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is formed of two strong posts fixed firmly in the losophers, famous in antiquity, so called from
woods, where they lived upon the wild products WRESTLING is sometimes included in the of the earth, and never drank wine por married. gymnastic exercises, but to this it is our inten- Some of them practised physic, and travelled tion to give a separate article. See WREST- from one place to another; these were particuLING.
larly famous for their remedies against barrenGYMNOPYRIS, in natural history, a name ness. Some of them, likewise, pretended to given by Dr. Hill to pyritæ of a simple internal practise magic, and to foretel future events. structure not covered with a crust. See PYRITES. GYMNOSPERMIA. See BOTANY. Of these there are only two species : 1. A green GYMNOTUS, in ichthyology, a genus of variously shaped kind. 2. A botryoid kind. fishes belonging to the order of apodes. They The first is the most common of all the pyritæ, have two tentacula at the upper lip: the eyes and appears under a great diversity of shapes. are covered with the common skin; there are It is very hard and heavy, readily gives fire with five rays in the membrane of the gills; the body steel, but will not at all ferment with aquafortis. is compressed, and carinated on the belly with a The second is very elegant, its usual color is an fin. There are nine species, the most remarkagreeable pale green; but what most dis- able of which is the G. electricus, or electric eel, tinguishes it is, that its surface is always beau- called by the French anguille tremblante. This tifully elevated into tubercles of various sizes, fish is a native of the warmer regions of Africa and resembling a cluster of grapes.
America, where it inhabits the larger rivers, and GYMNOSPERMOUS, adj. vúuvos and is particularly found in those of Surinam. In onéqua. Having the seeds naked.
Africa it is said chiefly to occur in the branches GYMNOSOPHISTS, Greek, Ivuvogodisns, of the river Senegal. It is a fish bearing a general i. e, a naked philosopher A set of Indian phi- resemblance to a large eel, though somewhat
thicker in proportion, and of a much darker small yellow spots are placed symmetrically color. It is usually seen in the length of three along the back, from the head to the end of the or four feet.
tail. Every spot contains an excretory aperture A very accurate description of this fish was In consequence, the skin of the animal is congiven by Dr. Garden in the Philosophical Trans- stantly covered with a mucous matter, which, as actions of 1775, who had three of them in his Volta has proved, conducts electricity twenty or possession.
thirty times better than pure water. It is in ge To catch the gymnoti with nets,' says Hum- neral somewhat remarkable, that no electrical boldt, is very difficult, on account of the extreme fish, yet discovered in the different parts of the agility of the fish, which bury themselves in the world, is covered with scales. It would be temud like serpents. We would not employ the merity to expose ourselves to the first shock of a barbasco, that is to say, the roots of the piscidia very large and strongly irritated gymnotus. 15 erythrina and jacquinia armillaris, because, whey by chance you receive a stroke before the fish is thrown into the pool, they intoxicate or benum wounded, or wearied by a long pursuit, the pain these animals. Tbese would have enfeebled the and numbness are so violent, that it is impossible gymnoti; the Indians therefore told us, that to describe the nature of the feeling they excite. they would fish with horses. We found it diffi- I do not remember having ever received from cult to form an idea of this extraordinary manner the discharge of a Leyden jar a more dreadful of fishing; but we soon saw our guides return shock than that which I experienced by imprufrom the savannah, which they had been scouring dently placing both my feet on a gymnotus just for wild horses and mules. They brought about taken out of the water. I was affected the rest thirty with them, which they forced to enter the of the day with a violent pain in the knees, and pool. The extraordinary noise caused by the in almost every joint. horses' hoofs makes the fish issue from the mud, "When Mr. Bonpland held it by the head, or and excites them to combat. These yellowish by the middle of the body, while I held it by the and livid eels, resembling large aquatic serpents, tail, and, standing on the moist ground, did not swim on the surface of the water, and crowd take each other's hand, one of us received shocks, under the bellies of the horses and mules. A when the other did not feel. It depends upon contest between animals of so different an or- the gymnotus to act toward the point where ganisation furnishes a very striking spectacle. it finds itself the most strongly irritated. The The Indians, provided with harpoons and long discharge is then made at one point only, and slender reeds, surround the pool closely; and not at the neighbouring points. "If two persons some climb upon the trees, the branches of which touch the belly of the fish with their fingers, at an extend horizontally over the surface of the water. inch distance, and press it simultaneously, someBy their wild cries, and the length of their reeds, times one, sometimes the other, will receive the they prevent the horses from running away, and shock. In the same manner, when one insulated reaching the bank of the pool. The eels, stunned person holds the tail, and another pinches the by the noise, defend themselves by the repeated gills, or pectoral fin, it is often the first only by discharge of their electric batteries. During a whom the shock is received. It did not appear long time they seem to prove victorious. Several to us, that these differences could be attributed horses sink beneath the violence of the invisible to the dryness or dampness of our hands, or to strokes which they receive from all sides in or- their unequal conducting power. The gymnotus gans the most essential to life; and, stunned by seemed to direct its strokes sometimes from the the force and frequency of the shocks, disappear whole surface of its body, sometimes from one under the water. Others, panting, with mane point only. erect, and haggard eyes, expressing anguish, On cutting a very vigorous fish through raise themselves, and endeavour to flee from the the middle of the body, the fore part alone storm by which they are overtaken. They are gave me shocks. The shocks are equally strong, driven back by the Indians into the middle of in whatever part of the body the fish is touched; the water ; but a small number succeed in elud- it is most disposed, however, to dart them ing the active vigilance of the fishermen. These forth when the pectoral fin, the electrical organ, regain the shore, stumbling at every step, and the lips, the eyes, or the gills are pinched. stretch themselves on the sand, exhausted with Sometimes the animal struggles violently with a fatigue, and their limbs benumbed by the elec- person holding it by the tail, without communitric shocks of the gymnoti.
cating the least shock. Nor did I feel any when - "We obtained five large eels, the greater part of I made a slight incision near the pectoral fin of which were but slightly wounded. The tempera- the fish, and galvanised the wound by the simture of the waters in which the gymnoti habitually ple contact of two pieces of zinc and silver. The live, is about 86° of Fahrenheit, and their electric gymnotus bent itself convulsively, and raised its force, it is said, diminishes in colder waters. The head out of the water, as if terrified by a sensagymnotus is the largest of electrical fishes. I mea- tion altogether new; but I felt no vibration in sured some that were from five feet to five feet three the hands which held the two metals. The most inches long; and the Indians assert, that they have violent muscular movements are not always acseen them still longer. We found that a fish of companied by electric discharges. The action three feet ten inches long weighed 12 lbs. The of the fish on the organs of man is transmitted transverse diameter of the body was three inches and intercepted by the same bodies that transfive lines. The gymnoti of Cano de Bera are of mit and intercept the electrical current of a cona fine olive-green color. The under part of the ductor charged by a Leyden vial, or Volta's pile. head is yellow, mingled with red. Two rows of In employing very delicate electrometers in a
thousand ways, insulating them on a plate of length surrounded and banished, they agreed to glass, and receiving very strong shocks, which disperse in small parties all over the world, passed through the electrometer, I could never where their supposed skill in the black art gare discover any phenomenon of attraction or repul- them a universal reception in that age of sion. The same observation was made ly Mr. superstition and creduüty. In a very few Fahlberg at Stockho.m. This philosopher, how- years they gained such a number of idle proseever, has seen an electric spark, as Watsh and lytes (who imitated their language and comIngenhousz had done before him at London, by plexion), that they became troublesome, and placing the gymnotus in the air, and interrupting, even formidable, to most of the states of Euthe conducting chair by two gold leaves pasted rope. Hence they were expelled from France upon glass, and a line distant from each other. in 1560, and from Spain in 1591. And the No person, on the contrary, has ever perceived a government of England took the alarm much spark issue from the body of the fish itself. We earlier; for in 1530 they are described by stat. have irritated it for a long time during the night, 22 Hen. VIII. c. 10, as an outlandish people at Calabozo, in perfect darkness, without <bserv- calling themselves Egyptians, using no craft nor ing any luminous appearance.'
feat of merchandise, who have come into this GYNÆCEUM, in antiquity, the apartment realm, and gone from shire to shire and place to of women, a separate room in the inner part of place, in great companies, and used great, subthe house, where they employed themselves in tle, and crafty means to deceive the people; spinning, weaving, and needle-work.
bearing them in hand that they by palmistry GY'NECOCRACY, n. s. Gr. yuvaiko poria; could tell men's and women's fortunes; and so Fr. gynecocratie. Petticoat government; female many times by craft and subtlety have deceived power.
the people of their money, and also have com· GYNÆCOCRATUMENI, from vyn, woman, mitted many heinous felonies and robberies.' and kpatejevog, vanquished, an ancient people Wherefore they are directed to avoid the realm of Sarmatia Europæa, inhabiting the east banks and not to return under pain of imprisonment of the Tanais, near its influx into the Palus and forfeiture of their goods and chattels; and, Mæotis ; thus called because they were under upon their trials for any felony which they may the dominion of women. F. Hardouin, in his have committed, they shall not be entitled to a notes on Pliny, says, they were thus called, be jury de medietate linguæ. And afterwards it is cause, after a battle which they lost against the enacted, by stat. 1 & 2 Ph. & Mary c. 4, and 5 Amazons on the banks of the Thermodoon, they Eliz. c. 20, that, if any such persons shall be imwere obliged to become the husbands of the ported into the kingdom, the importer shall forAmazons. See Amazons.
feit £40. And if the Egyptians themselves GYNANDRIA, from yuvn, a woman, avno, a remain one month in the kingdom, or if any man. The twentieth class in the sexual system, person being fourteen years old, whether natural consisting of plants with hermaphrodite flowers, born subject or stranger, who has been seen or in which the stamina are placed upon the style, found in the fellowship of such Egyptians, or or a pillar-shaped receptacle, resembling a style, who has disguised him or herself like them, which rises in the middle of the flower, and shall remain in the same one month at one or sebears both the stamina and pointal. See Botany. veral times, it is felony without benefit of clergy,
GYONGYOS, a large well-built town of Sir M. Hale says, that, at one Suffolk assizes, no Hungary, situated on the side of a mountain. fewer than thirteen persons were executed upon The inhabitants, about 8000, manufacture wool- these statutes a few years before the Restoration. len and leather, and trade in wine and cheese, But, to the honor of humanity, there are no also to a great amount in alum brought from the instances more modern than this of carrying works of Parad, a small town at seven miles these laws into practice; and the last sanguinary distance. Twenty-one miles W. S.W. of Erlau. act is itself now repealed by 23 Geo. III.,
GYPSIES, or Egyptians, an outlandish tribe c. 54. of vagabonds, called Bohemians in France, and In Scotland they seem to have enjoyed some Gittanos in Spain; who, disguising themselves share of indulgence; for a writ of privy seal, in uncouth habits, smearing their faces and bodies, dated 1594, supports 'John Faw, lord and earl and speaking a canting language, wander up and of Little Egypt, in the execution of justice on down, under pretence of telling fortunes, curing his company and folk, conformably to the laws diseases, &c., abuse the people, trick them out of Egypt, and in punishing certain persons there of their money, and steal all they can come at. named, who rebelled against him, left him, robThey are a strange kind of commonwealth of bed him, and refused to return home with him. wandering impostors and jugglers, who made James's subjects are commanded to assist in aptheir first appearance in Germany about the prehending them, and in assisting Faw and his beginning of the sixteenth century. Munster, adherents to return home. There is a like writ who is followed and relied upon by Spelman, in his favor from Mary queen of Scots, in 1553; fixes the time of their appearance to 1417; but, and in 1554 he obtained a pardon for the murder as he owns that the first whom he ever saw were of Ninian Small. So that it appears he had staid in 1529, it is probably an error of the press for long in Scotland, and from him this stro'ling 1517; especially as, when sultan Selim con- people received the name of Faw's.gang, which quered Egypt in 1517, several of the natives they still retain. refused to submit to the Turkish yoke, and it is incredible how this banditti have spread revolted under one Zinganeus; whence the over the earth. They wander about in Asia and Turks called them Zinganees; but, being at Africa and most of the European nations. Spain
is supposed by Mr. Twiss to contain 40,000, by varies between white and yellow, and likewise in others 60,000, and by some 120,000. But in its transparency. It is used as alabaster in seSeptember and October, 1800, they were almost veral works. England abounds with gypseous totally extirpated by the plague. They abound substances. There are plenty in Derby, Nottingin Italy, and are scattered through France, Ger- ham, and Somerset shires, so fine as to take a many, Denmark, Sweden and Russia. For polish like'alabaster. A very fine semipellucid nearly four centuries they have wandered through alabaster is found in Derbyshire. Fine fibrous the world; and in every region, and among talcs are also found in many other places. Very every people, whether barbarous or civilised, fine gypseous drusen is found in Sheppey Isle, they have continued unchanged. Their origin and some exceedingly beautiful, large, and clear has been generally believed to be from Egypt. as crystal, in the salt-works at Nantwich in Thomasius, Salmon, and Sig. Griselini, have en Cheshire. The selenites rhomboidalis abounds deavoured to prove it. M. Grellman, however, in England, particularly in Shotoverhill, in Oxtraces it from Hindostan, and the cause of their ford, though rare in other counties. Sheppey emigration from the bloody wars of Timur Beg affords spar-like gypsa, of a fibrous nature, in India, in 1408—9.
and accreting like the radiations of a star on GYPSUM, selenite, or plaster-stone. The the septaria, and thence called stella septarii. properties of gypsum, according to Cronstedt, GYRA'TION, n. s. Lat. gyrus, gyro; Fr. are, 1. It is looser and more friable than calcare GYRE, n. s. girer. The act of turnous earth. 2. It does not effervesce with acids, GYRED, adj.
ing any thing about : or at most in a very slight degree. 3. It falls GYREFUL, adj.
gyre is a circle described into powder in the fire very readily., 4. When by any thing moving in an orbit: gyreful is burnt, without being made red-hot, its powder changeable. readily concretes with water into a mass which
But, evermore this is the manere, soon hardens; but without any sensible heat be To reve a wight that moste is to him dere ing excited in the operation. 5. It is nearly as To preve in that thy gierful violence difficult of fusion as limestone ; and shows almost Thus am I lost, thee helpeth no defence. the same effects upon other bodies with limestone,
Chaucer. Troilus and Cresseide. though sulphuric acid seems to promote the vitri
Does the wild haggard tower into the sky, fication. Magellan, however, says that most of
And to the south by thy direction Ay? the gypsa, particularly the fibrous, melt in the Or eagle in her gyres the clouds embrace ?
Sandys. fire pretty easily by themselves. 6. When melted with borax it puffs and bubbles very Or strike, or hurlen round in warlike gyre,
Ne thenceforth his approved skill to ward, much, and for a long time during the fusion.
Remembered he; ne cared for his safe guard, Magellan says, when a small quantity of gypsum But rudely raged.
Spenser. is melted with borax the glass becomes colorless Hamlet with his doublet all unbraced, and transparent; but some sorts of sparry gypsa, No hat upon his head his stockings loose melted with borax, yield a fine yellow transpa Ungartered, and down gyred to his ankle. rent glass, resembling the topaz; but, if too
Shakspeare. inuch of the gypsum is used in proportion to the
Which from their proper orbs not go borax, the glass becomes opaque. 7. When Whether they gyre swift or slow. Drayt. Ecl. 2. burnt with any inflammable matter, it emits a
Quick and more quick he spins in giddy gyres, sulphureous smell, and may thus be decom- Then falls, and in much foam his soul expires.
Dryden. pounded, as well as by either of the fixed alkaline salts: in this last method there ought to be
GYRINUS, in zoology, a'genus of insects of five or six times as much salt as gypsum. _8. the coleoptera order. The antennæ are cylinThe residuum shows some signs of iron. The Jrical, stiff
, and shorter than the head: the eyes species are, 1. Friable gypseous earth, white, are four, two on the upper, and two on the found in Saxony. 2. Indurated gypsum, of á under part of the head. See Entomology. G. solid texture, or alabaster, the particles of which natator, the common water flea, is one-third of are not visible. This is sometimes found unsa an inch long; of a bright black color; the feet turated with vitriolic acid. It is easily cut, and yellow, flat, and large. It runs with great celetakes a dull polish. It is of several kinds. Fa- rity in circles on the surface of the water, and is broni tells us, that various fine alabasters are met very difficult to catch. with in Italy : twenty-four quarries of them, each
GYRON, in heraldry, an ordinary of two straight of a different color, being worked out at Volterra. lines, issuing from divers parts of the esutcheon, 3. Gypsum of a scaly texture, or common plas- and meeting in the Fesse point. ter of Paris. See Plaster. 4. Fibrous gypsum,
GYVES, n. s. ] Welsh, gevyn. Fetters; or plaster-stone, has two varieties, viz. with Gyve, v.a. I chains for the legs: to fetter, coarse or with fine fibres. It is white. 5. Sele- shackle, or ensnare. nites, or spar-like gypsum, by some also called The poor prisoners, boldly starting up, break off
Knolles. glacies manæ, and confounded with the clear their chains and
With as little a web as this, will I ensnare as great and transparent mica. It is of two kinds: clear
a fly as Cassio. Ay, smile upon her, do. I will gyre and transparent, or yellowish and opaque; and
thee in thine own courtship.
Shakspeare. abounds every where. 6. Crystallised gypsum, The villains march wide betwixt the legs, as if they or gypseous drusen. This is found composed of had gyves on.
Id. wedge-shaped, and sometimes of capillary crys And, knowing this, should I yet stay, tals; sometimes white and sometimes yellowish. Like such as blow away their lives, 7. Stalactitical gypsum is of many different And never will redeem a day, forms and colors. In large pieces it commonly Enamoured of their golden gyves ? Ben Jonson
H is in English, as in other languages, a note HA, interj. Lat. ha. An expression of wonof aspiration, sounded only by a strong emis- der, surprise, or alarm; a sudden question; an sion of the breath, without any conformation of expression of laughter : it is used with reduplithe organs of speech, and is therefore by many cation. , grammarians accounted ng letter. The h in He saith among the trumpets, ha, ha, and he smell. English is scarcely ever mute at the beginning eth the baule afar off.
Job, xxxix. 25. of a word, or where it immediately precedes a And out at the dores sterten they anon; vowel; as house, behaviour ; where it is followed And saw the fox toward the wode is gon, by a consonant it has no sound, according to And bare upon his back the cok away. the present pronunciation; but anciently it made. They crieden out, barow and wala wa!
A ha the fox and after him they ran. the syllable guttural. “The strong emission of the breath, however,' .
Chaucer. The Nonnes Preestes Tale. .
You shall look fairer ere I give or hazard : as Mr. Todd observes, is usually withheld from wh
What says the golden chest ? ha! let me see. heir, herb, hostler, honest, honor, humor, and by
Shakspeare. some from humble.'
Hu, ha, 'tis what so long I wished and vowed; It is pronounced by a strong expiration of Our plots and delusions the breath between the lips, closing, as it were, Have wrought such confusions, by a gentle motion of the lower jaw to the upper, That the monarch's a slave to the crown. Dryden, and the tongue nearly approaching the palate. Ha! what art thou! thou horrid headless trunk! It seems to be agreed, that our H, which is the It is my Hastings !
Rowe's Jane Shore. same with that of the Romans, derived its figure HAAK, n. s. A fish. from the Hebrewn. The Phænicians, and most HAARLEM. See HARLEM. ancient Greeks and Romans, used the same HABAKKUK, pipan, Heb. i.e. a wrestler, figure with our H, which in the series of all one of the twelve minor prophets, whose prothese alphabets keeps its primitive place, being phecies are taken into the canon of the Old the eighth letter ; though the o afterwards occu- Testament. There is no precise time mentioned pied its place in the Greek alphabet, and its in Scripture when he lived; but, from his preform was changed to X; while its former figure, dicting the destruction of Jerusalem by the HI, was used for the seventh letter, Eta, or long Chaldeans, it is evident that he prophesied bee. But in the beginning this H was only used fore Zedekiah, probably about the time of Mafor an aspiration, wherefore they wrote HEPOAO nasseh. He is reported to have been the author instead of nowồov, H0401 instead of oow, HEKA- of several prophecies which are not extant: but TON, instead of ekarov, centum; from whence all that are indisputably his are contained in it comes, that the formerly denoted 100. three chapters. H was also joined with weak consonants instead HABEAS CORPUS is the great remedy in of an aspiration; they 'using to write THEO: English law in cases of false imprisonment. See instead of Oxoc, and the like.
IMPRISONMENT. Anciently the h was put for ch; thus Chlo- HABERDA'SHER, n. s. According to Mindovæus was formed Hludovicus, as it is read on sheu from Germ. habt ihr dass, have you this; the all the coins of the ninth and tenth centuries; expression of a shopkeeper offering his wares to and it was on this account that they wrote sale. Mr. Thomson says, from Teut. haabverHludovicus with an h. In course of time, the tauscher, from haab, have. One who sells small sound of the h being much weakened, or en- wares; a pedlar. tirely suppressed, the h was dropt, and the word Because these cunning men are like haberdashers of. was written Ludovicus. In like manner we read small wares, it is not amiss to set forth their shop. Hlotaire, Hlovis, &c. H subjoined to c some
Bacon. times gives it the sound of sh, as in Charlotte; A haberdasher, who was the oracle of the coffeebut more frequently that of tsh, as in charity, house, declared his opinion.
Addison. chitchat, church, &c.; and not seldom that of k, HABERE Facias POSSESSIONEM. A judicial as in character, Achilles, &c.; though the latter writ that lies where one hath recovered a term and all other Greek proper names ought rather for years in action of ejectione firmæ, to put him to have the guttural sound, agreeably to their into possession; and one may have a new writ, original pronunciation. A subjoined to pand t, if a former be not well executed. If the sheriff also alters the sound of these letters; giving the deliver possession of more than is contained in former the sound of f, as in philosophy, &c. and the writ of habere facias possessionem, an action the latter that of the Greek o, as in theology, on the case will lie against him, or an assize for truth, &c.; and in some English words, as the, the lands. The sheriff cannot return upon this that, these, &c., a still harder sound. As an writ that another is tenant of the land by right, abbreviation, H was used by the ancients to de- but must execute the writ, for that will not come note homo, hæres, hora, &c. Thus H. B. stood in issue between the demandant and him. for hæres honorum, and H.S. corruptly for LLS.. HABERE FACIAS SEISINAM. A writ directed sesterce; and HA. for Hadrianus. As a nu to the sheriff, to give seisin of a freehold estate meral, H denotes 200; and with a dash over it, recovered in the king's courts, by ejectione H, 200,000.
firmæ, or other action. The sheriff niay raise