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employed him for three years in embellishing children of the count de Schomberg, and was his palace and the Louvre, by the order of Louis appointed reader to the duke of Saxe Gotha. At XIII. The troubles of the state, and the clamors this period he became acquainted with Rousseau, raised against the cardinal, whose party he Diderot, d'Alembert, d'Holbach, &c. The count warmly espoused, placed him in so much danger, de Friese at last made him his secretary, with that his friends advised him to retire among the lucrative appointments. He published in 1753 Jesuits. He did so, and painted a decoration for a pamphlet entitled Le petit Prophet de Bechthe exposition of the sacrament during the holy 'mischbrode, in defence of the Italian opera. days, according to the custom of Rome. This On the death of his patron, de Friese, he was piece was much admired at Paris, and the king nominated principal secretary to the duke of commanded him to paint such another for his Orleans; soon after which we find him employed, chapel at the Louvre. Grimaldi after that in conjunction with Diderot, in transmitting to returned to Rome, and found bis patron Innocent the duke of Saxe Gotha an account of the wri. X. dead; but his successors Alexander VII. and tings, friendships, quarrels, &c., of the authors of Clement IX. honored him equally with their the day. In 1776 he became envoy from the friendship, and found him variety of employ- duke of Saxe Gotha to the French court, and ment. The following instance of his benevo- was honored with the title of baron, and several lence may serve to characterise Grimaldi. A orders. On the revolution breaking out, he Sicilian gentleman, who had retired from Messina retired to the court of Gotha. In 1795 the emwith his daughter during the troubles of that press of Russia appointed him her plenipotencountry, was reduced to the misery of wanting tiary to the states of Lower Saxony; and he was bread. As Grimaldi lived near him, he was confirmed in that post by her successor Paul, soon informed of it; and in the dusk of the but ill-health'obliged him to relinquish it, and evening, knocking at the Sicilian's door, without return to Gotha, where he died December 19th, making himself known, tossed in money, and 1807. His principal work was published in retired. The thing happening more than once, different portions, under the following titles :raised the Sicilian's curiosity to know his bene- Correspondance Literaire, Philosophique, et factor. Discovering him at last, by hiding himself Critique, addressée a un Souverain d'Allemagne, behind the door, he fell down on his knees to depuis 1770, jusqu'en 1782, par le Baron de thank the hand that had relieved him. Grimaldi Grimm et par Diderot, Paris, 1812, 5 vols. 8vo.; remained confused, offered him his house, and Correspondance Literaire, &c. en 1775, 1776, continued his friend till his death. He died of a 1782,-1790. Troisiéme et dern. part. 1813, dropsy at Rome in 1680, and left a considerable 5 vols. 8vo.; and Correspondance Literaire, &c. fortune among six children. The genius of depuis 1753 jusqu'en 1760. Prem. part. 6 vols. Grimaldi directed him chiefly to landscape. 8vo. A selection from this voluminous collec
His coloring is strong; his touch light and deli- tion was published in 2 vols. 8vo. in French and * cate; his situations are uncommonly pleasing; English. and the leaves of his trees are admirable. Some GRIMM, or GRIMMA, a town of Upper Saxtimes, indeed, his coloring appears rather too ony, in the circle of Leipsic. It has a castle, green; but those landscapes which he painted three churches, and a college. Its chief trade is in the manner of the Caracci, may serve as in linens, flannels, thread, beer, and wood. It models for all those who admire the style of that is fifteen miles E.S. E. of Leipsic, and forty-two school; and he designed his figures in elegant W.N.W. of Dresden. taste. The pictures of this master are very rare, GRIMOARD (count de), a French diplomaespecially those of his best tiine; and, when they tist and general, was descended from the family are to be purchased, they obtain large prices. of pope Urban V. Louis XVI. entrusted him Of his children, the youngest, napred Alexander, with a negociation in Holland; and on his return proved a good painter, in the same style and he formed the plays, offensive and defensive, of taste with his father, though far inferior to him: the campaign of 1792. The fall of the king some of the pictures of Alexander, however, are interrupted his career, and he retired to private cither artfully or injudiciously ascribed to life, in which he wrote Essai Theorique et PraFrancis.
tique sur les Batailles, 1775, 4to.; Traité sur la GRIMA'LKIN, n. s. Fr. gris, gray, and male constitution des Troupes legeres, et sur leur kin, or little Moll, says Dr. Johnson ; (gray, and emploi à la Guerre, 1782, 8vo.; Recherches sur Teut. mal, of Lat. macula, a spot.--Mr. Thom la force de l'armée Française, &c., 1806, 8vo; son.) Gray little woman; the name of an old Tableau Historique de la Guerre de la Revolucat.
tion de France, 1808, in conjunction with geneGrimalkin, to domestick vermin sworn
ral Servan, of which work only three volumes An everlasting foe, with watchful eye
were published, when Buonaparte suppressed it. Lies nightly brooding o'er a chinky gap,
He died in 1815.
GRIMSBY, a sea-port town of Lincoln-
Philips. shire, 168 miles from London, and one of the GRIMM (Frederick Melchior), baron de, most ancient corporations in England. It was counsellor of state of the Russian empire, was a mayoralty in the reign of king John; and born in 1723 at Ratisbon, of humble parents, has returned two members to parliament ever who bestowed on him however a superior educa- since the reign of Edward I.: the right of election. His taste for literature manifested itself in tion is in the resident free burgesses paying scot a tragedy, which he wrote in his youth. He and lot. All the sons of freemen born in the went early in life to Paris as governor to the town are entitled to their freedom, as well as every person marrying a freeman's daughter or GRIND, v. a. & v. n. Preter. I ground; widow. It had anciently three convents and a GRIND'ER, n. s. part. pass. ground. castle. It is governed by a mayor, high steward, GRIN'DLESTUNE, n. s. (Saxon grindan gerecorder, twelve aldermen, twelve, common- GRIND'STONE, n. s. grunden. To reduce council-men, two bailiffs, two coroners, and a to powder by friction ; to sharpen any instrutown-clerk. It has several streets of good houses, mert by rubbing on something hard; and figuand a handsome church. Its harbour was for- ratively to harass or oppress. Grinder is one merly choked up, but a fine dock has been con- that works in a mill; also the name of the doustructed, and the harbour deepened and improved, ble teeth. A grind-stone is that stone on which and the road before it is a good station for ships knives, &c., are sharpened. that wait for a wind to get out to sea. Its chief
To grind our corn and carry it hame agein ; trade is in coals and salt to the Baltic, which
I pray you spede us.. Chaucer. The Reves Tale. are brought by the Humber.'
Whoso first cometh to the mill firste grint.
Id. Prologue to the Wif of Bathes Take. GRINNER, n. s.
Dut.grinnen, grin. But in helle, hir sight shall be full of darknesse GRIN'NINGLY, adv. den, undoubtedly and of smoke ; and her eyen full of tcres, and hir berof the same origin with to grind, as we now say, ing full of waimenting and grinting of teeth. to grind the teeth ; Fr. grincer.-Johnson. To
Id. The Persones Tale. fix the teeth as in wrath, or anguish, or mirth. He the raging lioness confounds, And grinning for dispitons rage ;
The roaring lion with his javelin wounds
Scatters their whelps, their grinders breaks ; so they
With the old hunters starve for want of prey. Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose.
Sandys. What valeur were it when a cur doth grin,
His heart a solid rock, to fear unknown, For one to trust his hand between his teeth,
And harder than the grinder's nether stone. Id. When he might spurn him with his foot away. so up he let him rise; who with grim look,
Shakspeare. And countenance stern, upstanding, 'gan to grind I like not such grinning honour as Sir Walter hath: His grated teeth for great disdain. Spencer. give me life, which if I can save, so; if not, honour He that will have a cake out of the wheat, must comes unlooked for, and there's an end.
needs tarry the grinding. I. Henry IV.
Shakspeare. Troilus and Cressida. Death, death! oh, amiable, lovely death
Some merchants and tradesmen, under colour of Come grin on me, and I will think thou smilest. furnishing the colony with necessaries, may not grind
Shakspeare. thein so as shall always keep them in poverty. I asked which way was the wind,
Bacon's Advice to Villiers, For I thought in some talk we must enter,
The teeth are in men of three kinds ; sharp as the • Why, Sir (she answered and grinned),
foreteeth; broad as the back-teeth, which we call the Have you just sent your wits for a venture ?'
molar-teeth, or grinders; and pointed teeth or canine, Sir John Suckling which are between both.
Bacon. It was no unpleasant entertainment to me to see the various methods with which they have attacked
Ilarsh sounds, as of a saw, when it is sharpened,
and grinding of one stone against another, make a me; some with piteous moans and outcries, others grinning, and only showing their teeth. Stilling fleet.
shivering or horror in the body, and set the teeth on
Id. Natural History. He laughs at him : in's face too. - you nistake him; 'twas an humble grin,
Such a light and metalled dance
Saw you never yet in France;
And by the lead-men for the nonce,
That turn round like grindlestones.
Ben Jonson. About his shoulders hangs the shaggy skin ;
Meeting with Time, slack thing, said I,
Thy sithe is dull, whet it, for shame :
No marvel, Sir, he did reply,
Jf it at length deserve some blame; of his face, that he shewed twenty teeth at a grin.
But where one man would have me grind it, Addison.
Twenty to one too sharp do find it. Herbert.
Fettered they send thee
Into the common prison, there to grind
Among the slaves and asses. Io grinning langhter, and to frantick mirth.
Milton's Agonistes. Prior. One, who at the sight of supper, opened wide What lords are those saluting with a grin? His jaws before, and whetted grinders tryed. One is just out, and one is lately in. Young.
Dryden. Fools grin on fools, and Stoicklike support,
Both he Without one sigh, the pleasures of a court. Id. Fle mouthed them, and betwixt his grinders caught.
Care to our coffin adds a nail no doubt, And every grin, so merry, draws one out.
Not knowing 'was my labnur, I complain
Dr. Walcot. Of sudden shootings, and of grinding pain, GRIN, n. s. Sax. gnyn, gyrene. A snare ; . My throes come thicker, and my cries increas'd. a trap.
The grin shall take him by the heel, and the robber Against a stump his tusk the monster grinds, shall prevail against him.
Job, xviii. 9. And in the sharpened edge new vigour finds. Id. Like a bride that hasteneth to his gryn,
The jaw-teeth or grinders, in Latin inolaros, ete Not knowing the perile..
Chaucer. made fat and broad a-top, and withal somewhat us
even and rugged, that, by their knobs and little cavi- rotation produced by the lathe was so great as to ties, they may the better retain, grind, and commix turn the apparatus about five revolutions in a the aliments.
Ray on the Creation.
second. Yet the stone operated but slowly, and Smiths that make hinges brighten them, yet seldom the trough was quickly exhausted ; so that the file them; but grind them on a grindstone till bright.
workman was obliged to slacken the velocity on Moron.
account of the heat. The emery cylinder cut Now exhort Thy hinds to exercise the pointed steel
rather faster. But, although the friction was On the hard rock, and give a whealy form
made to operate successively and by frequent To the expected grinder.
changes on the whole surface of the file, it soon Shrinking sinews start,
became too hot to be held; and, when a cloth And smeary foam works o'er my grinding jawa. was used to defend the workman's hand, the
Rowe. work not only went on awkwardly, but the heat Another way the Spaniards have taken to grind increased to such a degree, that the oil was dethe Neapolitans, and yet to take off the odium from composed, and emitted an empyreumatic smell. themselves.
The stone was then allowed to dry, and the file That the stomach in animals grinds the substances tried upon its face. It almost instantly became which it receives, is evident, from the dissection of blue, and very soon after red-hot. Both the animals which have swallowed metals, which have cylinders were then covered with tallow, by been found polished on the side next the stomach.
Arbuthnot on Aliments.
holding the end of a candle to each while turnNature is at a great deal of labour to transmute ve
ing round, and emery was sprinkled on the getables into animal substances; therefore herb-eat- wooden one. The file was then applied to the ing animals, which do not ruminate, bave strong grind-stone while in rapid motion. At first the grinders, and chew much.
Arbuthnot. friction was hardly observable, but very soon What relation or affinity is there between a minute afterwards, the zone of tallow pressed by the file body and cogitation, any more than the greatest? Is became melted, and the stone cut very rapidly. a small drop of rain any wiser than the ocean? Or Yet the file was for a long time hardly heated at do we grind inanimate corn into living and rational all; and, when at last it began to feel warm, its meal ?
temperature was instantly lowered by removing GBINDING is also used for rubbing or wear- it to another zone of the cylinder. The same ing off the irregular parts of the surface of a effects were produced on the wooden cylinder. body, and reducing it to the destined figure, This is easily explained upon the modern theory whether that be flat, concave, or the like. The of heat. When oil was used. on the wooden grinding and polishing of glass is a considerable cylinder, the heat produced by the friction was art; for which see GLASS-MAKING ; and for employed in raising the temperature of the file grinding of optical glasses, see Optics.
and the oil; but when tallow was used, instead GRINDING, in cutlery, the operation of sharp- of the oil, the greatest part of the heat was exening edge-tools. This operation, as usually hausted in melting this substance. From the practised, is attended with no small incon- increased capacity of the tallow when fused, the venience, from the production of heat by friction. heat was absorbed and became 'latent, instead of The heat produced is so great, that hard tools raising the tenperature : and when the melted are often softened and spoiled by the steel tallow began to grow hot, together with the file, becoming ignited during the grinding. To pre- the temperature was easily reduced by employing vent this effect, the grind-stone is partly im- the heat on another zone of tallow. Mr. Nicholmersed in a trough of water; but in this case son used these two cylinders in a considerable the rotation of the stone must be moderate, and quantity of work with great satisfaction. This the work, of course, slow, else the water will be discovery bids fair to be of great utility. thrown off by the centrifugal force. When he GRINSTED, East, a market town of Sus water is applied from above by a cock, the quan- sex, twenty-nine miles from London, seated tity is too small to counteract the heat, and pre- on a hill near the borders of Surrey. It has a serve the necessary low temperature. It has handsome church, which was rebuilt after haveven been found, that the edge or point of a ing been burnt down in 1683. On the 12th of hard tool ground under water will be softened, November, 1785, the beautiful tower, having if it be not held so as to meet the stream, sparks fallen to decay, fell down, and partly lighting on being often produced even under water. To the church, very considerably damaged it. An remedy this inconvenience, Mr. Nicholson made hospital in the reign of king James I., for thirtythe following experiments:—He procured a oue poor people of this town, was built and Newcastle grind-stone of a fine grit, ten inches endowed with £330 a year. It is a borough in diameter, and a mahogany block, to be used by prescription, governed by a warden and with emery on it; both mounted on an axis, to two gentlemen-assistants; has sent burgesses to be applied between the centres of a strong lathe. parliament ever since the first of Edward II., Both were of the same diameter, and turned who are elected by about thirty-five burgagetruly cylindrical. The face of the mahogany holders : and had a charter for a monthly market block was grooved obliquely in opposite direc- from Henry VII. The returning officer here tions, to afford a lodgment for the emery: the is the bailiff, who is chosen by a jury of burface of the stone was smooth, and a trough with gage-holders. Its market is on Thursday. At water was placed below it. The wooden cylin- the east end of the town is a large handsome der was faced with oil and emery. The tool to building in the form of a square, called Sackbe ground was a file, from which it was intende ville College, founded by Sackville, duke of ed to grind off all the teeth. The velocity of the Dorset, about the year 1616, for twenty-four
aged persons of both sexes, where each has a Many people would, with reason, prefer the griping comfortable room, and a yearly allowance of £8. of an hungry belly to those dishes which are a feas: GRIP, n. s. A small ditch.-Ainsworth. to others.
Locke. GRIPE, v.Q., v. 1., & n.s.) Saxon gripan; Manna, by the bulk, figure, texture, and motion of GRI'PER, n. s.
(Gothic greipan; its parts, has a power to produce the sensations of GRI'PINGLY, adv. (Dut.grijpen:Scot. sickness, and sometimes of acute pains or gripings in GRI'PLE, n. s.
gripp. To grasp; us. to hold hard ; to catch ; to press, or squeeze; a In saucy state the griping broker sits, seizure of the hand or paw. Gripes, a name And laughs at honest and at trudging wits. given to the colic or pain in the bowels : hence,
In the jaundice the choler is wanting; and the figuratively, oppression or affliction. A griper is
icterical have a great sourness and gripes, with windi. an extortioner; a usurer. Griple is a griping or
Ploter. covetous miser.
Unlucky Welted! thy unfeeling master,
The more thou ticklest, gripes his hand the faster.
Pope. That he shall in a few stoundes
GRISAʼMBER, n. s. Used by Milton for Lese all his markes and his poundes.
Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. ambergrise. A wonderous way it for this lady wrought,
Beast of chase, or fowl of game, From lion's claws to pluck the griped prey., Spenser. In pastry built, or from the spit, or boiled, Therefore still on high
Grisamber steamed. Milton's Paradise Regained. He over him did hold his cruel claws,
GRISE, n. s. See GREECE, as it should be Threatening with greedy gripe to do him dy. Id. written. A step, or scale of steps. They put a barren sceptre in my gripe,
. Thence to be wrenched with an unlineal hand.
Let me speak like ourself; and lay a sentence,
Shakspeare. Which as a grise or step, may help these lovers Should I
Into your favour.
Shakspeare. Othelle. Slaver with lips, as common as the stairs
GRISGRIS, a superstition greatly in vogue That mount the Capitol ; join gripes with hands
among the negroes in the interior parts of Africa, Made hardy with hourly falsehood as with labour.
The grisgris, according to Le Maire, are certain He gave me his hand,
Arabic characters, mixed with magical figures And, with a feeble gripe, says, dear, my lord,
drawn by the Marabuts or priests upon paper. Command my service.
Id. Henry V.
Labat affirms, that they are nothing else than I take my cause
scraps of the Alcoran in Arabic; but the words Out of the gripes of cruel men, and give it are probably of the Mandingo language, though To a most noble judge, the king my master. the characters are an attempt to imitate the
Shakspeare. Arabic. The poorest negro never goes to war You took occasion to be quickly woo'd, without his grisgris, as a charm against wounds; To gripe the general sway into your hands. Id. and, if it proves ineffectual, the priest transfers
He that speaks doth gripe the bearer's wrist, the blame on the immorality of his conduct. Whilst he that hears makes fearful action
These priests invent grisgris against all kinds of With wrinkled browz.
Id. King John.
nos dangers, and in favor of all desires and appeClysters help, lest the medicine stop in the guts,
s, tites; by virtue of which the possessors may and work gripingly. Bacon's Natural History. Others pretend zeal, and yet are professed usurpers,
obtain or avoid whatever they like or dislike. gripers, monsters of men, and harpies. Burton. No priests in the world are more bonored and
It is mean revenue, by being scattered, in the worst revered by the people than these impostors are of times growing upon him, when others that had great by the negroes; nor are any people in the world ones, by griping, made them less, and grew stark more impoverished by their priests than these beggars.
negroes are,'a grisgris being frequently sold at Adam, at the news
three slaves and four or five oxen. The grisgris Heart-struck with chilling gripe of surrow stood, intended for the head is made in the form of a That all bis senses bound! Milton's Paradise Lost. cross. reaching from the forehead to the neck
Canst thou bear cold and hunger ? Can these limbs, behind, and from ear to ear: nor are the arms Framed for the tender offices of love,
and shoulders neglected. Sometimes they are Endure the bitter gripes of smarting poverty ? Otway. Thus full of counsel to the den she went,
planted in their bonnets in the form of horns; Griped all the way, and louging for a vent.
at other times they are made like serpents,
Dryden. lizards, or some other animals, out of a kind I fell; and with my weight the helm constrained of pasteboard, &c. Was drawn along, which yet my gripe retained. GRI'SKIN, n. §. Irish grisgin, roast meat.
Id. Æneid. The vertebræ of a hog broiled. Fired with this thought, at once he strained the GRISLEA, in botany, a genus of the monobreast;
gynia order, and octandria class of plants : "T'is true, the hardened breast resists the gripe,
natural order seventeenth, calycanthemæ: CAL. And the cold lips return a kiss unripe. Dryden. quadrifid : and there are four petals, one from And first the dame came rushing through the wood;
each incisure of it. The filaments are very And next the famished hounds that sought their food, And griped her flanks, and oft essayed their jaws in
in long, ascending or running upwards : CAPS. globlood.
Id. Fables. bose, superior, unilocuiar, and polyspermous. He seized the shining bough with griping hold. Species two; one an East Indian shrub with a And rent away with ease the lingering gold. fine red flower; the other, G. secunda, a South
Dryden. American tree, with leaves like the bay-tree.
GRI'SLY, adj. Sax. grislu. Dreadful; hor- hogs and wild fowl; but there is a scarcity of
fish and salt, and their
horses are mostly pur-
the Rhine, the Inn, and the Adda. It has also
duced here so lately as 1772, and has been car-
Id. The Knightes Tale.
covered with valuable timber. The valley of
the Engadin exports large quantities to Tyrol by
medium of the Rhine. This country is also His grisly locks, long growen and unbound,
rich in minerals : there are no manufactures
Where I was wont to seek the honey bee, Their exports are cattle, wood, and minerals.
salt from the Tyrol and Bavaria ; and from
and French cloths.
This country was anciently a part of Rhætia.
After the extinction of the Roman empire in
the west, it was some time subject to its own For that damned magician, let him be girt ,
dukes, or those of Swabia. Then the bishop of
Coire, and other petty princes, dependent on
Id. the emperors of Germany, became masters of
great part of it: at last, by the extinction of
Dryden. got rid of all its lords, and was erected into three
whole of Switzerland, suffered much during the
late wars, having been repeatedly and succes-
ground. sively overrun by the French and Austrians. In
Id. France, and in the following year 'the Grisons
with its dependencies was formed into one of
Addison. the Swiss cantons. The leagues are divided into
GRISSAUNT (William), an eminent English
physician, astronomer, and mathematician of the
the mill’—is profit or gain. Those who speak German
26,000 Get grist to the mill to have plenty in store, Italian
10,000 Lest miller lack water. Tusser's Husbandry. Romanish or the an
The computation of degrees, in all matrimonial cient Rhætian language
37,000 causes, is wont to be made according to the rules of
that law, because it brings grist to the mill. Ayliffe. Total
73,000 A mighty trade this lusty miller drove;
Much grist from Cambridge to his lot did fall,
And all the corn they used at scholar's hall. It is still divided into three leagues, viz. the
Miller of Tromp. Grison or Gray League, the League of the house
Matter, as wise logicians say, of God, and the ten Jurisdictions; which united Cannot without a form subsist; formed one republic. The two first lie toward
And form, say I, as well as they, the south, and the third towards the north. The Must fail, if matter brings no grist. Swift. inhabitants are said to have been named Gri GRI'STLE, n.s. ? Saxon zhistle ; Teuton. sons, from the gray coats they wore in former Gri'stly, adj. } croestel. A cartilage; a times. This country, lying among the Alps, is part of the body next in hardness to the bone. very mountainous, yielding good pasture for the
No living creatures, that have shells very hard, as cattle, sheep, and goats, with some rye and oysters, crabs, lobsters, and especially the tortoise, barley : in the valleys there is plenty of grain, have boxes within them, but only little gristles. pu'se, fruits, and wine. It abounds also with
Bacon's Natural History.