of a purgatory fire, has appropriated to itself a power unknown in the gospel, and undertakes to convert gainsayers by fire and sword. . “The Lutherans and Calvinists dio not 2


long ago from popery under Luther and Calvin, whom passion, more than any thing else, excited to this novelty. They, in avoiding popish superstitions and superfluities, threw away, together with them, the holy apostolical traditions of the first churches. Notwithstanding they hold the same opinion with the Romanists in regard to the proceeding of the Holy Ghost. But exclusive of this, they teach, what is contrary to scripture, respecting the mystery of the communion and the other mysteries. The Lutherans, moreover, attach to the body of Christ omnipresence, which is an attribute peculiar to God alone, and the Calvinists draw upon men's actions an inevitable kind of predestination. But our Greeko-Russian church proves its genuineness by incontestable evidences; for, from the very time of the apostles to the o day, it has preserved inviolate the faith preached by them, and the ancient traditions of the first churches. Greece was converted to the faith by the apostle Paul himself, and the truth which she received from him she preserved inviolate throughout all the succeeding ages; and, if there happened to be sometimes heretical and pernicious doctrines taught, yet they were always condemned in the general and particular councils.

“With this faith, thus preserved in all its purity, it pleased God at last to enlighten Russia. And as in Greece, so in Russia, there never has taken place any change in the faith; such, for instance, as took place among the Papists in the time of Luther; yet, amongst those who hold to our church, there may exist a certain kind of superstition and abuse; but our church does not justify such improprieties; she rather mourns over them, reproves and corrects them. And the erroneous opinions of a few, founded on ignorance of the o can never, in justice, be imputed to the whole church. Hence, it is evident, that our orthodox church is not only the true church, but that it is one and the same from the very foundation of the world. From the very foundation of the world, I say ; because it agrees with the Greek church, and the Greek church never departed from the primitive apostolical church. Again, the apostolical church was not different in the essence of faith from the Old Testament church; and the Old Testament church was founded upon the saving truth, which, with stedfast faith, was held both before and after the flood by the holy patriarchs, even from the very foundation of the world. Hence the evangelical orthodox faith of our church refers for its foundation to the very beginning of the world, and shall remain, as the Holy Ghost hath assured us, to the end of time.”

There are many passages in this treatise which would do honor to any protestant writer, and which prove this branch of the Greek Church to be possessed of much “sound doctrine.’

}. GREEK LANGUAGE, as preserved in the writings of the celebrated authors of antiquity, Homer, Hesiod, Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plato, Xenophon, &c., has a great variety of terms and expressions, suitable to the genius and occasions of a polite and learned people, who had a taste for arts and sciences. In it, proper names are significant, which is the reason that the modern

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GREEN'-weed, n.s. sickness, or chlor

GREEN'-wood, n. s. J sis. Like it is Saopho's XAwportpn irouac. Flourishing; fresh;u. decayed; not dry; half-roasted; unripe, accork ing to the subjects to which it is applied is an epithet; a green color; a grassy plan; shrub ; a quantity of foliage. Green-find, a kind of bird. Green-gage, a species i plum. Green-house, a house in which tendo plants are sheltered from inclement weather. Green-sward, the turf on which grass grows. Green-wood, a term applied to the woodso they appear in spring or summer. Green-dot, a board or court of justice held in the countin: house of the king's household, for the taking to nizance of all matters of government and justko within the king's court-royal; and for correcurs all the servants that shall offend.

I sawe the laurer Daphne closed under rinde, With the greene laurer; and the wholsome pine; The Mirre also, that wepeth ever of kinde ; The Cedres hie, as upright as a line; The filbert, eke, that lowe doeth encline Hire bowes greene unto the yerth adoun, adoun, Unto hire knight, called Demophoon. Chaucer. Complaint of the Blacke Ko". With goodly greenish locks, all loose, untyed, As each had been a bride. Seaso If a spark of error have thus far prevailed to even where the wood was green, and farthest of to any inclination unto furious attempts; mas' " peril thereof be greater in men, whose minus art of themselves as dry fewel, apt beforehand uro" mults 1 Hooker's Dedouao. Was the hope drunk --" Wherein you drest yourself? Hath it slept ** And wakes it now to look so green and Pale At what it did so freely Shakspeare, * There's never any of these demure boys to any proof: they fall into a kind of male gro"; ness. Id. Henry ". You’ll find a difference Between the promise of his greener days. And these he masters now. id. Hay". My sallad days, t When I was green in judgment, cold into Kate, I cannot look greenly, nor gasp out " ..." quence; nor have I cunning in protestation.

The door is open, Sir, there lies your way, You may be jogging while your boots are green.

Shakspeare. Griefs are green; And all thy friends, which thou must make thy friends, Have but their stings and teeth newly taken out. Id. In a vault, Where bloody Tybalt, yet but green in earth, Lies festering in his blood. Id. Romeo and Juliet. This is the prettiest low-born lass that ever Ran on the greensward. Id. Winter’s Tale. Doubtful thoughts, and rash-embraced despair, And shuddering fear, and greeneyed jealousy. Shakspeare. Her mother hath intended That, quaint in green, she shall be loose enrobed. Id. For this down trodden equity, we tread In warlike march these greens before your town. Id. Of fragility the cause is an impotency to be extended, and therefore stone is more fragil than metal, and so dry wood is more fragil than green. Bacon. For the greencloth law, take it in the largest sense, I have no opinion of it. Id. Advice to Williers. The general colour of plants is green, which is a colour that no flower is of: there is a greenish primrose, but it is pale and scarce a green. Bacon. A man that studieth revenge keepeth his own wounds green, which otherwise would heal and do

well. Id. Essays. Among wild herbs under the greenwood shade. Fairfar.

Being an olive tree Which late he felled; and being greene, must be Made lighter for his manage. Chapman. In a meadow, though the meer grass and greenness delights, yet the variety of flowers doth heighten and beautify. Ben Jonson. My reason, which discourses on what it finds in my phantasy, can consider greenness by itself, or mellowness, or sweetness, or coldness, singly and alone by itself. Digby on Bodies. O'er the smooth enamelled green, Where no print of step hath been, Follow me as I sing. Whose primitive tradition reaches As far as Adam's first green breeches. Butler. About it grew such sort of trees, as either excellency of fruit, stateliness of growth, continual greenness, or poetical fancies have made at any time famous. Sidney. This prince, while yet the errors in his nature were excused by the greenness of his youth, which took all the fault upon itself, loved a private man's wife. Id. If you but consider a piece of green wood burning in a chimney, you will readily discern, in the disbanded parts of it, the four elements. Boyle. With greens and flowers recruit their empty hives, And seek fresh forage to sustain their lives. Dryden. Every brow with cheerful green is crowned; The feasts are doubled, and the bowls go round. Id. The fragrant greens I seek, my brows to bind. Id. It happened on a Summer's holiday, That to the greenwood shade he took his way; For Cymon shunned the church. Id. I might dilate on the temper of the people, the power, arts, and interest of the contrary party, but those are invidious topicks, too green in our remem


brance. Id. O charming youth, in the first opening page; So many graces in so green an age. Id.

But with your presence cheered, they cease to mourn, And walks were fresher green at your return. Id. After break their fast On greensword ground, a cool and grateful taste. Id. If I have any where said a green old age, I have Virgil's authority; sed cruda deo viridisque senectus. Id. The young Æmilia, fairer to be seen Than the fair lily on the flowery green. Id. The green do often heat the ripe, and the ripe, so heated, give fire to the green. Mortimer's Husbandry. If you would fat green geese, shut them up when they are about a month old. Id. The chaffinch, greenfinch, dormouse, and other small birds, are injurious to some fruits. Mortimer. If the season prove exceeding piercing, which you may know by the freezing of a moistened cloth set in your greenhouse, kindle some charcoal. Evelyn. Stubble geese at Michaelmas are seen Upon the spit, next May produces green. King. Take the picture of a man in the greenness and vivacity of his youth, and in the latter date and declension of his drooping years, and you will scarce know it to belong to the same person. South. Sometimes our road led us into several hollow apartments among the rocks and mountains, that look like so many natural greenhouses, as being always shaded with a great variety of trees and shrubs that never lose their verdure. Addison. A kitchen-garden is a more pleasant sight than the finest orangery or artificial greenhouse. Spectator. Till the green-sickness and love's force betrayed To death's remorseless arms the unhappy maid. Garth. Cinnabar, illuminated by this beam, appears of the same red colour as in day-light; and if at the lens you intercept the green making and blue making rays, its redness will become more full and lively. Newton's Opticks. Of this order the green of all vegetables seems to be, partly by reason of the intenseness of their colours, and partly because, when they wither, some of them turn to a greenish yellow. Newton. Sour eructations, and a craving appetite, especially of terrestrial and absorbent substances, are the case of girls in the greensickness. Arbuthnot. Groves for ever green. Pope. In shallow soils all is gravel within a few inches; and sometimes in low ground a thin greensward, and sloughy underneath; which last turns all into beg. Swift. Under this head we may rank those words which signify different ideas, by a sort of an unaccountable far-fetched analogy, or distant resemblance, that fancy has introduced between one thing and another; as when we say the meat is green, when it is half roasted. Watts's Logick. Let us but consider the two colours of yellow and blue; if they are mingled together in any considerable proportion, they make a green. Id. Great Spring before Greened all the year; and fruits and blossoms blushed In social sweetness on the self-same bough. Thomson. But see the fading many-coloured woods Shade deep'ning over shade, the country round Imbrown; crowded umbrage dusk and dun, Of every hue, from wan declining green To sooty dark. Id. Seasons.—Autumn. Thus is Nature's vesture wrought

To instruct our wandering thought;


Thus she dresses green and gay

channel by which it communicates with Lake To disperse our cares away. Dyer. Michigan is of sufficient depth for a vessel of From silent mountains, straight, with startling sixty tons, and of proportionate width. Long. sound,

87° 58' W., lat. 45° 'N. Torrents are burled ; green hills emerge; and lo, GREEN Briar County, a large and fertile The trees with foliage, cliffs with flowers are crowned. county in Virginia, surrounded by Bath, Ran

Beattie's Minstrel. dolph, Harrison, Kanhaway, Botetourt, and GREEN (John), an English prelate, born in Montgomery counties. The chief town is 1706, at Beverly, in Yorkshire, was admitted a Lewisburg. Population in 1816, 5914. sisar of St. John's College, Cambridge, of which GREEN-Cloth, BOARD OF, is composed of the he became a fellow. In 1744 he was appointed lord steward and officers under him, who sit chaplain to the duke of Somerset, who gave him daily. This court has power to maintain the the living of Borough-green, near Newmarket. peace of the verge, or jurisdiction of the couriIn 1748 he was elected regius professor of divi- royal; which is every way about 200 yards from vity; and two years after master of Benedict the last gate of the palace where his majesty College, Cambridge. He became, in 1756, dean resides. It takes its name from a green cloth of Lincoln, and afterwards bishop of that see. spread over the board where they sit. Without In 1771 he obtained the deanery of St. Paul's. a warrant first obtained from this court, none of He died in 1779. He was one of the writers the king's servants can be arrested for debt. of the Athenian Letters; desides which he pub- Green-Cloth, CLERKS OF THE, were two of. lished a tract on Enthusiasm, and some sermons, ficers of the board of green cloth, who appointed &c.

the diet of the king and his household; and GREEN (Matthew), a poet, of whom little is kept all records, legers, and papers relating known, except that he was brought up among thereto; made up bills, parcels, and debentures the dissenters of London, and had a situation for salaries, and provisions and necessaries for in the custom-house. He died in 1737. His the officers of the buttery, pantry, cellar, &c. poem, entitled The Spleen, is an ingenious They also waited upon foreign princes when enpiece, and was printed, with others of this au- tertained by his majesty. But this was abolished thor, in Dodsley's collection.

in 1782. GREEN (William), an English divine, fellow GREEN EARTH. Color generally celandineof Clare Hall, Cambridge, and rector of Hard- green. Massive, and in globular and amygdaingham, in Norfolk, died in 1794. His works loidal shaped pieces, sometimes hollow, or as are-1. The Song of Deborah, reduced to me incrusting agate balls. Fracture earthy. Opaque. tre; with a Translation and Commentary, 4to. Rather greasy. Adheres slightly to the tongue. 2. A Translation of the Prayer of Habakkuk, Sp. gr. 2.6. Before the blow-pipe it is converted the Prayer of Moses, and the 139th psalm, with into a black vesicular slag. Its constituents are, a Commentary, 4to. 3. A new translation of the silica 53, oxide of iron 28, magnesia 2, potash Psalms, with notes, 8vo. 4. A new Translation 10, water 6. It is a frequent mineral in the of Isaiah, from the seventh to the fifty-third amygdaloid of Scotland, England, Ireland, Icechapter, with notes, 4to. 5. Poetical parts of land, and the Faroe Islands. It occurs in the Old Testament, translated from the Hebrew, Saxony, near Verona, the Tyrol, and Hungary. with notes, 4to.

It is the mountain-green of artists in waterGreen, a county of Kentucky, in the United colors. States. Greensburgh is the chief town. Popu. AGREEN-House, or CONSERVATORY, is a house lation in 1815, 6735.

in a garden, contrived for sheltering and preGREEN, a county of the United States, in the serving the most curious and tender exotic plants, state of Ohio. It has Clinton county on the which in our climate will not bear to be exposed south, Fayette and Maddison counties on the to the open air, especially during the winter east, and Champaign and Montgomery counties season. These are generally large and beautiful on the west, and is about twenty-four miles structures, equally ornamental and useful. Their square. The valleys are wide, rich, and produc- length must be proportioned to the number o tive; the more elevated grounds are generally of plants intended to be preserved in them, ana a second quality. It is watered by the Little cannot therefore be reduced to rule: but their Miami, Mud River, Cæsar's and Massie's Creeks, depth should never be greater than their height and several other inconsiderable streams. Zenia in the clear; which, in small or middling houses, is the chief town. Population in 1815, 8000 may be sixteen or eighteen feet, but in large ones

GREEN, a river of Kentucky, United States, from twenty to twenty-four feet; and the length which has its source in Lincoln county, and, of the windows should reach from about one foot pursuing a western course, enters the Ohio 200 and a half above the pavement, and within the miles below Louisville, and fifty miles above the same distance of the ceiling, which will admit of mouth of Cumberland River. It is 200 yards a cornice round the building over the heads of wide at its mouth, and is navigable for boats the windows. Their breadth cannot be in pronearly 200 miles. In summer it may be forded portion to their length; for if in the largest at 150 miles above its confluence with the Ohio; buildings they are more than seven or seven and but in winter it is frequently swelled, by sudden a half feet broad, they will be extremely inconand violent floods.

venient. The piers between the windows must Green Bay, a bay on the west side of Lake be as narrow as may be to support the building; Michigan, about ninety miles in length, but vary- for which reason they should either be of stone ing in breadth from fifteen miles to thirty. The or of hard burnt bricks. If the piers are made

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