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THE

NEW NORMAL

PRIMARY ARITHMETIC,

DESIGNED AS AN

INTRODUCTION

TO A

THOROUGH AND COMPLETE COURSE

MENTAL AND WRITTEN ARITHMETIC,

BY

EDWARD BROOKS, A. M., Ph.D.,

SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF PHILADELPHIA,
PRINCIPAL 0 ENNSYLVANIA STATE NORMAL SCH AND AUTHOR
OF "THE NORMAL SERIES OF ARITHMETICS," "NORMAL
ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA," "NORMAL GEOMETRY
AND TRIGONOMETRY,

" "PHILOSOPHY
OF ARITHMETIC, ETC.

"The highest science is the greatest simplicity.

PHILADELPHIA:
CHRISTOPHER SO WER CO.,

611 IRON STREET.

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PREFACE.

THIS little work, as its title indicates, is designed to

precede, and prepare the student for a thorough course in Mental and Written Arithmetic. Its peculiari ties, although such as can be better appreciated by an examination of the book itself, will be briefly specified.

1. Oral exercises have been made a prominent feature of the plan, and many suggestions are presented indicating the manner in which such exercises should be conducted.

2. Addition and Subtraction are so arranged that they must be taught simultaneously-the process of Subtraction thus being derived as a result of Addition. This is the method adopted by some of our best educators, and is based upon sound philosophy. Multiplication and Division are treated in the same manner -Division being presented as an inverse process, and hence a result, of Multiplication.

In Multiplication, instead of requiring the pupil to commit to memory a multiplication table, without his having an idea of the origin or use of it, he is led to derive it for himself, and then learn it for the purpose of avoiding the labor of obtaining a product each time he wishes to use it. The child is taught to derive his own division table from the table of products.

3. The fact that mental and written exercises should be combined in the child's first book being so evident, the author has given a large collection of problems for slate or blackboard exercises, to be used in connection with the exercises in mental arithmetic.

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