Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

CLASS II.-TRANSITION ROCKS.

STRATIFIED OR NEPTUNIAN ROCKS.

ore, &c.

FORMATION OF TALCOSE AND QUARTzose Rocks, AND OF CLAY-SLATE.—
Ex.: Alps, Pyrenees, Ardennes, Brittany, Bohemia, Scotland, &c.

Mica-slate,
Talc-slate,
quartziferous,

some crystalline mi-
Chlorite-slate
Chief

nerals, magnetic iron-
quartziferous,

pretty often
rocks,
different
Quartz 5 granular,

here and

there, evi. varieties

rock, I compact, of

common, denly arenaGneiss, 3 talcose, ceous or frag

granitic, mentary. some crystalline miClay-slate,

nerals, hollow-spar,
quartziferous,

(iron-pyrites, dipyre.
Whet-slate.
Flinty-slate.
Alum-slate.
Slate with black chalk or anthracite.-

N. B. Here first trace of coaly mat

ter.

Calcareous clay-slate (Alps).
Subordi-

granular (Pyrenees, Ap- ( some crystalline mi-
nate, or

pennines, Alps). nerals, hornblende,au-
short beds

subgranular (Scotland) (gite, garnet, &c.
of
Limestone, compact, with small

some crystalline mi-
sparry veins,

nerals, felspar (Coldu
brecciated (Alps, Ap-Bonhomme).
pennines).

granular.
Dolomite,

some crystalline mi

nerals, tremolite, veGypsum (Alps of Savoy, granular. suvian, &c. Pyrenees, Tarascon), compact.

N. B. Diamond geognostical position. This formation passes into the following.

Fossils very scarce.

UNSTRATIFIED CRYSTALLINE OR IGNEOUS ROCKS.
Zoophytæ, Orthocera-
tites, Crustacea, Tri Granite porphyritics dome-like masses, bed- 2 rarely with
lobites (Brittany, La and sometimes like veins, veins, and tertiary basalt
Manche, Alps), Mo cellular, small veins (Erzge.) Sveins (Arran),
nocotyledonous vege graphic.

N. B. Imbedded and
tables.
with pinite.

changed slaty rock.
Sienite—imbedded masses, bed-like veins, large and small veins
Diabase (Ophite of the Pyrenees), especially in short beds

or bed-like veins, and veins.

globular imbedded masses (Island of Corsica).
Hyperstenic sienite or selagite—dome-like or imbedded

masses, (Scotland, England, Germany), and veins (Scot).

Diallage rock or Euphotide-dome-like or imbedded masses
Short beds of rocks (Appennines).

impregnated with Serpentine; -dome-like or s many, minerals imbedded, as
hornblende, actino imbedded masses, and hornblende, augite, chromate of
lite-slate.
bed-like veins,

iron, and chrysoprase.
Iron-glance-slate (Bra- Augite rock,—dome-like or ( N. B. A breccia composed of gra-
zil and Bavaria).

cylindrical masses, and nular limestone and augite accom-
Granitic rock, with

veins (Pyren. Piedmont, Cpanies this rock (Port de L'herz).
iron-glance (Scot-
land, Vicentin). Porphyries (Syn

bed-like veins, and veins) N.B. Sometimes
Mica-slate, mixed with

Elvan, Corn

of the age of recent grey- slate altered at serpentine (Alps). wall).

wacke (Vendée, Erzgeb. the contact (TrePotstone.

Cornwall.)

bischthal). N. B. Lievrite, axinite, octahedrite, in veins in the slaty

rocks.

compact

[merged small][graphic]
[graphic]

CLASS II.-TRANSITION ROCKS.-Continued.

STRATIFIED OR NEPTUNIAN ROCKS.

UNSTRATIFIED CRYSTALLINE OR

IGNEOUS ROCKS.

GREYWACKE FORMATION.-Ex. : Hartz, Scot

land, England, Gesenke Vosges, &c.

small spar

ry veins

Conglomerate.
Clay-slate.
Flinty-slate (Leadhills).
Alum-sļate (Moffat).

Anthracitiferous-slate (Vosges, Alps, Brit-
Subordi-

tany)

(granular (Framont, Vosges). nate or

subgranular (Scotland). short

sparry ironbeds of

compact, with Limestone,

ore (Styria), in part con

verted into (Hartz). brown iron

stone. Dolomite,

compact, with Encrinites.
Old red sandstone of England,

Scotland, and the United
States, (red sandstone of

Scotland and Norway; con-
Recent Greywacke, glomerate of the Alps, the
or

Pyrenees, and Scotland).
Transition Red Mountain limestone of England,
Sandstone,

Scotland, and the United
States (Picardy, Marquise,
Belgium, Hartz). N. B. "Car-
bonate of barytes only here in
metalliferous veins.

Terrestrial

Granite,

dome-like masses, bed-like veins (Scotland), and small
Monocotyledo-

porphyritic veins (Scotland, Norway, even in limestone containing
nous vege-

shells of this latter country). tables.

metalliferous (Zinnwald), dome-like, imbedded, or cylindrical masses,

N.B. Uppermost limit of the Topaz.
Sienite,

dome-like or imbedded masses (Scotland), veins and
Near the gra porphyritic l small veins (Scotland, Norway).
nite or sienite,

zirconiferous, Norway, Scotland.
masses of Horn-
fels or Horn-

Diabase or greenstone.

Hyperstenic sienite or selagite . Kidney-shaped masses.
rock (IIartz,
Brittany), and Variolite,
S.W. Scotland, Euphotide, 1 dome-like or kidney-shaped masses or veins (Scotland, Py.

renees, Hartz).
of Schorliferous Serpentine,
Quartz (Hartz).
Porphyry,

N. B. Greywacke altered where in con-
dome-like or im-

tact with porphyry, and sometimes
globular,
Fishes.)

glandular, short beds, bed-
bedded masses, imbedded in porphyry, (Vorospatak,

Lapos Banya in Transylvania); grey,
earthy,

land), and veins.
like veins (Eng-wacke with bituminous wood and

auriserous-Pyrites, Vorospatak).
Trap rocks.
amygdaloidal, with epidote, quartz, and short beds (Prague), and

calcareous-spar,
Blatterstein (Rhenane, Westphalia), S veins (England).
augitic.

short beds united with the porphyry or trap
7 Porphyry-breccia, masses, or short true Neptunian beds in the slaty
Trap-breccia, rocks, and then passing into these (England,

Vosges), and sometimes shelly (Vosges).

The short beds of anthracite and impure coal, Pseudo

with vegetable impressions, explain the inti- volcanic mate connexion of this formation and the Rocks. Coal Measures.

Network of metalliferous veins, in stratified and unstratified

rocks; in these last, partly of contemporaneous forma-
tion ;-red manganese-ore, tellurium.-Last limit of native
gold, tin, bismuth, antimony, scheelium, arsenic ores, pharma-
colite, and auriferous-pyrites.

masses

}

'UNSTRATIFIED CRYSTALLINE OR

IGNEOUS ROCKS. I. FIRST FLÆTZ SANDSTONE FORMATION.

dome-like nasses (Sax1. Coal-Measures, or Coal Sandstone Deposit-Ex.: monocotyle

claystone-porphyry, ony), imbedded
Northern Germany, Tharandt, Plauen, Wet- donous vege wacke, and fi compact or clink-3 or short beds (Scotland, N. B. Neptunian
tin, Bohemia, Moravia, Fünfkirchen, Oravitza tables, some nish with the

stone-porpnyry, Silesia), veins and bed rocks are occasion-
(Bannat), Galicia, Silesia, St. Etienne, Auvergne, dicotyledonous. secondary red

like veins (Scotland). ally altered where Bretagne, Belgium, England, Scotland, the Absence of sandstone or

in contact with
United States, South America, New Holland, marine remains.

bed-like veins, and veins
even later.

phyry,
(Arran), and imbedded

porphyry or trap;
China, &c.
Beds full of This is made pitchstone-porphy-

masses(Trebischthal).

for instance, coal
Sandstone

is reduced to coke
Chief
feldspathic, &c., sometime reddish more like fresh- alternations of Trap,

( dome-like masses (Edinburgh, or graphite; sand-
rocks
(Bohemia).
water than salt. porphyry and augitic,

the Palatinate).
different

stone is indurated,
water shells.
Slate-clay,

wacke, imbedded masses.—N. B. Up-
varieties

and slate-clay (some
Bituminous-slate,

feldspathic, per limit of the Peridot
of

times with garnets,
Carbonate of iron,

with the arena-
earthy, and Limbilite)

as in Anglesea), inCoal,

durated Subordi-, Calcareous marl,

bed-like veins, Edinburgh Fishes were in

semi-vitreous,...imbedded masses or short beds (Palatinate of the rocks fetid (W. borders of Rhine). ing this period.

short beds united with the porphyry, or short 2. Secondary Red Sandstone Deposit or Todtliegendes.

true or Neptunian beds in the sand-stone, and then

passing into these Ex.: Northern Germany, Hall, Tharandt, Bo

or trap masses, and conhemia, Forez, Moulins, Bretagne, England,

taining sometimes vegetable impressions (Upper

N. B. Great deposite of agates, and some few zeolites, as stilbite, of the Vosges and Black Forest, of the Pseudo-vol

Network of metalliferous veins, and small veins; mercury, Red Sandstone of Buckland. divided

&c.—Last limit of cobalt-ore, and crystallised gray, manMarly whitish sandstone (Weissliegende);

CLASS III.-SECONDARY OR FLETZ ROCKS.

trap breccia

STRATIFIED OR NEPTUNIAN ROCKS,

Abundance Porphyry de- Porphyry, of terrestrias posits begin

with the grey

semi-vitreous por

bivalve shells, evident by the
ry,

trap rocks or

ceous Neptu

short beds,

nian deposits
during this

and veins,
nate Compact limestone,

abundance dur-
whole period.

Rhine).
It is the only Geposit which contains the true slate
and pitch caking coal in great abundance.

Porphyry-breccia,

fine var. Thon

stein,

Trap-breccia,

Saxony).
Southern Alps, Northern Alps, (Tyrol), &c.
Red sandstone (inferior red conglomerate

and mesotype.
Thuringerwald): it does not exist on canic Rocks.
Some-

the north side of the Pyrenees. New times

ganese-ore. into

(Chessy copper sandstone? some geologists place it among the red marl); Rus

sian copper sandstone; chrome oxide. The Weissliegende establish in Northern Germany'a transition between the sandstone and the zechstein (Wettin).

[graphic]

VOL. X.

or

Magnesian Limestone.

CLASS III.-SECONDARY OR FLETZ ROCKS-Continued.
STRATIFIED OR NEPTUNIAN ROCKS.

UNSTRATIFIED CRYSTALLINE OR
II. FIRST Flerz LIMESTONE FORMATION.-Synon. Zechstein, Calcaire alpin

IGNEOUS ROCKS
a part of the Hochbirge Kalk of Escher; the Hochgebirge Kalk of

Marino Fossils pretty rare.—Amphibious Animals,
Uttinger.

Insects, Algacites.- Upper limit of Productus.
NORTHERN

SOUTHERN
GERMANY.
SILESIA AND

FRANCE,
PYRENEES.
ENGLAND.
ALPS.

ALPS. Trap rocks,-cylindri
Bituminous marl-slate. POLAND.

Bituminous marl- Arenaceous grayish slaty. Magnesian lime- Compact Zechstein, cal masses (Allgau),
copper-slate, with Zechstein, me slate (Autun and black limestone,

compact, with

stone more or without shells, of what age ?
fishes, insects,
talliferous. Villefranche), with vegetable productus less & without (Recoaro).

Datolite.
and carpolites.
with fishes and impressions ?

and fishes. petrifactions. Calcareous blackish Tertiary Au veins & Zechstein, with Product

fruits. Compact darkish

globular small granular

marls (Vicentin). gitic trap bed-like tus, falsely called Zechstein, with bi limestone ?

botryoidal. compact & crack- Limestone or Doló rocks, and veins, Gryphæa by valves (Meil

ed.
nite.

Augitic traf- / (Vicen-
Schlotth.
lerie, near Au-

metalliferous.
compact and

* breccia, tin) maguesian (Schwarz tun).

fetid, or with bi cracked (Idria). burg).

tumen (Bava

N. B. Indurated ferriferous (Eisen

ria).

jaspery marl-slates kalk) Schmalkal

cellular (Eisen

and limestone, near
den (sparry iron-

artz, Petersdorf

augitic veins, at St. ore).

Vienna).

Antonio in the Vifetid (Stinkstein).

earthy.

centin.

with sulphur
earthy (Asche).

Cellular or earthyi
fetid
limestone? with

breccia-like, (Bex)? Existing, perhaps, Small network of me-
Rauherkalk Rauchwacke, earthy

in North and
breccia- (Glücks-

talliferous veins ;
with sulphur, breccia-like
sulphur & petro-

South America.
leum (St. Boess).

galena, blende, ca-
like,
brunn. (Tarnowitz).

Connected by alter lamine, and (Rauch- Part Ioh

nations with the

cury (Idria). -Upwacke), (lenkalk of

variegated sand permost

limit of Germans.

stone (Recoaro). mercury

and of Gypsum.

nickel. Connected with the red marl by alternations and passages.

or

Figeac

mer

H

Imbedded, or subordinate masses

III. Second FLETZ SANDSTONE FORMATION, OR VARIEGATES OR SALIFEROUS

l'errestrial monocotyledons and dicotyledons, many marine plants. SANDSTONE.-Syn. Greshouiller, Beud., and of Boué's Mem. sur l'Allemagne ;

Molluscæ, or Zoophytæ only in the upper part (Wieliczka, Grauwacke of Alps of many geologists; Old Molasse in part, in vicinity of Alps.

Soultz in Alsace).
POLAND AND

PYRENEES AND ENGLAND | N. ALPS, CARPATHIANS, AND
GERMANY.
CARPATHIANS.

FRANCE.
SPAIN. AND IRELAND.

APPENNINES.

SOUTHERN ALPS.
Variegated sandstone (Bunter Greywacke-like Red small-grained Variegated marl, Red marl, with Marly

gray- Variegated sand-
Sandstein).

coarse Sandstone. sandstone of the

sandwith gypsum and gypsum and

wacke stone.

fine Variegated marl, with gyp- Marls, with al Vosges, of the salt (St. Gisond, salt-beds. stone,

like Variegated indusum and salt.-N. B. Up- gacites. Aveyron, and Nor Arragon, Castile,

(Austria, Allgau, Tri- rated marl, with permost limit of Anhy- Compact gray mandy?

and Cordona).

este, Florence, Voirons). gypsum.
drite.
limestone. Variegated marl, Compact (Dax)

Marls, with marine Calcare-
Quartzy sandstone
Arenaceous with gypsum and limestone, (in the

plants (syn. Pietra se

ous marl, (Westphalia, Saxony) limestone. salt (Alsace, Lor-Globular

upper

rena and forte of Tus- Compact Calcareous Wirtem

raine). limestone, part.

cany (Mascigno).

limemarl berg, in Calcareous marl.

Compact gray

stone, Compact Compact

ish or blaekish Shelly marly sandlimestone per part. limestone.

limestone,

in the
Globular limestone(Rog-
Globular

Compact yel Greywacke-like
genstein), Salzsee, in

Şupper
magnesian

lowish ruini

sandstone or conpart magnesian.

part. limestone

form lime

glomerate (AgorCompact magnesian Vic.)

stone,

do), sometimes
limestone (Coburg).

Arenaceous limestone. calcareous
Argillaceous hy- Salz-

Very coarse conglomerate, (Idria); only in
drate of iron see.

sometimes calcareous (All- the eastern part Micaceous iron- (Pyr

gau, Montserrat).

of north side of ore. mont.

Marls with gypsum and salt the Capellen Ge

N.B. Sand-
(Hasselgebirge of Salz-

birge.

stone cracked, burg, Tyrol, Transylvania;

vitrified, or with galena, iron-pyrites,

with its color
Micaceous iron-ore
micaceous iron-ore, and

changed at the
(Bastenes), in
realgar, Tyrol).

contact with
Lignite, in marl. Marly sand Lignite, with ferns

gypsum.

Lignite in the salt and sand- Lignite very little. basalt (SaxeCrystals of stone, with (Vic, Soultz, Al Arragonite

stones (Transylvania). Black marl, like Gotha and Viiron-pyrites traces of lig sace).

(Bastenes).

Gypsum of Reuti

, Heiligen- Salzburg Hassel- centin). Ele-
Crystals of phalia. pite. Gypsum of Decize, Iron-pyrites.

creutz, and Tuscany. gebirge (Agor vated and al-
quartz
of the Saintonge, Ironflint (Dax)

Crystals of quartz (Marma- do); with realgartered sand-
Crystals of boracite, in

&c.
Phosphorite &

marosh, Vascharhely, Tran- (Thal de Mona- stone by au-
gypsum.

Glauberite.
sylvania).

co).

gite-porphyry Salt-springs and salt much

Salt-springs and salt- Salt-springs an Salt-springs Salt-springs, salt disseminat- No traces of salt. (Val di Rif, disseminated in the marl. beds (Lorraine). salt-beds (Castile). and beds. ed, and in beds (Bex).

Predazzo). In all these different countries, the upper sandstones are connected with the following formation of Muschelkalk, excepting in England. This formation occurs

in Calabria, Sicily, Persia, and in North and South America.

[graphic]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »