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gluttony: gulp, to swallow eagerly, or suck

The clouds down without intermission.

Tine the slant lightening ; whose thwart flame driven

down, Out of the hardy bones, knocken they

Kindles the gummy bark of fir and pine. Milton. The mary; for they causten nought away

Nor all the gummy stores Arabia yields. That may go through the gullet soft and sote.

Dryder. Chaucer. The Pardoneres Tale.

How each arising alder now appears, England his approaches makes as fierce

And o'er the Po distils her gummy tears.

Id. is waters to the sucking of a gulf. Shakspeare.

The yawning youth,

carce half awake, essaya The Euxine sea and the Mediterranean, small gul. His lazy limbs and dozy head to raise ; lets, if compared with the ocean.

Heylyn. Then rubs his gummy eyes, and scrubs his pate. Id.
It might be his doom

Her maiden train,
One day to sing

Who bore the vests that holy rites require,
With gullet in string.

Denham. Incense, and odorous gums, and covered tire. ld. Many have the gullet or feeding channel which have

Observations concerning English amber, and rela

tions about the amber of Prussia, prove that amber is no lungs or windpipes; as tishes which have gills,

not a gummous or resinous substance drawn out of whereby the heart is refrigerated; for such thereof as

trces by the sun's heat, but a natural fossil. have lungs and respiration are not without wizzon, as

Woodward. whales and cetaceous animals. Browne's Vulgar Errours.

Sugar and honey make windy liquors, and the elas. As oft as he can catch a gup of air,

tick fermenting particles are detained by their innate Aud peep above the seas, he names the fair.

gummosity.

Floyer. Dryden.

The tendons are involved with great gumminess and collection of matter.

Wiseman's Surgery. He loosens the fish, gulps it down, and as soon as ever the morsel was gone wipes his mouth.

The eyelids are apt to be gummed together with a L'Estrange. viscuous humour,

1. I see the double faggon charge their hand;

She unt wists a wire, and from her gums
A set of teeth completely comes.

Swift. See them puff off the froth, and gulp amain,

Flowers whose wild odours breathe but agonies, While with dry tongue I lick my lips in vain.

Gay.
And trees whose gums are poison.

Byrom The liquor in the stomach is a compound of that Gum is the mucilage of vegetables, and is of which is separated from its inward coat, the spittle no particular smell or taste. It becomes viscous which is swallowed, and the liquor which distils from and tenacious when moistened with water; totally the gullet.

Arbuthnot. dissolves in water into a liquid, more or less In deep suspirations we take more large gulps of glutinous in proportion to the quantity of the air to cool our beart, overcharged with love and sor- gum; not dissolving in vinous spirits or in oils;

More.

burning in the fire to a black coal, without melt• Give me the oyster, then-'tis well

ing or catching flame; suffering no dissipation He opens it, and at one sup,

in the heat of boiling water. The true gums are Gulps the contested tribo up, And smiling gives to each a shell. Somerville.

gum arabic, gum tragacanth, gum senega, the

gum of cherry and plum trees, and such like. To Gul’LY, v. n. Corrupted from gurgle. To All others have more or less of resin in thein. run with noise.

See ChemisTRY. For more particular descripGUʻLLYHOLE, n. s. From gully and hole. The tions of the gums, and also of the gum-resins, hole where the gutters empty themselves in the

see CHEMISTRY, Index. subterraneous sewer.

GUm Elastic is treated of under the title of GUM, n. s. & v. a. Lat. gummi; Gr. κομμι. CAOUTCHOUC both in the article CHEMISTRY and GUM'MINESS, n. S.

A vegetable substance, in its alphabetical place. GuaraCum is also GUM'MOSITY, n. s. differing from a resin, separately noticed in the body of the work. in being more viscid

Gum, in gardening, a kind of gangrene inciGum'my, adj. and less friable, and gene- dent to fruit-trees of the stone kind, arising from rally dissolving in aqueous menstruums.- a corruption of the sap, which, by its viscidity, Quincy. Sax. Loma; Dut. gumme. The fleshy not being able to make its way through the fibres covering that invests and contains the teeth. To of the tree, is, by the protrusion of other juice, close or smear with gum: guminy and gummous made to extravasate and ooze out upon the bark. are applied to whatsoever consists, is productive When the distemper surrounds the branch, it of, or overgrown with, gum.

admits of no remedy; but when only on one That for to speken of gomme, herbe or tre, part of a bough, it should be taken off to the Comparaison may none imaked be.

quick, and some cow dung clapped on the wound, Chuucor. Prologue to Legende of Good Women. covered over with a linen cloth, and tied down. The babe that milks me,

M. Quintinie directs to cut off the morbid branch I'd pluck my nipple from his boneless gums.

two or three inches below the part affected.

Shakspeare. Gum Arabic is the produce of a species of One whose eyes,

Mimosa. Its chief use in medicine is from its Albeit unused to the melting mood, Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees

glutinous quality, which serves to incrassate and Their medicinal gum.

Id. Othello,

obtund thin acrid humors, and thus is useful From the utmost end of the head branches there

in coughs, alvine fluxes, hoarsenesses, gripes, issueth out a gummy juice, which bangeth downward &c. In a dysuria the true gum arabic is more like a cord.

Raleigh.

cooling than the other simple gums. One ounce He ripens spices, fruit, and precious gum, of gum arabic renders a pint of water consiWhich from remotest regions hither come. Waller. derably glutinous: four ounces give it a thick

row.

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gun in

no

syrupy consistence: but for mucilage, one part

GUN, n. s.

Of this word there gum to two parts water is required; and for Gun'nel, n. s. is no satisfactory etysome purposes an equal proportion will be ne- Gun'ner, n. s. mology, Dr. Johnson cessary. Hasselquist relates an ir:3tance of the GUN'NERY, n. S. says. Mr. Lye obextraordinary nutritive virtues of this gum, Gun'-POWDER, n. s. serves,

that which happened to an Abyssinian caravan, Gun-shot, n. s. & adj. ŞIceland signifies batwhose provisions were consumed, when they Gun'-SMITH, n. s.

tle; but when guns had still two months to travel. They were Gun'-STICK, n. s.

came into use we had then obliged to search for something among their Gun'-s10CK, n. s.

commerce with merchandise wherewith they might support Gun'-STONE, N. S.

Iceland.. May not nature; and found nothing more proper than Gun'-WALE, n. s. gun come by gradual gum arabic, of which they had carried a consi- corruption from canne, ganne, gunne? Canne is derable quantity along with them. This served the original of cannon. Mr. Thomson refers to to support above 1000 persons for two months; the Scot. gyn, or gin (engine). The general and the caravan at last arrived at Cairo without name for fire-arms; the instrument from which any great loss of people either by hunger or shot is discharged by fire. Gunnel, corrupted diseases.'

from gun-wale. Gunner (cannonier) he whose GUMMA, a sort of venereal excrescence on employment is to manage the artillery in a ship. the periosteum of the bones.

Gunnery, the science of artillery; the art of GUMBINNEN, a modern government of East managing cannon. Gun-powder, the powder put Prussia, comprising Prussian Lithuania, and into guns to be fired. It consists of about fifteen bounded by Russia, the kingdom of Poland, and parts of nitre, three parts of sulphur, and two of the government of Konigsberg. Its superficial charcoal : the proportions are not exactly kept. extent is 6150 square miles, with 350,000 inha- Gun-shot, made by the shot of a gun: the reach bitants, of whom the majority are Lutherans; or range of a gun; the space to which a shot next to them are the Calvinists; and last the can be thrown. Gun-smith, a man whose trade Catholics. Prussian Lithuania is the most fer- is to make guns. Gun-stick, the rammer, or tile part of East Prussia; but manufactures stick, with which the charge is driven into a gun. are nearly unknown. In 1710 it was almost Gunstock, the wood to which the barrel of the gun depopulated by the plague; and two years after is fixed. Gun-stone, the shot of cannon. They used the king of Prussia admitted into the country formerly to shoot stones from artillery. Gun-wale, several thousand emigrants from Switzerland, or gunnel, of a ship, that piece of timber which France, the Palatinate, and Franconia. In 1731, reaches on either side of the ship from the halfand 1734, inore than 20,000 Saltzburghers came deck to the fore-castle, being the uppermost bend hither. These settlers cleared the superfluous which finishes the upper works of the hull in that woods, drained the marshes, and cultivated the part, and wherein they put the stanchions which land with much success. The native Lithuanians support the waste tree; this is called the gunare now but few in number. During the seven wale, whether tħere be guns in the ship or not; years' war this province suffered severely from also the lower part of any port, where ordnance the Russians, but the government granted funds are, is termed the gun-wale.-Harris. for its relief. Prussian Lithuania was formerly

The knyght with his meyne went to se the walle divided into the circles of Insterburg, Oletzko, And the wards of the town as to a kuyht befall; and Schesten. Since the erection of the go- Devising, en tentifflick, the strengthes al about; vernment of Gumbinnen, smaller divisions And appointed to his sone the perel and the dout have been adopted; it contains nine circles, For shot of arblost and of bowe, and eke for shut of viz. Gumbinnen, Oletzko, Johannisburg, Memel, gonne Stalluponen, Tilsit, Niederungen, Angerburg, Unto the wardes of the town, and how it might be and Rhein.

wonne. Chaucer. The Pardonere and Tapstere. GUMBINNEN, a town of East Prussia, on the And eke within the castel were; Pissa, and the chief place of the new govern- Springoldes, gonnes, bowes, and archers. ment above described. It is regularly and neatly

Id. Romaunt of the Rose. built; the chief object of commerce is corn,

With grisly soune, out goeth the grete gonne. though the manufactures of woollen, linen, and

Id. Legonde of Good Women. leather, are not inconsiderable it is exposed to The emperor, smiling, said that never emperor was hazard from land floods. The inhabitants are yet slain with a gun.

Knolles's History. chiefly protestants, and service is performed both Tell the pleasant prince, this mock of his in the German and Lithuanian languages. Popu- Hath turned his ball to gunstones, and his soul lation 5300. Sixty-five miles east of Konigsberg. Shall stand sorecharged for the wasteful vengeance

Shakspeare. Henry V.. in either jaw, through which the teeth, spring With lynstock now the devilisi cannon touches, GUMS, in anatomy, the hard fleshy substance That shall fly with them.

The nimble gunner from the jaw-bone. See Anatomy. The gums And down goes all befrre bim.

Id. are apt to become spongy, and to separate from

These dread curses, like the sun 'gainst glass, the teeth ; but the cause is often a stony kind

Or like an overcharged gun, recoil of crust, formed therein, which, when separated, And turn upon thyself.

Id. Henry VI. the gums soon return to their former state, espe

They slew the principal gunners, and carried away cially if rubbed with a mixture of the infusion of

Haywaru. roses four parts, and the tincture of inyrrh one. Such as do build their faith upon The scurvy is another disorder which sometimes The holy text of pike and gun • affects the gums, when not manifest in any other Decide all controversies by part.

their artillery.

Infallible artillery.

Hudibra.

Gun-powder consisteth of three ingredients, salt- amentum consists of uniflorous scales; there is petre, small-coal, and brimstone.

neither calyx nor corolla; the germen is bie Browne's Vulgar Errours. dented, with two styles and one seed. Species Those who are come over to the royal party are three : one a native of the Cape, the other two supposed to be out of gun-shot.

Dryden. from South America. It is of particular esteem with the gun-smiths for Gunnery is the art of charging, directing, stocks.

Mortimer.

and exploding fire-arms, as cannons, mortars, The tinber is used for bows, pullies, screws, mills, muskets, &c., to the best advantage. This art and gun-stocks.

Id. Husbundry. lepends greatly on having the guns and shot of Burning by gun-powder frequently happens at sea. a proper size and figure, and well adapted to

Wiseman. each other. See ORDNANCE. As both the The symptoms I have translated to gun-shot wounds. theory and practice of gunnery are intimately

Id. connected with the subject of PROJECTILES, we Even a gun-stick flying into fame.

Stuart. shall refer the reader to that article : under For health and idleness to passion's fame

which not only the practical part of gunnery, but Are soil and gun-powder; and some good lessons whatever relates to the action of gun-powder, Are also learnt from Ceres and from Bacchus

the velocity it communicates to bullets, the reWithout whoun Venus will not long attack us. Byron.

sistance which the atmosphere opposes to their A Gun is a weapon of offence, which forcibly motion, and the curves they describe, will be discharges a ball, or other hard and solid matter, fully treated of. through a cylindric tube, by ineans of inflamed GUNPOWDER is a composition of saltpetre, gun-powder. See GUN-POWDER. The word sulphur, and charcoal, mixed together, and gun now includes most species of fire-arms; usually granulated; which easily takes fire, and pistols and mortars being almost the only ones when fired, expands with great vehemence, by excepted from this denomination. They are di- its elastic force. To this powder we owe all the vided into great and small guns: the former includ- action and effect of guns, ordnance, &c., so that ing all that we also call CANNON, ORDNANCE, the modern military art in a great measure deor ARTILLERY; the latter including Muskets, pends on it. CARABINES, MUSQUETOONS, BLUNDERBUSSES, The invention of gun-powder is usually asFOWLING-PIECES, &c. See these articles, parti- scribed to one Bartholdus Schwartz, a German cularly ARTILLERY and OrdnANCE.

monk, who discovered it about the year 1320; GUNDELIA, in botany, a genus of the po- it is said to have been first used in war by the lygamia segregata order, and syngenesia class of Venetians against the Genoese in the year 1380. plants; natural order forty-ninth, compositæ : Thevel says its inventor was one Constantine Cal. none: forets tubular and hermaphrodite: Anelzen, a mouk of Friburg. Peter Mexia says the receptacle bristly, with scarcely any pappus. it was first used by Alphonsus XI., king of CasSpecies one only; an American plant.

tile, in the year 1242. Ducange adds, that there GUNDWANAH, or GOANDWANAH, an ex- is mention made of this powder in the registers tensive province of Flindostan, stretching from of the chambers of accounts of France, so early 19° to 25° of N. lat. On the north it is bounded as the year 1338 ; and our countryman friar by Allahabad and Bahar, and on the south Bacon expressly mentions the composition in by Orissa and the river Godavery. To the east his treatise De Nullitate Magiæ, published at it has parts of Orissa, Bengal, and Bahar, Oxford in the year 1216. Some indeed are of and to the west Malwah, Berar, and Allaha- opinion, that the Arabians or the latter Greeks bad. Its length may be estimated at 400 miles, were the first inventors of gun-powder about the by about 180 in breadth. It is divided into four middle ages of our era; because its Arabic districts, Gurrah-Mundela, Choteesgur, Nagpore, name is said to be expressive of its explosive and Chandah. Its principal towns are Nagpore, quality. Considerable improvements have lately Gurrah, Ruttunpore, Deogur, Ryepore, Sumb- been made in the composition of gun-powder by hulpore, and Bustar. The greater part of the the Chinese. province is mountainous, woody, poor and un- The method of making gun-powder recomhealthy, but it possesses diamond mines. The mendea by colonel James is :-take saltpetre, more fertile portions belong to the Nagpore Mah- snlphur, and charcoal ; reduce these to a fine rattas, the remainder to various chiefs of the powder, and continue to beat them for some time Goands, who, although professing the Hindoo in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle, wetting religion, eat animal food, and are in a very unci- the mixture occasionally with water, so as to form vilised state. The Mahrattas exact from them a the whole into a uniform paste, which is aftermoderate tribute. A considerable portion of it wards reduced to grains, by passing it through a is now included in Malwah.

sieve; and in this form, being carefully dried, it A Gunner is an officer appointed to firc the becomes the common gun-powder. For greater guns, either by sea or land." In the Tower of quantities mills are used, by means of which London, and other garrisons, as well as in the more work may be performed in one day than a field, this officer carries a field staff, and a large mao can do in 100. powder-horn in a string over his left shoulder. This destructive powder is composed of He marches by the guns; and, when there is any seventy-five parts nitre, nine sulphur, and sixapprehension of danger, his field-staff is armed teen of charcoal in the 100. with a match. His business is to lay the gun, To refine the saltpetre.- Put into a copper, or to pass, and to help to load and traverse her. any other vessel, 100 cwt. of rough nitre, with

GUNNERA, in botany, a genus of the dian- ahout fourteen gallons of clean water, and let it dria order, and gynandria class of plants. The boil gently for half an hour, and as it hoils take

off the scum; then stir it about in the copper, , top wood, which has previously been cut at the
and before it settles, put it into your filtering time of cording, in a smooth and equable man-
bags, which must be hung on a rack, with glazed ner joining the pieces, or rather fitting them in,
earthen pans under them, in which sticks must as close to each other as possible: placing the
be laid across for the crystals to adhere to : it must convex side of the logs outward ; and thus form-
stand in the pans for two or three days to shoot: ing the pile in the shape of an inverted bowl,
then take out the crystals and let them dry. The nearly semi-globular. The pile being formed, it
water that remains in the pans must be boiled is tiled with sods; which are pointed, to keep in
again for an hour, and strained into the pans as the heat the better, by filling up the seams with
before, and the saltpetre will be quite clear and fine pulverised mould.
transparent; if not, it wants more refining; to The chimney is now filled with short pieces of
effect which, proceed as usual, till it is well dry wood : near the top a live coal is put; over
cleansed of all its earthy parts.

this one layer more of dry pieces; and, upon
To pulverise the salt petre, take a copper kettle these, a close cap of seed is placed; neverthe-
whose bottom must be spherical, and put into it less, this one coal, not larger than the first, and
fourteen pounds of refined saltpetre, with two excluded from the open air, is sufficient to set
quarts or five pints of clean water ; then put the the pile on fire. As the pieces in the chimney
kettle on a slow fire: and when the saltpetre is burn away, they are replaced with fresh ones :
dissolved, if any impurities arise, skim them off; thus feeding the fire with fresh fuel. Close-
and keep constantly stirring it with two large paled hurdles are placed on the windward side
spattles till all the water exhales; and when of the heap, to prevent the fire from acting par-
done enough it will appear like white sand, and tially.
as fine as four; but, if it should boil too fast, When the fire begins to show itself at the out.
take the kettle off the fire, and set it on some ward skirts of the bottom of the pile, it is known
wet sand, by which means the nitre will be pre- that the coal is fully burnt (or rather that the
vented from sticking to the kettle. When you wood is sufficiently charred), which it will be, in a
have pulverised a quantity of saltpetre, be care- pile of ten cords, and in dry weather, in seven or
ful to keep it in a dry place.

eight days. The fire, during the whole time, is As we have not noticed the method of making carefully kept from breaking out, by throwing charcoal in quantities, under that head, we may mould or ashes upon the weak parts ; so that, here subjoin a few remarks on that important though the fire passes through every part of the constituent of gunpowder. Common charcoal wood, little or none of the matter of fire escontains only sixty-four parts of diamond, or capes. pure carbon, and thirty-six of oxygen in every It is a curious fact, that, notwithstanding the 100. The charcoal of commerce is usually intense heat, no part of the tree is entirely conprepared from young wood, which is piled up sumed; for it is found that even the moss comes near the place where it is cut, in conical heaps out as entire as when it went in; the only apcovered with earth, and burnt with the least pos- parent change is in its being rendered friable, sible access of air. When the fire is supposed and of a black color. Wood that is charred to have penetrated to the centre of the thickest shrinks considerably during the process of charpieces, it is extinguished by entirely closing the ring; but there is no visible derangement of vents. When charcoal is wanted very pure, the parts. One of the smaller pieces, which is not product of this mode of preparing it will not broken in the drawing, appears as entire when it suffice; for the manufactory of the best gun- comes out, as when it went into the pile. The powder, it is distilled in iron cylinders ; chemists brittleness after charring, however, shows that the prepare it in small quantities, in a crucible texture of the wood is altered, by the action of covered with sand, and, after they have thus pre- the fire. pared it, they pound it, and wash away the salts As soon as the fire disappears, on the outside it contains by muriatic acid ; the acid is removed of the heap, the workmen begin to draw the by the plentiful use of water, and afterwards the coal :' an operation which is done by running a charcoal is exposed to a low red heat. Pure peel between the coal and the hearth; raising up charcoal is perfectly tasteless, and insoluble in the coal in such a manner as to let the mould water.

and ashes of the sods fall through between the Mr. Marshall furnishes us with a very minute pieces upon the more inward parts still full of account of the manufacture of charcoal. The fire. If this make its appearance in any parwood having been selected, and the site or hearth ticular spot, a peel full of ashes is immediately being determined upon, the turf is pared off, and thrown against it. the sods laid on one side. The wood, about ten Having got sufficiently near to the fire, the cords, is then laid in a ring, somewhat wider than coals raised by the peel are raked off, with longthe intended hearth; beginning on the outer toothed iron rakes : the teeth about a foot long circumference of the ring, with the smallest of and standing about six inches apart: the handle the round wond : laying the larger pieces of top and head of wood, except a plate of iron on the wood, and the cloven roots or but-ends, towards back, with which the small coal is gathered tothe hearth.

gether. No sieve, nor any rake with fiuer teeth With these last, some of them nearly as large than the above, is used. The coal being light is as bushel blocks, they begin to make their pile; readily brought to the surface of the ashes and leaving a sort of chimney in the middle (a ver- dirt; and, when there, is easily collected (tho tical aperture from a foot to eighteen inches with a kind of slight) with the back of the rake. wide); and, round this core of blocks, set up the The side thus drawn, being rounded up and sc

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cured with ashes, another, the coolest part, is mechanics gradually advanced, and enabled ardrawn in the same manner, till the whole packet tists, by making brass cannon of a much smaller is taken from the kiln.

bore for iron bullets, and a much greater charge Charcoal newly prepared, absorbs moisture of strong powder in proportion to their calibres, with avidity; it also absorbs oxygen and other to produce a very material and important change gases, which are condensed in its pores in quan- in the construction and fabric of those original tity many times exceeding its own bulk, and are pieces. Accordingly this historian, in the same given out unaltered. Fresh charcoal allowed to book of his history, informs us, that about 114 cool without exposure to air, and the gas then years after the first use made of those unwieldiy admitted, will absorb in the following proportion: pieces by the Venetians, in the war which they one part of charcoal will absorb 2.25 times its carried on against the Genoese in the year 1380, bulk of atmospheric air immediately, and 75 the French were able to procure for the invasion more in four or five hours ; of oxygen gas about of Italy a great number of brass cannon mounted 1.8 immediately, and slowly 1 more : of nitrogen on carriages drawn by horses ; and that these gas 1.65 immediately: of nitric oxide 8.5 very pieces could always keep pace with the army. slowly: of hydrogen gas about 1.9 immediately: Gun-powder was not at first grained, but in carbonic acid gas 14:3 immediately. The greater the form of fine meal, such as it was reduced to part of these gases are expelled by a heat below by grinding the materials together; and it is 212°, and a portion even by immersing the char- doubtful whether the first graining of it was coal in water. These absorptions are promoted intended to increase its strength, or only to render by a low temperature; but, at an elevated tempe- it more convenient for the filling it into small rature, charcoal has such an affinity for oxygen, charges, and the loading of small arms, to which that it will abstract it from almost all its combi- alone it was applied for many years, whilst meal nations. Hence its utility in reviving metals. Fossil powder was still made use of in cannon. But coal, and all kinds of bitumen, contain a large at last the additional strength, which the grained quantity of carbon: it is also contained in oils, powder was found to acquire from the free pasresins, sugar, and animal substances.

sage of the fire between the grains, occasioned Charcoal is one of the most unchangeable the meal-powder to be entirely laid aside. The substances; if the access of air be prevented, coal for making gun-powder is either that of the most intense heats have no other effect than willow or hazle; but the lightest kind of willow that just mentioned of hardening it, and render- is found to be the best, well charred in the usual ing its color a deeper black. Insoluble in water, manner, and reduced to powder. Corned powder and incapable of putrefaction, it undergoes no was in use in Germany as early as the year 1568; change by mere exposure or age; and stakes but it was first generally used in England in the and other materials of wood which have been reign of Charles I. charred, or superficially converted into charcoal, It has been recommended by a French writer have been preserved from decay for thousands to preserve gun-powder at sea by means of boxes of years; the ancients availed themselves of this which should be lined with sheets of lead. M. mode of preparing stakes which were to be De Gentiеn, a naval officer, tried the experiment driven into the ground for foundations and other by lodging a quantity of gun-powder, and parchpurposes.

ment cartridges, in a quarter of the ship which Gun-powder, says major James, for some time was sheathed in this manner. After they had after the invention of artillery, was of a compo- been stowed for a considerable time the gunsition much weaker than what we now use, or powder and cartridges were found to have sufthat ancient one mentioned by Marcus Græcus: fered little from the moisture ; whilst the same but this, it is presumed, was owing to the weak- quantity, when lodged in wooden cases, became ness of their first pieces, rather than to their nearly half rotted. ignorance of a better mixture; for the first The proof of gun-powder, by the board of pieces of artillery were of a very clumsy, incon- ordnance, is thus effected :—They first take out venient make, being usually framed of several of the several barrels of gun-powder a measure pieces of iron bars, fitted together lengthways, full, of about the size of a thimble, which is and then hooped together with iron rings; and spread upon a sheet of fine writing paper, and as they were first employed in throwing stone then fired: if the inflammation be very rapid, shot of a prodigious weight, in imitation of the the smoke rises perpendicular, and if the paper ancient machines, to which they succeeded, they be neither burnt nor spotted, it is then judged 10 were of an enormous bore. When Mahomet II. be good powder. The two drams of besieged Constantinople, in the year 1453, he powder are exactly weighed, and put into an battered the walls with stone bullets, and his eprouvette ; which, if it raises a weight of 24 lbs. pieces were some of them of the caliber of 1200lb. to the height of three inches and a half, is rebut they could not be fired more than four times ceived into the king's magazine as proof. in the twenty-four hours, and sometimes they burst Several instruments have been invented to try by the first discharge. And Guicciardin, in the the strength of gun-powder ; but they have gefirst book of his history, informs us, that so large nerally been complained of as inaccurate. Count a portion of time between the different chargings Rumford, in the Philosophical Trans. vol. 71. and dischargings of one of hose pieces, that the gives an account of a method of trying the besieged had sufficient time to repair at their strength of it, to which the reader can also refer : Jeisure the breaches made in their walls by the but the simple method of the board of ordinance shock of such enormous stones. But as mathe- seems to answer every purpose. The following malical knowledge increased in Europe, that of are stated to be the proportions of the different

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