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wees of the Havannah, and several other engagements considerable villages or hamlets, which are gene
2 vcis 4to. His last undertaking was, preparing GRENADA, one of the Caribbee islands, the
leagues in compass; according to others only
four editions; Philosophical and Literary Essays, large round basin, which is parted from it by a * 1792, 2 vols. 8vo; Memorial presented to the bank of sand, would contain a considerable
Managers of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, number of ships, if the bank were cut through.
venient for shipping, not being subject to hur-
GREIFSWALDE, a fortified town in Prus- same extends over a considerable part of the sian Pomerania, on the Rick, and having a har- interior country. On the whole, however, it apbour at the influx of the river into the Baltic. pears to be fertile in a high degree, and by the Here are manufactures of tobacco and salt; variety, as well as excellence of its returns, also some maritime trade. Population 3800. seems adapted to every tropical production. The town is the seat of a university, founded as Indigo, sugar, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, and cotton, far back as 1456, but long fallen into decay: thrive well in it. The rivers abound in eels, some new buildings were erected in 1750, but trout, and various other fish. In the woods are the number of students continues very small. found in great numbers partridges, pigeons, The library belonging to it contains a number of thrushes, parrots, &c. Grenada contains about MSS. on the history of Pomerania. Fifteen 80,000 acres of land; but the quantity actually miles south-east of Stralsund.
cultivated has never exceeded 50,000. It is GREIG (Samuel Carlowitz), an eminent naval divided into six parishes, St. George, St. David, officer in the Russian service, born at Inver- St. Andrew, St. Patrick, St. Mark, and St. John, keithing in Fifeshire. While in the navy of and its chief dependency, Cariacou, forms a Great Britain, he distinguished himself at the seventh parish. The other towns of Grenada, defeat of Conflans by admiral Hawke, the taking besides St. Georges, are, probably speaking, inin that successful war. After the peace of 1763 rally situated at the bays and shipping places in he entered into the Russian service; and there, the several out-parishes. at the battle of Chio, contributed principally, In 1038 M. Poincy, a Frenchman, attempted by his advice and exertions, to the destruction to make a settlement in Grenada ; but was of the whole Turkish fleet. Sensible of his driven off by the Caribbeans, who resorted to great professional merit, her imperial majesty this island in greater numbers than to the neighpromoted him, though a foreigner, to the chief bouring ones. In 1650 M. Parquet, governor command of the Russian navy, which he raised of Martinico, carried over from that island 200 to a degree of respectability and importance it meu, furnished with presents to reconcile the never before had attained In reward of his savages, and with arms to subdue them in case great services, the empress bestowed on him they should prove intractable. The savages are many honorable marks of distinction, and an said to have been frightened into submission by estate in Livonia, which his family now enjoy. the number of the Frenchmen : but, according to In the last war between the Russians and Turks, some French writers, the chief not only welcomed which last were joined by the Swedes, he, in the the new-comers, but, in consideration of some Baltic, defeated the Swedish fleet; and had not knives, hatchets, scissars, and other toys, yielded a part of his squadron, through cowardice, re to Parquet the sovereignty of the island, reserva fused to come into action, he probably had cap- ing to themselves their own habitations. The tured or sunk the whole of them. Soon after abbé Raynal informs us, that these first French this he was seized with a fever, and died at Revel, colonists, imagining they had purchased the on the 26th of October, 1788.
island by these trifles, assumed the sovereignty, GREMIAL, ad). Lat. gremium. Pertaining and soon acted as tyrants. The Caribs, unable to the lap.
to contend with them by force, took their usua.
method of murdering all those whom they found the people of that island the value of their soil, in a defenceless state. This produced a war; which only required cultivation. Some traders and the French settlers, having received a rein- furnished the inhabitants with slaves and utenforcement of 300 men from Martinico, forced sils to erect sugar plantations. An open account the savages to retire to a mountain; whence, was established between the two colonies. Greafter exhausting all their arrows, they rolled nada was clearing its debts gradually by its rich down great logs of wood on their enemies. produce, and the balance was on the point of Here they were joined by other savages from the being closed, when the war in 1744 interrupted neighbouring islands, and again attacked the the communication between the two islands, and French, but were defeated anew; and were at stopped the progress of the sugar plantations. last driven to such desperation, that forty of This loss was supplied by the culture of coffee, them, who had escaped from the slaughter, which was pursued during the hostilities with jumped from a precipice into the sea, where activity and eagerness. The peace of 1748 they all perished, rather than fall into the hands revived all the labors, and opened all the former of their enemies. From thence the rock was sources of wealth. In 1753 the population of called le Morne des Sauteurs, or the hill of the Grenada consisted of 1262 white people, 175 leapers ;' which name it still retains. The French free negroes, and 11,991 slaves. The cattle then destroyed the habitations and all the pro- amounted to 2968 horses and mules, 2456 visions of the savages ; but, fresh supplies of horned cattle, 3278 sheep, 902 goats, and 331 Caribbeans arriving, the war was renewed with hogs. The cultivation rose to eighty-three sugar great vigor, and great numbers of the French plantations, 2,725,600 coffee-trees, 150,300 were killed. Upon this they resolved totally to cocoa-trees, and 800 cotton plants. The proviexterminate the natives; and, having accordingly sions consisted of 5,740,450 trenches of cassado, attacked the savages unawares, they inhumanly 933,596 banana trees, and 143 squares of potaput to death the women and children, as well toes and yams. The colony made a rapid proas the men; burning all their boats and canoes, gress, in proportion to the excellence of its soil ; to cut off all communication between the few but in 1762 the island was taken by the British. survivors and the neighbouring islands. Notwith- At this time one of the mountains at the side of standing all these barbarous precautions, how- St. George's harbour was strongly fortified, and ever, the Caribbeeans proved the irreconcilable might have made a good defence, but surrenenemies of the French; and their frequent in- dered without firing a gun; and by the treaty surrections at last obliged Parquet to sell all his. concluded in 1763 the island was ceded to Briproperty in the island to the Count de Cerrillac tain. On this cession, and the management of in 1657. The new proprietor, who purchased the colony after that event, the abbé Raynal Parquet's property for 30,000 crowns, sent thi- has the following remarks. "This long train of ther a person of brutal manners to govern the evils,' the ambition and mismanagement of his island. He behaved with such insupportable countrymen,' has thrown Grenada into the hands tyranny, that most of the colonists retired to of the English, who are in possession of this Martinico; and the few who remained con- conquest by the treaty of 1763. England has demned him to death after a formal trial. In not made a fortunate beginning. In the first the whole court of justice that tried this mis- enthusiasm raised by an acquisition, of which creant, there was only one man (called Arch- the highest opinion had been previously formed, angeli) who could write. A farrier was the every one was eager to purchase estates there. person who impeached : and he, instead of the They sold for much more than their real value. signatures, sealed with a horse-shoe; and Arch. This caprice, by expelling old colonists who angeli, who performed the office of clerk, wrote were inured to the climate, has sent about round it these words in French, Mark of M. £1,553,000 out of the mother country. This de la Brie, counsel for the court.' It was ap- imprudence has been followed by another. The prehended that the court of France would not new proprietors, misled, no doubt, by national ratify a sentence passed with such unusual for- pride, have substituted new methods to those of malities; and therefore most of the judges of their predecessors. They have attempted to the governor's crimes, and witnesses of his alter the mode of living among their slaves. execution, disappeared. Only those remained The negroes, who from their very ignorance are whose obscurity screened them from the pursuit more attached to their customs than other men, of the laws. By an estimate, taken in 1700, have revolted. It hath been found necessary to there were at Grenada no more than 251 white send out troops, and to shed blood. The whole people, fifty-three free savages or mulattoes, and colony was filled with suspicions. The masters, 525 slaves. The useful animals were reduced who had laid themselves under a necessity of to sixty-four horses and 569 horned cattle. The using violent methods, were afraid of being whole culture consisted of three plantations of burnt or massacred in their own plantations. sugar and fifty-two of indigo. The island had The labors have declined, or been totally inbeen sold in 1664 to the French West India terrupted. Tranquillity has at length been Company for 100,000 livres. This unfavorable restored. The number of slaves have been instate of affairs was changed in 1714, owing to creased as far as 40,000, and the produce has the flourishing condition of Martinico. The been raised to the treble of what it was under richest ships from that island were sent to the the French government. The plantations will Spanish coasts, and in their way touched at Gre- still be improved by the neighbourhood of a nada to take in refreshments. The privateering dozen of islands, called the Grenadilloes, that traders, who undertook this navigation, taught are dependent on the colony. In 1779 the . conquest of this island was accomplished by encounter a vast superiority, and of consequence D'Estaign the French adıniral. Immediately suffered exceedingly. The battle was carried on after his conquest of St. Lucia, being reinforced froin beginning to end in the same unequal by a squadron under M. de la Motte, he set sail manner; nor were the British commanders, for Grenada, with a fleet of twenty-six sail of with their utmost efforts, able to bring the French the line, and twelve frigates, having on board to a close engagement. Thus captains Colling10,000 land forces. Here he arrived on the 2d wood, Edwards, and Cornwallis, stood the fire of July; and landed 3000 troops, chiefly Irish, of the whole French fleet for some time. Capbeing part of the brigade composed of natives tain Fanshaw of the Monmouth, a sixty-four of Ireland in the service of France. These were gun ship, threw himself singly in the way of the conducted by count Dillon, who disposed them enemy's van; and admiral Rowley and captain in such a manner as to surround the hill that Butchard fought at the same disadvantage; so commands George's Town, together with the fort that, finding it impossible to continue the enand harbour. To oppose these, lord M'Cartney, gagement with any probability of success, a the governor, had only about 150 regulars, and general cessation of firing took place about 300 or 400 armed inhabitants : but, though all noon. It recommenced in the same manner resistance was evidently vain, he determined about 3 P. M., and lasted, with different internevertheless to make an honorable and gallant ruptions, till evening. During this action some defence. The preparations he made were such of the British ships had forced their way into as induced D'Estaign himself to be p.esent at St. George's harbour, not imagining that the the attack; and, even with his vast superiority enemy were already in possession of the island. of force, the first attack on the entrenchments They were soon undeceived, however, by perproved unsuccessful. The second continued ceiving the French colors flying ashore, and the two hours; when the garrison were obliged to guns and batteries firing at them. This discoyield to the immense disparity of numbers who very put an end to the design which had brought assaulted them, after having killed or wounded on the engagement; and as it was now high time 300 of their antagonists. Having thus made to think of providing for the safety of the British themselves masters of the intrenchments on the transports, which were in danger from the numhill, the French turned the cannon of them to- ber of the enemy's frigates, the engagement was wards the fort which lay under it; on which finally discontinued. During this action some the governor demanded a capitulation. The of admiral Byron's ships had suffered extremely. terms, however, were so extraordinary and un- The Lion of sixty-four guns, captain Cornwallis, precedented, that both the governor and inha- was found incapable of rejoining the fleet, bitants agreed in rejecting them; and determined which were plying to windward; and was thererather to surrender without any conditions, than fore obliged to bear away alone before the wind. upon those which appeared so extravagant. On Two other ships lay far astern in a very disthis occasion D'Estaign is said to have behaved tressed situation; but no attempt was made to in a very haughty and severe manner; indulging take them, nor did the French admiral show the his soldiers also in the most unwarrantable liber- least inclination to renew the engagement. Greties, and in which they would have proceeded nada was restored to Great Britain by the peace much farther, had they not been restrained by in 1783. George's Town, or St. George's, is the the Irish troops in the French service. In the residence of the governor, and the governor, mean time admiral Byron, who had been con- general Matthew, made a present to the citizens voying the homeward hound West India ficet, of a clock and bells in 1790. The garrison then hastened to St. Vincent, in hopes of recovering consisted of artillery, two regiments of Euroit; but being informed, by the way, that a de- peans, and one of blacks. As there are several scent had been made at Grenada, he changed his small islands subject to the laws enacted in Grecourse, hoping that lord M'Cartney would be nada, they each elect a person to represent them able to hold out till his arrival. On the 6th of in the general assembly, which is always held in July be came in sight of the French fleet; and, St. George's. As none of the Grenadines have without regarding D'Estaign's superiority of six a harbour fit for large vessels, the produce of ships of the line and as many frigates, deter- them is conveyed in small vessels to St. George's, mined if possible to force him to a close en- whence it is exported to the different places gagement. The French commander, however, of Europe, Africa, America, &c. Although by was not so confident of his own prowess as to the peace of 1763, all the French inhabitants run the risk of an encounter of this kind; and, who inclined to remain in the island became having already achieved his conquest, had no invested with the privileges of British subjects, other view than to preserve it. His designs were and although these privileges were confirmed in facilitated by the good condition of his fteet; 1768, yet the treatment which they experienced which, being more lately come out of port than from the British settlers, proved so extremely that of the British, sailed faster, so, that he was oppressive, that they at last broke out into a forthus enabled to keep at what distance he pleased. midable insurrection. On the 2d of March, The engagement began about eight in the morn- 1795, the old French inhabitants, being joined ing, when admiral Barrington, with his own by the mulattoes under Fedon, seized the towns and two other ships, got up to the van of the of Grenville and Gouyave, plundered the former, enemy, which they attacked with the greatest murdered elevea of the English inhabitants, and spirit. As the other ships of his division, how- took the rest prisoners. On the 5th, 130 troops ever, were not able to get up to his assistance, were sent against the rebels, but were obliged to these three ships were necessarily obliged to retreat. The most barbarous massacres now Vol. X.
took place on both sides; and general Lindsey, &c., and a piece of fringed or tufted cloth upos finding himself unable to quell the insurrection, their shoulders, called a wing: in some armies put an end to his own life. On the 16th of they have more pay than a common soldier. April general Nichols, arriving from Martinico, They are always the tallest and stoutest men, assumed the command, and various engagements consequently the first upon all attacks. Every took place, wherein sometimes the insurgents battalion of foot has generally a company of and sometimes the British had the advantage. grenadiers belonging to it, which takes the right In this distracted state the island continued till of the battalion. December 1795, when the French landed a body GRENADILLOES, or GRENADINES. See of troops, who joined the rebels, and reduced GRANADILLOES. These islands are from three great part of the island; but on the 10th of July to eight leagues each in circumference, but are 1796 the French commandant, Jossey, surren- said to be all destitute of water, except the island dered all the French posts by capitulation to the Cariacou, wherein one spring has been discoverBritish under general Abercrombie ; and Fedon ed by digging, which is kept locked up by the and his associates escaped into the woods, after proprietor. The capital of that island is Hilsbohaving murdered all their prisoners. The Bri- rough, which has a church. See GRENADA. tish obtained complete possession on the 19th of GRENAILLE, a name given by the French June; Grenada is 123 miles south-west of Bar- writers to a preparation of copper, which the badoes, and seventy-one north-west of Tobago. Chinese use as a red color in some of their finest Long. 61° 40W., lat. 12° O'N.
China, particularly for that color which is called GRENADE, n. s.) Fr. grenadier; Latin oil-red, or red in oil. GRENADIER, granatum. A globe or GRENOBLE, a large, populous, and ancient GRENA'DO.
ball of iron, or other me- town of France, in the department of Isere, and tal, which, being filled with gun-powder, is set ci-devant province of Dauphiny, anciently Accuon fire by means of a fusee. Grenadier is a siorum Colonia. It contains a great number of foot soldier, of whom there was one company handsome structures, particularly churches, and formerly in every regiment: such men being em- ci-devant convents. It is seated on the Isere, ployed to throw grenades.
over which there are two bridges leading into a
single street, of great length, and having the apYet to express a Scottish enterprize, Not all those mouth grenados can suffice.
pearance of a suburb. Grenoble, though not a
fine town, has several spacious squares. It is Cleaveland.
surrounded with ramparts, and entered by drawYou may as well try to quench a daming grenado with a shell of fairwater, as hope to succeed. Watts.
bridges; its population is about 23,000. Among
the public buildings that attract the attention of Peace allays the shepherd's fear
travellers is the ancient Hotel de Lesdiguieres, Of wearing cap of grenadier. Gay's Pastorals. now the town-house : the court house; and GRENADE, or Granado, is a kind of small the cathedral, a heavy edifice in the Gothic bomb or shell, of the same diameter as a four- style. On an eminence, near the middle pound bullet; it weighs about two pounds, being of the town, stand the ruins of a once strong charged with four or five ounces of powder, and citadel, called the Bastile. From the sumis thrown by the hand, whence they are most mit is enjoyed a delightful view as far as Mont generally styled hand-grenades. They have a Blanc, a distance of thirty leagues. Outside touch-hole in the same manner as a shell, and a of the town are two hospitals, one for the fusee of the same composition. The fusee is military, another, on a larger scale, for the poor fired with a match, and the grenades being thrown in general. The literary and scientific instituthe powder becomes inflamed, and the shell in- tions are a small university, a provincial school, stantly bursts into splinters, that kill or maim an academy of arts and sciences established in whomsoever they may reach. They were invent- 1796, societies of medicine and agriculture, the ed about 1594. The author of the Military Dic schools of surgery and midwifery, and the artiltionary has the following remark on the use of lery school. To these institutions belong a grenades : Grenades have unaccountably sunk library of 60,000 volumes, a museum, a botanical into disuse, but we are persuaded there is nothing garden, a cabinet of natural history, and a small more proper than to have grenades to throw cabinet of antiquities. among the enemy who have jumped into the The principal manufactures are of gloves, cotditch. During the siege of Cassel, under count ton articles, and different kinds of liqueurs. Its de la Lippe, in the campaign of 1762, a young glove manufactures have long been celebrated, engineer undertook to carry one of the outworks and employ nearly one-fourth of the population. with a much smaller detachment than one which It has likewise manufactures of hemp. Its comhad been repulsed, and succeeded with ease from merce is favored by the Isere, which is navigathe use of grenades; which is a proof that they ble to a considerable distance above the town, should not be neglected, either in the attack or, and is made to convey quantities of timber, hemp, defence of posts.
flax, linen, leather, iron, and marble. Grenoble GRENADIER, GRANADIER, a foot soldier is likewise the staple for the cheese made near arted with firelock, bayonet, and in some ser- Sassenage, a village in the neighbourhood. It vices with a hanger; grenadiers carry, besides was formerly the seat of the governor and parliatheir arms, a cartridge box that will hold thirty- ment of Dauphiny, and is now the residence of six rounds. They are clothed differently from the prefect of the departmen of one of the higithe rest of the battalion they belong to, by wear- er, and of several smaller courts of justice. It is ing a high cap, fronted with a plate of brass, on likewise the head-quarters of a military division, which the king's arms is generally represented, and the see of a bishop. The climate here is very, variable, and affected by the exhalations Sir Henry Sidney, lord president of Wales, was from the neighbouring marshes. This was the nominated to some lucrative employments in that first place of note that opened its gates to Napo- principality. He continued a constant attendant leon on his return from Elba; he entered it 8th at court, and a favorite with the queen to the March 1815. Twenty-seven miles south of end of her reign; during which he obtained the Chamberry.
office of treasurer of marine causes, a grant of the GRENOUILLES, LES, a cluster of rocks in manor of Wedgnock, and the honor of knightthe West Indian Ocean, about thirty-six miles hood. In her reign he was several times elected south-east from Point Morand, in the island of M. P. for Warwickshire, and his name often apJamaica.
pears in committees. On the accession of king GRESHAM (Sir Thomas), an opulent mer- James I. he was installed knight of the Bath; chant in London, descended from an ancient fa- and soon after obtained a grant of the ruinous mily of Norfolk. He was born in 1519. His castle of Warwick, which he repaired at a confather was king's agent at Antwerp, and Sir Tho- siderable expense. In 1614 he was made under mas, being appointed to the same office in 1551, treasurer, chancellor of the exchequer, one of the removed to that city with his family. This em- privy council, and gentleman of the bed chamber; ployment was suspended, on the accession of and in 1620 he was raised to the dignity of queen Mary, but was restored to him again. baron. He was also privy-counsellor to king Queen Elizabeth knighted him, and made him Charles I., in the beginning of whose reign he her agent in foreign parts. About this time he founded a history lecture in Cambridge. Havbuilt a large mansion-house on the west side of ing thus attained the age of seventy-four, through Bishopsgate Street,since named Gresham College, a life of continued prosperity, universally admired He now proposed to build a house or exchange as a gentleman and a scholar, he fell by the for the merchants to meet in, instead of walking hands of an assassin, one of his own domestics, in the open street; and offered, if the citizens who immediately stabbed himself with the same would provide a proper piece of ground, to build weapon with which he had murdered his master. the exchange at his own expense; which being This fellow's name was Haywood; and the accepted, he fulfilled his promise after the plan cause is said to have been a severe reprimand, of the exchange at Antwerp. On the 29th of for his presumption in upbraiding his master for January 1570, when the new edifice was opened, not providing for him after his death. He had the queen came and dined with the founder; and been witness to lord Brook's will, and knew the caused a herald with a trumpet to proclaim it by contents. Lord Brook was buried with great the name of the Royal Exchange. In pursuance pomp in St. Mary's church at Warwick, in his also of a promise to endow a college for the pro- own vault, over which he had erected a monufession of the seven liberal sciences, he made a ment of black and white marble, ordering at his testamentary disposition of his house in London death the following inscription to be engraved for that purpose. See COLLEGE. He left several upon his tomb: Fulke Greville, servant to other benefactions, and died in 1579. He was queen Elizabeth, counsellor to king James, and a great friend and patron of the celebrated mar- friend to Sir Philip Sidney. Trophæum Peccati.' tyrologist, John Fox. He was well acquainted He wrote several works in verse and prose, with the ancient and several modern languages; among which are two 'tragedies, Alaham and and had a very comprehensive knowledge of Mustapha. A Treatise of Human Learning, &c., foreign and domestic commerce. He transacted in verse, folio. The life of Sir Philip Sidney. queen Elizabeth's mercantile affairs so constantly An Inquisition upon Fame and Honor, in eightythat he was called the royal merchant; and his six stanzas. Cecilia, a collection of 109 songs. house was sometimes appointed for the reception His Remains, consisting of political and philosoof foreign princes upon their first arrival in phical poems. London,
GRÈUT, n. $. A kind of fossile body. Gresham COLLEGE. See ColLEGE.
A sort of tin ore, with its greut ; that is, a congeGRESSIE, or GRESSEC, a town on the north- ries of crystals, or sparks of spar, of the bigness of east coast of Java, and formerly the capital of a baysalt, and of a brown shining colour immersed kingdom. It has comparatively few European, therein.
Grew's Museum. inhabitants, but the native population and the GREW. The preterite of Grow, which see. Chinese are numerous. The latter have a temple The pleasing task he fails not to renew; reared by their own priests. The saltpetre works Soft and more soft at every touch it grew. are very extensive; but the want of good water,
Dryden. and the general unhealthiness of the place, may GREW (Nehemiah), a learned English writer, be considered as the causes of its decline. Long. of the seventeenth century, who had considerable 112° 50' E., lat. 7° D'S.
practice as a physician in London, and succeeded GREVILLE (Fulke), lord Brook, a poet and Mr. Oldenburgh in the office of secretary to the miscellaneous writer, born in 1554, and descend- Royal Society. In this capacity, pursuant to an ed from the noble families of Beauchamps of order of council, he drew up a catalogue of the Powick and Willoughby de Brook. In com- natural and artificial rarities belonging to the sopany with his cousin Sir Philip Sidney, he began ciety, under the title of Musæum regalis Societahis education at a school in Shrewsbury: thence tis, &c., 1681. He also wrote besides several he went to Oxford, and afterwards to Cambridge. pieces in the Philosophical Transactions, 1. The He next visited foreign courts, and, on his return Comparative Anatomy of the Stomach and Entrails, to England, was introduced to queen Elizabeth folio. 2. The Anatomy of Plants, folio. 3. Tractaby his uncle Robert Greville; and by means of tus de salis Cathartici natura et usu. 4. Cosmologia