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bank of the ditch, the side from which he set backward, and then, closing his feet, throws them out. The body should be kept near the pole, both over to the ground. A person may soon and the swing must be carefully given, lest, by learn to mount a horse of any size in this manner. pulling the pole in a direction lateral to the Vaulting over the horse ought to be frequently ditch, you should fall sideways into the ditch. practised, as it is applicable in so many instances. The spring and the fixing of the pole must be With a short run a person may soon learn to made at the same moment, as otherwise the throw himself over the height of his chest, and, swing is not so strongly made ; and, in propor- by shifting the hands, over a very broad table. tion as he becomes more expert, the leaper may Vaulting on, in a standing position, is performed advance his hands higher up the pole, and thereby with a short run; the pupil then places his have a more powerful swing. The feet should hands at a little distance from one another on be stretched out as far as possible to reach the the object, and, at the same time, leaping up, opposite bank, and if this should be lower than draws his knees forcibly towards his breast, so the one from which the leap is taken, the hands that the feet come up between the hands; the gymshould be slid down the pole while in the act of nast then, quitting the horse with his hands, leaping. This exercise is very common in Lincoln- stands upright. If he wish to seat himself sideshire, Cambridgeshire, and the other fen counties ways on the horse, he need only, instead of which abound with dykes; but it is there come standing, continue to throw forward his feet, and mon to throw the body strongly against the pole, he will be able to seat himself on the saddle; or, and, letting it pass between the legs, to ride over, should he still continue his leap, he will go over as it were, upon it.
the horse straight forward. 7. The high leap with a pole greatly resembles SWINGING ON THE BAR.- This, though an exthe preceding one, except that, the sweep being ercise not so directly applicable to the accidents snialler, the hands must be more raised, and the of active life as leaping, vaulting, or climbing, legs quickly turned to prevent their coming in greatly augments the muscular power of the contact with the cord. The left hand should body, and must never be omitted in the gymnagrasp the pole at the same distance from the sium. Bars should therefore be erected similar bottom that the cord is from the ground. The to those shown in Plate III. GYMNASTICs, and pole is not always fixed at the same distance in if possible they should be under cover from front of the stand, but further, in proportion to the rain and the sun. In order to construct these the height of the leap. · The swinging upward is stands, erect two strong posts (a and b, fig. 4), principally effected by the force of the spring as about six feet high and eighteen feet asunder, connected with the quick motion occasioned by and on the top of them fix a thick transverse the run, which, being suddenly checked by the beam, rounded at the top to give a more easy fixing of the pole, changes its horizontal direction grasp to the hand. Then fix three upright posts to one of a slanting ascent, and thus carries the c, c, c, about five feet in height, and on them, in body of the leaper over the cord or cane. At the conjunction with the post b, fasten two other same time the leaper must observe to fix the pole transverse poles d, d, at the distance of about right before him, and not either to the right or three feet from one another. You will then have left, as otherwise the force of the run will throw the single bar A, and the double bars B, as rehim from the pole. The best criterion of a good presented in the plate. The exercises on these leap is, that the pupil descend in an equal balance bars are so various that we cannot be expected to the ground, that is to say, he is not compelled to describe them in detail. On the double bars to run backward to keep himself from falling, the principal ones are performed, either by raiswhich is too often the case. The descent should ing the body on the two hands as the pupil take place on the balls of the toes, and the knees is represented doing, B, Plate III., or by should be slackened to prevent any shock. swinging along them, or lowering and raising
VAULTING, or the art of leaping over an object himself by degrees, by the strength of his arms with the assistance of the hands, requires next to only. On the single bar the most difficult is the he attended to. This is performed by placing seizing the bar with both the hands on the same the hands on the wall, bar, or gate, over or upon side and raising the body by pulling upward, which you rault, and at the same time giving a the feet being meanwhile closed and hanging spring; swinging yourself round, and descending down. This exercise is very fatiguing, and, with your face towards the object. The leaning though many persons will go through it nine or of the hands not only gives direction to, but con- ten times successively, twenty times will tire the siderably assists the swing, and thereby augments strongest man. Hanging by the arms and legs, the muscular power of the arms, shoulders, &c., or by the arms or legs alone, and swinging in as well as of the legs. In order that this exercise different ways round the bar, are the other exermay be practised with ease and safety, wooden cises on this bar. They should, indeed, never horses, whose sides and backs are commonly be neglected, as they greatly facilitate the gymstuffed with wool, and covered with leather, are nast's progress in the following exercise. to be erected in the gymnasium. 1. The pupil · CLIMBING.–The uses and advantages of this places himself in front of the horse, makes one art are too evident to need any particularisation. preparatory leap, and then, fixing both hands on In order to practise it in all its varieties, differit and springing up, throws his right leg over : ent kinds of stands or scaffolds have been recomthe body is then suspended by the support of the mended. The best is recommended in a work hands, and descends gradually to the riding po- entitled Instructions in all kinds of Gymnastic sition. In order to dismuunt, the rider swings Exercises, by a Military Officer, Plate I. reprehimself on his hands, first forward and then sents this stand, with all its appurtenances. It