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er or England.
ingredients for making gunpowder, by different their gunpowder at or below Blackwall; and be powers in Europe :
searched by the officers of the Trinity-house. General exceptions are made as to his majesty's mills, storehouses, and magazines; and as to powder sent with the army or militia; and exported or carried coast-wise below Blackwall.
Erecting powder-mills, or keeping magazines
near a town, is a nuisance at common-law, puIbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. nishable by indictment or information ; but by Saltpetre 75 75 75
76 70 46 Geo. III., c. 121, the importation into Great Sulphur 10 9} 9
Britain of gunpowder, arms, &c., manufactured Charcoal 15 151| 16 12 12
in Ireland, is permitted, notwithstanding the
stat. 1 Jac. II. c. 8. Pounds 100 100 100 100 100 100
GUNTER (Edmund), M. A. and B.D, a celebrated mathematician, born in Hertfordshire
in 1581. He studied at Westminster and OxGUNPOWDER, in law. By stat. 12, Car. II. c. ford, where he graduated in 1606 and 1615. 4. the exportation of gunpowder was allowed if Being eminent for his knowledge in the mathethe price did not exceed £5 per barrel.--By 59 matics, he was, in 1613, chosen professor of Geo. III. c. 73, this restriction as to price is re- astronomy in Gresham College, where he distinpealed : but power is reserved to the crown to guished himself by his lectures and writings. prohibit the exportation at any time.—And see He invented several useful instruments which as to Ireland, stat. 49 Geo. III. c. 76.
bear his name; and published Canon TrianguTo obtain an exclusive patent for the sole lorum, and a work on the Sector, Cross-staff, making or importation of gunpowder or arms, &c. He died at Gresham College, in 1626. or to hinder others from importing them, incurs Gunter's QUADRANT. See QUADRANT. the penalties of præmunire by stat. 16 Car. I. Gunter's Scale, called by navigators simply c. 21.
1. Jac. II. c. 8. See stat. 46 Geo. III. the gunter, is a large plain scale, generally two c. 121. By 12 Geo. III., c. 61, all former acts feet long, and about an inch and a half broad, relative to the making, keeping, and carrying, of with artificial lines delineated on it, of great use gunpowder, are repealed; and by this act it is in solving questions in trigonometry, navigation, provided, that no person shall make gunpowder &c. but in the regular manufactories, established at GUNTOOR, a district of Hindostan, on the the time of making the statute, or licensed by western side of the bay of Bengal, called the the sessions pursuant to the provisions in sect. Northern Circars. It is also called Moortizna13, &c., on forfeiture of the gunpowder, and 2s. gur, and lies immediately north of the Carnatic, per pound.
and south of the river Kistnah. This district was The chief provisions are as follow :-Pestle- the Jagier of Bassalut Jung, the brother of mills not to be used, on the like penalty. Only the nizam, when the British took possession of 40lbs. of powder to be made at one time under the other Circars in 1766, on which account he one pair of stones; except Battle-powder, a fine was allowed to retain it during his life. He died fowling powder so called, made at Battle and in 1782, but the nizam did not give it over for elsewhere in Sussex. Not more than 40 cwt. to more than six years. It is about forty miles in be dried at one time in one stove. Only the length, but a low flat country, calculated for quantity absolutely necessary for immediate use growing rice. Its principal sea-port is Mootato be kept in or near the place of making, except pilly, and its chief towns are Condavir and Gunin brick or stone magazines, fifty yards at least toor. Under the present system of management, from the mill. All gunpowder-makers to have it has been united to Palnaud, and is governed •a brick or stone magazine near the Thames below by a British judge, collector, &c. Blackwall, to keep the gunpowder when made, GUNTOOR, the capital of the above district, on penalty of £25 per month; and £5 a day for and station of the civil establishment, possesses not removing it when made, with all possible small fort. Long. 80° 30' E., lat. 16° 20, N. diligence. No dealer is to keep more than GURGE, n. s. Lat. gurges. Whirlpool ; 200lbs of powder, nor any person not a dealer gulf. more than 5ợlbs., in the cities of London and Marching from Eden he shall find Westminster, or within three miles thereof; or The plain wherein a black bituminous gurge within two miles of the king's palaces or maga
Boils out from under ground. zines, or half a mile of any parish church ; on
Milton's Paradise Lost. pain of forfeiture and 2s. per pound; except in
GU’RGION, n. s. The coarser part of the licensed mills; or to the amount of 300lbs. for meal, sifted from the bran. the use of collieries within 200 yards of them. GUʻRGLE, v. n. Itai.gorgoliure. See GUGGLE. Not more than twenty-five barrels to be carried To fall or gush with noise, as water from a in any land carriage, nor more than 200 barrels bottle. by water (unless going beyond sea or coast wise); Then when a fountain's gurgling waters play, each barrel to contain not more than 100lbs. They rush to land, and end in feasts the day. Pope. Various means are directed for the safe convey- Pure gurgling rills the lonely desert trace, ance in both cases, and to prevent all danger And waste their musick on the savage race. Young. and delay, sect. 18—22. Outward-bound ships GU'RNARD, n. s. ? Fr. gournal. A kind to take in, and homeward-bound to discharge GO'RNET.
If I be not ashamed of my soldiers I am a sowced This position informs us of a vulgar errour, terming gurnet: I have inisused the king's press damnably. the gall bitter ; whereas there is nothing gustable Shakspeare. Henry IV. sweeter.
Harvey. GURRUMCONDAH, a district of Hindos- As when fierce northern blasts from the Alps de tan, in the Carnatic, situated between the thir
scend, teenth and fourteenth degrees of northern From his firm roots with struggling gusts to rend
An aged sturdy oak.
Denham. latitude, and seventy-eighth and seventy-ninth
They, fondly thinking to allay of eastern longitude. It is mountainous, and
Their appetite with gust, instead of fruit was some years ago ceded by the nizam to the
Chewed bitter ashes, which the offended taste British. It is included in the collectorship of With spattering noise rejected.
Hilton. Cuddapah. Gurrumcondah, the capital, is de
The gullet and conveying parts partake of the fended by a strong-built fort, but has been often
nerves of gustation, or appertaining unto sapor. taken and retaken by the Mahrattas, the My
Browne. soreans, and the Nizams. By the latter it was
Whether his valour they so much adınire, ceded to the British in the year 1800.
Or that for cowardice they all retire, GUSH, v. n. & n. s._Dutch, gostelen ; Gothic, As heaven in storms they call in gusts of state, geysa, to pour forth. To flow, or rush, with vio- On Monk and parliament yet both do hate.
Martell. lence; an emission of fluid in a large quantity on a sudden.
We have lost, in a great measure, the gust and relish of true happiness.
Part stay for passage, 'till a gust of wind
Ships o'er their forces in a shining sheet. Dryden. If a lung-vein be bursted, generally at the first
Where love is duty on the female side,
On theirs mere sensual gust, and sought with surly cough a great gush of blood is coughed up. Harvey. The gaping wound gushed out a crimson food.
Id. Fables. Dryden.
My sight, and smell, and hearing were employed, The covering of this abyss was broken asunder, and
And all three senses in full gust enjoyed. Dryder. the water gushed out that made the deluge. Burnet. The principal part of painting is to find what Bature
Incessant streams of thin magnetick rays has made most proper to this art, and a choice of it Gush from their fountains with impetuous force, may be made according to the quat and manner of the In either pole, then take an adverse course.
Blackmore. In reading what I have written, let them bring no Line after line my gushing eyes o'erflow,
particular gusto along with them. Led through a sad variety of woe.
Old age shall do the work of taking away both the On either hand the gushing waters play,
gust and comfort of them.
L'Estrange. And down the rough cascade while dashing fall. Pardon a weak distempered soul, that swells
Thomson. With sudden gusts, and sinks as soon in calms, There's music in the sighing of a reed;
The sport of passions.
Addison's Cato. There's music in the gushing of a rill.
Pleasant gustos gratify the appetite of the luxurious. In a gushing stream
Derham. The tears rushed forth from her upclouded brain,
Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Like mountain mists at length dissolved in rain. Id. Yet cry, if man's unhappy, God's unjust. Pope. GUÍSSET, n. s.
What he defaults from some dry insipid sin, is but Fr. gousset. Any thing
to make up for some other more gustful. sewed on to cloth in order to strengthen it.
Decay of Piety. GUST, n. s. Fr. goust; Ital. gusto ; GUST'ABLE, adj. Isl. guster ; Lat. gustus.
GUSTAVIA, in botany, a genus of the polyGusta'tion, adj. Sense of taste; height of andria order, and monadelphia class of plants : Gust'rul, adj. sensual enjoyment; turn of CAL. none; the petals are very numerous; the Gus'to, n. s. fancy; a violent blast of berry multilocular : SEEDS appendaged. Spe
Gus'ty, adj. wind,-written by Spenser cies two; fine tall trees of Surinam and Guiana. for jousts and tournaments. Gustable and GUSTAVUS I. king of Sweden, son of Eric
gus tation signify the quality of taste, or act of Vasa, duke of Gripsholm. Christian II. king tasting. Gusto a relish; gusty weather, is stormy; of Denmark, having made himself master of Swetempestuous.
den, confined Gustavus at Copenhagen ; but he, For jolly knight he seemed, and fair did sit,
making his escape, wandered long in the forests, As one for knightly gusts and fierce encounters fit.
till, the cruelties of the tyrant having occasioned Spenser.
a revolution, he was first declared .governor of She led calm Henry, though he were a king,
Sweden, and then, in 1313, elected king. He As doth a sail, filled with a fretting gust,
introduced Lutheranism into his dominions, and Command an argosie to stem the waves. Shakspeare. died in 1560. See SWEDEN.
You may as well forbid the mountain pines GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, THE GREAT, king of To wag their high tops, and to make a noise, Sweden, was born at Stockholm in 1594, and When the are fretted with the gusts of heaven. succeeded his father Charles IX. in 1611. He
espoused the cause of the Protestants in GerTo kill, I grant, is sin's extremest gust; But, in defence, by mercy 'tis made just. Id.
many, who were oppressed by Ferdinand I. Once upon a raw and gusty day,
He was a great warrior, and gained many vicThe troubled Tyber chafing with his shores.
tories (see SWEDEN), but was killed in the battle Id. Julius Cæsar.
of Lutzen, where his troops got the victory, and Presently cor forth swarms and volleys of libels, defeated two of the emperor's armies, in Novemwhich are the gusts of liberty of speech restrained. ber, 1632.
Bacon's Henry VII. GUSTAVUS III. See Sweden.
Guízle,.., v.a. & n.s. S
GUSTROW, a walled town of Mecklenburg- Andrews for the Scotch kirk, and in 1644 was Schwerin, in the principality of Wenden, situ- placed as minister in the parish of Finwick, but ated on the Nebel.' It has six gates, a castle, and after holding his preferment twenty years, was about 6000 inhabitants. Here are several ejected as a nonconformist. He wrote the breweries and brandy distilleries : sixteen miles Christian's great Interest, still held in esteem. south of Rostock, and twenty-nine east of His death took place in 1663. Wismar,
Another WILLIAM GUTHRIE, who has been GUT, n. s. & v.a.
Germ. kutteln; confounded with the above, was born at Breichen, GutstLE, v.a.
Goth. guid ; Scot. in the same county, in 1701, or 1708; and, GUTTLER, n. s
kete. A long after passing through a course of study at Aber
membranous .ca- deen, quitted his native country in consequence nal reaching from the stomach to the anus, of a love affair, and commenced author in called intestines; the stomach; figuratively London. Here he published a History of Engused for gluttony: to gut is to eviscerate; to land, in 3 vols. folio; A Translation of Quintidraw; to plunder of its contents : a guttlerlian, in 2 vols. 8vo.; as also one of some of one who feeds luxuriously; a greedy eater or Cicero's works. The Friends, a novel, 2 vols.; gormandiser. Guzzle has principal reference to and Remarks on English Tragedy, 8vo. The greediness in drinking ; to swallow with immode- Geographical Grammar, which goes under his rate gust.
name, is said to have been compiled by Knox, God for his mapace bim so sore smote,
a bookseller in the Strand. A History of ScotWith invisible wound, ay incurable,
land in 10 vols.; a History of the Peerage, 4to.; That, in his guttes, carfe it so and bote,
and a Universal History, in 13 vols., are also That his peines weren importable ;
ascribed to him. Mr. Guthrie finally obtainAnd certainly the wreche was resonable,
ed a pension, and a commission of the peace for For many a mannes guttes did he peine.
Middlesex. He died in 1770.
GUTTA, n. 8. a Latiu term for drop. his head.
GUTTÆ. See ARCHITECTURE.
GUTTÆ ANGLICANÆ, English drops, a chemiclose to the belly, and then the strings of guls mounted cal preparation esteemed of great virtue against upon a bridge, that by this means the upper strings vapors and lethargic affections, and purchased at stricken should make the lower resound.
£5000 by king Charles II. from the inventor, Bacon's Natural History. Dr. Goddard. It is a spirit drawn by the retort The fishermen save the most part of their fish: from raw silk, and rectified with an essential oil. some are gutted, splitted, powdered, and dried.
GUTTA Rosacea, in medicine, a red or Carew's Cornwall.
pimpled face; a distemper, which, though not Apicius, thou did'st on thy guts bestow
always owing to hard drinking, is most incident Full ninety millions ; yet, when this was spent, Ten millions still remained to thee; which thou,
to tipplers. Fearing to suffer thirst and famishment,
GUTTA SERENA, a disease in which the paIn poisoned potion drankest.
tient, without any apparent fault in the eye, is Hakewill on Providence. deprived of sight. See MEDICINE. And crammed them 'till their guts did ake,
Latin gutta, guttula. With cawdle, custard, and plum-cake. Hudibras. Gut'TULOUS, adj.
, Well seasoned bowls the gossip's spirits raise, or in the form of a drop. Who while she guzzles chats the doctor's praise.
Ice is plain upon the surface of the water, but round In Nero's arbitrary time,
in hail, which is also a glaciation, and figured in its When virtue was a guilt, and wealth a crime,
guttulous descent from the air.
Browne's Vulgar Errours. A truop of cut-throat guards were sent to seize The rich men's goods, and gut their palaces.
GUTTENBURG, or GUTTEMBURG (John),
Dryden. one of the reputed inventors of the art of printWith false weights their servants' guts they cheat, ing, was born at Mentz, in 1400, of wealthy And pinch their own to cover the deceit.
parents. In 1427 he was at Strasburgh, as a His jolly brother, opposite in sense,
merchant; but returned to Mentz in 1430, and, Laughs at his thrift ; and, lavish of expence, between that time and 1439, appears to have Quaffs, crams, and guttles in his own defence. Id. made some trials of printing with metal or other They fell to lapping and guzzling, till they burst
In 1446. he entered into partnership themselves.
L'Estrange. with Fust, the result of which was the publicaThe fool spit in his porridge, to try if they'd biss; tion of the celebrated Bible of 637 leaves, the they did not hiss, and so he guttled them up, and scalded bis chops.
first considerable specimen of printing with Tom Brown, of facetious memory, having gutted a
metal types. John Guttenberg died in 1467. proper name of its vowels, used it as freely as he
GUTTER, n. s. & v. a. Lat. guttur, gulpleased.
turalis. A passage The intestines or guts may be inflamed by any acrid
GUTTURALNESS, n. s. Sfor water; 'a longituor poisonous substance taken inwardly.
dinal hollow : the verb signifies to drain or cut in
Arbuthnot on Diet. hollows. Guttural is descriptive of sounds proGUTHALUS, or GUTTALUS, in ancient geo- nounced with the throat. graphy, is thought to be the Viardus of Ptolemy:
Be as be maie; for ernest or for game, now called the Oder.
He shall awake, and rise, and go his waie GUTHRIE (William), was born in 1620, at Out at this gutter, er that it be daie. Pitforthy, in Angus. He was educated at St.
Chaucer. Legence of Gode Women.
GUTTATED, adj. } Besprinkled with drops,
My cheeks are guttered with my fretting tears. poor men and women; and left £125 a-year for
Sandys. iheir pensions. Tempests themselves, high seas, and howling
GUYON (J. M. de la Mothe.) See MOTIE. winds,
GUYTON MORVEAU. See Morveau. The guttered rocks, and congregated sands,
GUZ, an Indian measure, equal to one yard Traitors ensteeped to clog the guiltless keel,
GUZMAN (Dominic de), founder of the
Dominican order of monks, was born at Calaroga The divine Desdemona. Shakspcare. Othello.
in Old Castile, 1170. He preached against the The Hebrews have assigned which letters are labial, which dental, and which guttural.
Albigenses, when pope Innocent III. made a In attempting to pronounce the nasals, and some of crusade against that unhappy people: and was the vowels spiritally, the throat is brought to labour, inquisitor in Languedoc, where he founded his and makes that which we call a guttural promunciation. order, which was confirmed by the Lateran
council in 1215. He died at Bologna in 1221,
and was canonised. See DOMINICANS.
GYBE, n. s. & v.d. See Gibe.
The vulgar yield an open ear,
And common courtiers love to gybe and feer. half. Moron.
Spenser. Rocks rise one above another, and have deep gutters
Ready in gybes, quick answered, saucy, and a worn in the sides of them ty torrents of rain.
quarrellous as the weazel. Shakspeare. Cymbeline. Addison on Italy.
GYBING, the act of shifting any boom sail GUTTY, in heraldry, a term used when any boom sail is meant any sail whose bottom is
from one side of the mast to the other. By a thing is charged or sprinkled with drops. In blazoning, the color of the drops is to be named. extended by a boom, the fore-end of which is GU'TWORT, n. s. Gut and wort. An
hooked to its respective mast; so as to swing herb.
occasionally on either side of the vessel, describe GUY, n. S. From guide. A rope used to lift ing an arch, of which the mast will be the
centre. As the wind or the course changes, it any thing into the ship:
Guy, in ships, is a large slack rope, extend - becomes necessary to change the position of the ing from the head of the main-mast to the head boom, with its sail, which is accordingly shifted of the fore-mast, and having two or three large
to the other side of the vessel, as a door turns blocks fastened to the middle of it, to sustain upon its hinges. The boom is pushed out by the the tackle used to hoist in and out the cargo of a effort of the wind upon the sail, and is restrained merchant ship.
in a proper situation by a strong tackle com muGuy (Thomas), an eminent bookseller, son
nicating with the vessel's stern, called the sheel. of a coal-dealer in Southwark. He commenced It is also confined on the fore part by the guy. business about 1668 with a stock of £250. The
GYERGYO, or Szent Miklos, a marketEnglish bibles being then very badly printed, town of Transylvania, the chief place of the disMr. Guy contracted with the university of Ox trict of Esik. The Armenians, who form the ford for their privilege of printing them, and chief part of the population, carry on some carried on a great trade in them for many years. Long. 25° 36' E., lat. 46° 39' N.
manufactures of ornamental works of leather. Thus he began to accumulate money, and being a single man, and very penurious, he daily of the country, showed his wife naked. See
GYGES, a Lydian, to whom Candaules, king increased his store. The bulk of his fortune, Lydia. According to Plato, Gyges descended however, was acquired by purchasing seamen's tickets during queen Anne's wars, and South into a chasm of the earth, where he found a Sea stock, in 1720. It is said that at one time brazen horse, whose sides he opened, and saw he was about to marry his maid-servant, and that within the body the carcase of a man, from whose it was only her extravagance in one instance finger he took a brazen ring. This ring, when induced him to alter his intentions. The girl he put it on his finger, rendered him invisible; looking on the paviors at work, near his door, and by means of it he introduced himself to the remarked a broken place that they had not queen, murdered her husband, married her, and repaired; when they told her that Mr. Guy had usurped the crown of Lydia! directed them not to go so far. Well,' she said, of the gymnasium. He had two deputies under
GYMNASIARCHA, in antiquity, the directo: do you mend it, and tell him I hade you.' But she had presumed too much on her' influence him; the Xystarcha, and the Gymnastes. over her careful lover, with whom a few extra
GYMNASTICALLY, adv. Fr. gymnique, ordinary shillings expeuse turned the scale
gymnastique; Gr. against her; he renounced his matrimonial
5γυμνίκος, Үчscheme, and commenced a builder of hospitals. vaotikoS: Pertaining to athletic exercise; conHe was seventy-six years of age when he formed sisting of leaping, wrestling, running, throwing the design of building the hospital which bears the dart, or quoit: athletically made. his name, and lived to see it roofed in; dying in
The country hath his recreations, the city his several 1724. The charge of erecting this vast pile gymnicks and exercises, may-games, feasts, wakes and
merry meetings to solace themselves. amounted to £18,793, and he left £219,499 to
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. endow it. He also erected an alms-house with
Have they not sword-players and every sort a library at Tamworth in Staffordshire, for which of gymnic artists, wrestlers, riders, runners ? he was representative in parliament, for fourteen
Such as with agility and vigor are not gymnastically ing to Plato, one Herodicus, a little prior to composed, nor actively use those parts. Browne.
Hippocrates, was the first who introduced them The Cretans wisely forbid their servants gymnasticks into physic; and his successors, convinced of as well as arms; and yet your modern footmen exer
their usefulness, continued the practice. Hipcise themselves daily, whilst their enervated lords are
pocrates has given instances of it, where he softly lolling in their chariots.
treats of exercise in general, and of the particuGYMNASTICS. From youvos, naked, because lar effects of walking, with regard to health; also the ancient exercises of this kind were per- of the different sorts of races on fout or horseformed naked; a modern name for certain exer- back; leaping, wrestling, the exercise of the cises ancient and modern, which have been thus suspended ball, chironomy, unctions, frictions, distinguished. The ancient gymnasium was rolling in the sand, &c. But, as physicians did little more than a school for warriors, those exer- not adopt all the gymnastic exercises in their cises only being encouraged, the advantages of practice, they were divided between them and which were seen in the field : hence boxing and the masters of martial and athletic exercises, the pancratium fell into disrepute, solely because who kept schools, the number of which greatly the corpulence they encouraged was injurious to increased in Greece; and gymnasia, places appr: the military character. Thus Plutarch says, “It priated solely to these exercises, soon made thel would take three shields to cover a pugilist;' appearance in the principal cities. Lacedæmod and Cato enquires, ‘Of what service can a man was the first place where they were built, anu be to his country who is nothing but belly ?' three soon after were erected at Athens.' Ac The modern gymnasium has no such pretensions: cording to Vitruvius, the gymnasia were a knot in it the arts of war are not cultivated ; but the of buildings united, sufficiently capacious to manly exercise of the limbs, the consequent vi- hold many thousands of people at once ; and gor of the muscles, and the health and robustness having room for philosophers, and the professors necessarily ensuing, are its main objects. This of the sciences, to read their lectures ; and wrestarticle, therefore, naturally divides itself into, lers, dancers, and others, to exercise at the same I. The History of Gymnastics, ancient and mo- time. They consisted of twelve parts, viz. 1. dern. II. The more particular description of The exterior porticos, where the philosophers, modern Gymnastic exercises.
rhetoricians, mathematicians, and physicians,
read public lectures, and where they also disPART I.
puted and rehearsed their performances., 2. The HISTORY OF GYMNASTICS.
ephebium, where the youth assembled very early, With regard to the history of gymnastic exer- to exercise in private without any spectators. cises, their origin, it is evident, must be nearly 3. The coryceum, apodyterion, or gymnasterion, coeval with the first congregation of men into a kind of wardrobe, where they were stripped, societies. At that time, when agility and strength either to bathe or exercise. 4. The elæothesium, were the principal requisites of a warrior, when alipterion, or unctuarium, appointed for the uncleaping, hurling the javelin, racing, wrestling, tions, which either preceded or followed the &c., were exercises which alone would fit men use of the bath, wrestling, pancratia, &c. 5. for the field, enable them to repel the attacks of The conisterium or conistra, in which they cotheir neighbours, or in turn to become themselves vered themselves with sand or dust, to dry up the aggressors; when the defence of their own the oil or sweat. 6. The palæstra, properly so property, or the seizure of that of others, was called, where they practised wrestling, the puthe employment of a principal part of their lives, gillate, pancratia, and other exercises. 7. The the gymnastic art would undoubtedly occupy a sphäristerium or tenniscourt, reserved for exerprominent place in the education of youth. Ac- cises wherein they used balls. 8. Large uncordingly we find, the elders of those primitive paved alleys, which comprehended the space governments soon instituted periodical games; between the porticos and the walls wherewith they gave prizes and honors to the conquerors, the edifice was surrounded. 9. The xysti or and excited in every possible way the emulation porticos for the wrestlers in winter or bad weaof the young men, till the Olympic games, ori- ther. 10. Other xysti or open alleys, for fine ginally the periodical race of four brethren, in weather, some of which were quite open, and process of time became the occupation of days, others planted with trees. 11. The baths, conthe data by which time was reckoned, and the sisting of several different apartments. 12. The cause of war between celebrated cities and even stadium, a large space of a semicircular form, entire nations. Almost all the early writers no- covered with sand, and surrounded with seats tice the ancient games of the gymnasium, and for the spectators. among the first are those celebrated at the funeral The principal gymnastic exercises of the anof Patroclus, as recorded by Homer in the cients were five in number. They began with twenty-third book of the Iliad. Even then the the foot-race (dpojos), which' was the most anart wanted but little of perfection, for we find cient and in the greatest esteem, as it enabled that the Greeks had not only the simple foot- the warrior to make a sudden assault or a quick race, and the manly wrestling-match, but also retreat; and Homer, therefore, constantly entitles the chariot-race, the combats of the cestus, and his hero Achilles · Fróðas órds, swift of foot.' of the sword, hurling the discus and the javelin, David also, in his eulogy on Saul and Jonathan, and exercising with the bow; nor did Ulysses or exclaims, “They were swifter than eagles, they Tydides think it beneath them to join in the were stronger than lions. The victorious racer combat or the race. Not long after, these exer- gave his name to the Olympiad. Sometimes they cises were applied to the medical art. Accord- ran in armour, and were then called on lerodpóuoi.