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by exploration where the middle of the vein at the surface is, his discovery shaft must be assumed to mark such point.

11. Ey the foregoing it will be perceived that no lodo. claim located after the 10th May, 1872, can exceed a parallelogram fifteen hundred feet in length by six hundred feet in widih, but whether surface-ground of that width can be taken, depends upon the local regulations or state or territorial laws in force in the several mining districts: and that no such local regulations or state or territorial laws shall limit a vein or lode claim to less than fifteen hundred feet along the course thereof, whether the location is made by one or more persons, nor can surface rights be limited to less than fifty feet in width, unless adverse claims existing on the 10th day of May, 1872, render such lateral limitation necessary.

12. It is provided by the Revised Statutes that the miners of each district may make ruies and regulations not in confiict with the laws of the United States, or of the state or territory in which such districts are respectively situated, governing the location, manner of recording. and amount of work necessary to hold possession of a claim. They likewise require that the location shall be so distinctly marked on the ground that its boundaries may be readily traced. This is a very important matter, and locators cannot exercise too much care in detining their locations at the outset, inasmuch as the law requires that all records of mining locations made subsequent to May 10, 1872, shall contain the name or names of the locators, the date of the location, and such a description of the claim or claims located, by reference to some natural object or permanent monument, as will identify the claim.

13. The statutes provide that no lode-claim shall be recorded until after the discovery of a vein or lode within the limits of the claim located, the object of which provision is evidently to prevent the appropriation of presumed mineral ground for speculative purposes to the exclusion of bona fide prospectors, before sufficient work has been done to determine whether a vein or lode really exists.

14. The claimant should, therefore, prior to locating his claim, unless the vein can be traced upon the surface, sink a shaft, or run a tunnel or drift, to à sufficient depth therein to discover and develop a mineral-bearing vein, Jode, or crevice: should determine, if possible, the gencral course of such vein in either direction from the point of discovery, by which direction he will be governed in marking the boundaries of his claim on the surface. His location notice should give the course and distance as nearly as practicable from the discovery-shaft on the claim, to some permanent, well-known points or objects, such, for instance, as stone monuments, blazed trees, the confluence of streams, point of intersection of well-known gulchis, ravines, or roads, prominent buttes, hills, etc., which may be in the immediate vicinity, and which will sorve to perpetuate and fix the locus of the claim and render it susceptible of identification from the description thereof given in the record of locations in the district, and should be duly recorded.

15. In addition to the foregoing data, the claimant should state the names of adjoining claims, or, if none adjoin, the relative positions of the nearest claims; should drive a post or erect a monument of stones at each corner of his surface-ground, and at the point of discovery or discovery shaft should fix a post, stake, or board, upon which should be designated the name of the lode, the name or

of the locators, the number of feet claimed, and in which direction from the point of discovery; it being essential that the location notice filed for record. in addition to the foregoing description, should state whether the entire claim of fifteen hundred feet is taken on one side of the point of discovery, or whether it is partly upon one and partly upon the other side thereof, and in the latter case, how many feet are claimed upon each side of such discovery-point.

16. Within a reasonable time, say twenty days after the location shall have been marked on the ground, or such time as is allowed by the local laws. rotice thereof, accurately describing the claim in manner aforesaid, should be filed for record with the proper recorder of the district, who will thereupon issue the usual certificate of location.

17. In order to hold the possessory right to a location made since May 10, 1872, not less than one hundred dollars' worth of labor must be performed, or improvements made thereon annually until entry shall have been made. I'nder the provisions of the act of Congress approved January 22. 1880, the first annual expenditure becomes due and must be performed during the calendar year succeeding that in which the location was made. Expenditure made or labor performed prior to the first day of January succeeding the date of location will not be considered as a part of, or applied upon the first annual expenditure required by law. Failure to make the expenditure or perform the labor required will subject the claim to relocation by any other party having the necessary qualifications, unless the original locator, his heirs, assigns, or legal representatives have resumed work thereon after such failure and before such relocation.

18. The expenditures required upon mining-claims may be made from the surface or in running a tunnel for the

development of such claims, the act of February 11, 1875, providing that where a person or company has, or may, run a tunnel for the purpose of developing a lode or lodes owned by said person or company, the money so expended in said tunnel shall be taken and considered as expended on said lode or lodes, and such person or company shall not be required to perform work on the surface of said lode or lodes in order to hold the same.

19. The importance of attending to these details in the matter of location, labor, and expenditure will be the more readily perceived when it is understood that a failure to give the subject proper attention may invalidate the claim. V. TUNNEL RIGHTS:

20. Section 2323 provides that where a tunnel is run for the development of a vein or lode, or for the discovery of mines, the owners of such tunnel shall have the right of possession of all veins or lodes within three thousand feet from the face of such tunnel on the line thereof, not previously known to exist, discovered in such tunnel, to the same extent as if discovered from the surface; and locations on the line of such tunnel of veins or lodes not appearing on the surface, made by other parties after the commencement of the tunnel, and while the same is being prosecuted with reasonable diligence, shall be invalid; but failure to prosecute the work on the tunnel for six months shall be considered as an abandonment of the right to all undiscovered veins or lodes on the line of said tunnel.

21. The effect of this is simply to give the proprietors of a mining tunnel run in good faith the possessory right to fifteen hundred feet of any blind lodes cut, discovered, or intersected by such tunnel, which were not previously known to exist, within three thousand feet from the face or point of commencement of such tunnel, and to prohibit other parties, after the commencement of the tunnel, from prospecting for and making locations of lodes on the line thereof and within said distance of three thousand feet, unless such lodes appear upon the surface or were previously known to exist.

22. The term "face," as used in said section, is construed and held to mean the first working face formed in the tunnel, and to signify the point at which the tunnel actually enters cover; it being from this point that the three thousand feet are to be counted, upon which prospecting is prohibited as aforesaid.

To avail themselves of the benefits of this provision of law, the proprietors of a mining tunnel will be required, at the time they enter cover as aforesaid, to give proper notice of their tunnel location by erecting a substantial post, board, or monument at the face or point of commencement thereof, upon which should be posted a good and sufficient notice, giving the names of the parties or company claiming the tunnel-right; the actual or proposed course or direction of the tunnel; the height and width thereof, and the course and distance from such face or point of commencement to some permanent well-known objects in the vicinity by which to fix and determine the locus in manner heretofore set forth applicable to locations of veins or lodes, and at the time of posting such notice they shall, in order that miners or prospectors may be enabled to determine whether or not they are within the lines of the tunnel, establish the boundary lines thereof, by stakes or monuments placed along such lines at proper intervals, to the terminus of the three thousand feet from the face or point of commencement of the tunnel, and the lines so marked will define and govern as to the specific boundaries within which prospecting for lodes not previously known to exist is prohibited while work on the tunnel is being prosecuted with reasonable diligence.

24. At the time of posting notice and marking out the lines of the tunnel as aforesaid, a full and correct copy of such notice of location defining the tunnel claim must be filed for record with the mining recorder of the district, to which notice must be attached the sworn statement or declaration of the owners. claimants, or projectors of such tunnel, setting forth the facts in the case: stating the amount expended by themselves and their predecessors in interest in prosecuting work thereon; the extent of the work performed, and that is is bona fide their intention to prosecute work on the tunnel so located and described with reasonable diligence for the development of a vein or lode, or for the discovery of mines, or both, as the case may be. This notice of location must be duly recorded, and, with the said sworn statement attached, kept on the recorder's files for future reference.

25. By a compliance with the foregoing much needless difficulty will be avoided, and the way for the adjustment of legal rights acquired in virtue of said section 2323 will be made much more easy and certain.

26. This office will take particular care that no improper advantage is taken of this provision of law by parties making or professing to make tunnel locations. ostensibly for the purposes named in the statute, but really for the purpose of monopolizing the lands lying in front of their tunnels to the detriment of the mining interests and to the exclusion of bona fide prospectors or miners, but will hold such tunnel claimants to a strict

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compliance with the terms of the statutes; and a reasonable diligence on their part in prosecuting the work is one of the essential conditions of their implied contract. Negligence or want of due diligence will be construed as working a forefeiture of their right to all undiscovered veins on the line of such tunnel. VI. PROCEEDINGS FOR TITLE TO LODE CLAIMS:

27. By section 2325 authority is given for granting titles for mines by patent from the government to any person, association, or corporation having the necessary qualifications as to citizenship and holding the right of possession to a ciaim in compliance with law.

28. The claimant is required in the first place to have a correct survey of his claim made under authority of the surveyor-general of the state or territory in which the claim lies; such survey to show with accuracy the exterior surface boundaries of the claim, which boundaries are required to be distinctly marked by monuments on the ground. Four plats and one copy of the original field notes, in each case, will be prepared by the surveyorgeneral; one plat and the original field notes to be retained in the office of the surveyor-general, one copy of the plat to be given the claimant for posting upon the claim, one plat and a copy of the field notes to be given the claimant for filing with the proper register, to be finally transmitted by that officer, with other papers in the case, to this office, and one plat to be sent by the surveyor-general to the register of the proper land district to be retained on his files for future reference. As there is no resident surveyor-general for the State of Arkansas, applications for the survey of mineral claims in said state should be made to the commissioner of this office, who, under the law, is ex officio the United States SurveyorGeneral.

29. The claimant is then required to post a copy of the plat of such survey in a conspicuous place upon the claim, together with notice of his intention to apply for a patent therefor, which notice will give the date of posting, the name of the claimant, the name of the claim, mine, or lode; the mining district and county; whether the location is of record, and, if so, where the record may be found; the number of feet claimed along the vein and the presumed direction thereof; the number of feet claimed on the lode in each direction from the point of discovery, or other well-defined place on the claim; the name or names of adjoining claimants on the same or other lodes; or if none adjoin, the names of the nearest claims, etc.

30. After posting the said plat and notice upon the premises, the claimant will file with the proper register and receiver a copy of such plat and the field notes of survey of the claim, accompanied by the affidavit of at least two credible witnesses, that such plat and notice are posted conspicuously upon the claim, giving the date and place of such posting; a copy of the notice so posted to be attached to, and form a part of, said affidavit.

31. Accompanying the field notes so filed must be the sworn statement of the claimant that he has the possessory right to the premises therein described, in virtue of a compliance by himself (and by his grantors, if he claims by purchase) with the mining rules, regulations, and customs of the mining-district, state, or territory in which the claim lies, and with the mining laws of Congress; such sworn statement to narrate briefly, but as clearly as possible, the facts constituting such compliance, the origin of his possession, and the basis of his claim to a patent.

This affidavit should be supported by appropriate evidence from the mining recorder's office as to his possessory right, as follows, viz: Where he claims to be the locator, or a locator in company with others who have since conveyed their interest in the location to him, a full, true and correct copy of such location should be furnished, as the same appears upon the mining records; such copy to be attested by the seal of the recorder, or if he has no seal, then he should make oath to the same being correct, as shown by his records. Where the applicant claims only as a purchaser for valuable consideration, a copy of the location record must be filed under seal or upon oath as aforesaid, with an abstract of title from the proper recorder, under seal or oath as aforesaid, brought down as near as practicable to date of filing the application, tracing the right of possession by a continuous chain of conveyances from the original locators to the applicant, also certifying that no conveyances affecting the title to the claim in question appear of record in his office other than those set forth in the accompanying abstract.

33. In the event of the mining records any case having been destroyed by fire or otherwise lost, affidavit of the fact should be made, and secondary evidence of possessory title will be received, which may consist of the affidavit of the claimant, supported by those of any other parties cognizant of the facts relative to his location, occupancy, possession, improvements, etc.; and in such case of lost records, any deeds, certificates of location or purchase, or other evidence, which may be in the claimant's possession and tend to establish his claim, should be filed.

34. Upon the receipt of these papers the register will, at the expense of the claimant (who must furnish the

agreement of the publisher to hold applicant for patent alone responsible for charges of publication), publish a notice of such application for the period of sixty days in a newspaper published nearest to the claim, and will post a copy of such notice in his office for the same period. When the notice is published in a weekly newspaper ten consecutive insertions are necessary; when in a daily newspaper the notice must appear in each issue for sixtyone consecutive issues, the first day of issue being excluded in estimating the period of sixty days.

35. The notices so published and posted must be as full and complete as possible, and embrace all the data given in the notice posted upon the claim.

36. Too much care can not be exercised in the preparation of these notices, inasmuch as upon their accuracy and completeness will depend, in a great measure, the regularity and validity of the whole proceeding.

37. In the publication of final-proof notices the register has no discretion under the law to designate any other than the newspaper “nearest the land" for such purpose when such paper is a newspaper of general circulation. But he will in all cases designate the newspaper of general circulation that is published nearest the land, geographically measured. When two or more such newspapers are published in the same town, nearest the land, he may select the one which, in his honest and impartial judgment as a public officer, will best subserve the purpose of the law and the general interests of the public.

38. Newspaper charges must not exceed the rates established by this office for the publication of legal notices.

39. The claimant, either at the time of filing these papers with the register or at any time during the sixty days' publication, is required to file a certificate of the surveyor-general that not less than five hundred dollars' worth of labor has been expended or improvements made upon the claim by the applicant or his grantors; that the plat filed by the claimant is correct; that the field notes of the survey, as filed, furnish such an accurate description of the claim as will, if incorporated into a patent, serve to fully identify the premises, and that such reference is made therein to natural objects or permanent monuments as will perpetuate and fix the locus thereof.

40. It will be the more convenient way to have this certificate indorsed by the surveyor-general, both upon the plat and field-notes of survey filed by the claimant as aforesaid.

41. After the sixty days' period of newspaper publication has expired the claimant will furnish from the office of publication a sworn statement that the notice was published for the statutory. period, giving the first and last day of such publication, and his own affidavit showing that the plat and notice aforesaid remained conspicuously posted upon the claim sought to be patented during said sixty days' publication, giving the dates.

12. Upon the filing of this affidavit the register will, if no adverse claim was filed in his office during the period of publication, permit the claimant to pay for the land according to the area given in the plat and field notes of survey aforesaid, at the rate of five dollars for each acre and five dollars for each fractional part of an acre, the receiver issuing the usual duplicate receipt therefor. The claimant will also make a sworn statement of all charges and fees paid by him for publication and surveys, together with all fees and money paid the register and receiver of the land office; after which the whole matter will be forwarded to the Commissioner of the General Land Office and a patent issued thereon if found regular.

13. In sending up the papers in the case the register must not omit certifying to the fact that the notice was posted in his office for the full period of sixty days, such certificate to state distinctly when such posting was done and how long continued.

41. The consecutive series of numbers of mineral entries must be continued, whether the same are of lode or placer claims or mill sites.

45. The surveyors-general should designate all surveyed mineral claims by a progressive series of numbers, beginning with survey No. 37, irrespective as to whether they are situated on surveyed or unsurveyed lands, the claim to be so designated at date of issuing the order therefor, in addition to the local designation of the claim; it being required in all cases that the plat and field-notes of the survey of a claim must, in addition to the reference to permanent objects in the neighborhood, describe the locus of the claim, with reference to the lines of public surveys, by a line connecting a corner of the claim with the nearest public corner of the United States surveys, unless such claim he on unsurveyed lands at a distance of more than two miles from such public corner, in which latter case it should be connected with a United States mineral monument. Such connecting line must not more than two miles in length and should be measured on the ground direct between the points, or calculated from actually surveyed traverse lines if the nature of the country should not permit direct measurement. If a regularly established survey corner is within two miles of a claim situated on unsurveyed lands, the connection should be made with such corner in preference to a connection with a United States mineral inonument. The connecting line must be surveyed by the deputy mineral surveyor at the time of his making the particular survey, and be mado a part thereof,

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46. Upon the approval of the survey of a mining claim made upon surveyed lands, the surveyor-general will prepare and transmit to the local land office and to this Office a diagram tracing showing the portions of legal forty-acre subdivisions made fractional by reason of the mineral survey, designating each of such portions by the proper lot number, beginning with No. 1 in each section and giving the area of each lot.

47. The survey and plat of mineral claims, required by section 2325, Revised Statutes of the United States, to be filed in the proper land office, with application for patent, must be made subsequent to the recording of the location of the mine; and when the original location is made by survey of a United States deputy Surveyor such location survey can not be substituted for that required by the statute, as above indicated.

18. The surveyor-general should derive his information upon which to base his certificate as to the value of labor expended or improvements made from his deputy who makes the actual survey and examination upon the premises, and such deputy should specify with particularity and full detail the character and extent of such improvements.

19. The following particulars should be observed in the survey of every mining claim: i. The exterior boundaries of the claim should be represented on the plat of survey and in the field notes. ii. The intersection of the lines of the survey with the lines of conflicting prior surveys should be noted in the field-notes and represented upon the plat. iii. Conflicts with unsurveyed claims, where the applicant for survey does not claim the area in conflict, should be shown by actual survey. iv. The total area of the claim embraced by the exterior boundaries should be stated, and also the area in conflict with each intersecting survey, substantially as follows:

Acres. Total area of claim....

10.50 Area in conflict with survey No. 302.

1.56 Area in contlict with survey No. 948.

2.33 Area in conflict with Mountain Maid mining claim, unsurveyed

1.48 It does not follow that because mining surveys are required to exhibit all contlicts with prior surveys the areas of conilict are to be excluded. The field-notes and plat are made a part of the application for patent, and care should be taken that the description does not inadvertently exclude portions intended to be retained. It is better that the application for patent should state the portions to be excluded in express terms. A survey executed as in the example given will enable the applicant for patent to exclude such conflicts as may seem desirable. For instance, the conflict with survey No. 302 and with the Mountain Maid lode claim might be excluded and that with survey No. 918 included.

51). The rights granted to locators under section 2322, Revised Statutes, are restricted to such locations on veins, lodes, or ledges as may be “situated on the public domain.' In applications for lode claims where the survey conflicts with a prior valid lode claim or entry and the ground in conflict is excluded, the applicant not only has no right to the excluded ground, but he has no right to that portion of any vein or lode the top or apex of which lies within such excluded ground, unless his location was prior to May 10. 1872. His right to the lode claimed terminates where the lode, in its onward course or strike, intersects the exterior boundary of such excluded ground and passes within it.

51. The end line of his survey should not, therefore, be established beyond such intersection, unless it should he necessary so to do for the purpose of including ground held and claimed under a location which was made upon public land and valid at the time it was made. To include such ground (which may possibly embrace other lodes) the end line of the survey may be established within the conflicting survey, but the line must be so run as not to extend any farther into the conflicting survey than may be necessary to make such end line parallel to the other end line and at the same time embrace the ground so held and claimed. The useless practice in such cases of extending both the side lines of a survey into the conflicting survey and establishing an end line wholly within it, beyond a point necessary under the rule just stated, will be discontinued. VII. PLACER CLAIMS:

52. The proceedings to obtain patents for claims usually called placers, including all forms of deposit, excepting veins of quartz or other rock in place, are similar to the proceedings prescribed for obtaining patents for vein or loge claims; but where said placer claim shall be upon surveyed lands, and conforms to legal subdivisions, no further survey or plat will be required, and all placer mining claims located after May 10, 1872, shall conform as nearly as practicable with the United States system of publicland surveys and the rectangular subdivisions of such surveys, and no such location shall include more than twenty acres for each individual claimant; but where placer claims can not be conformed to legal subdivisions, survey and plat shall be made as on unsurveyed lands. But where such claims are located previous to the public

surveys, and do not conform to legal subdivisions, survey, plat, and entry thereof may be made according to the boundaries thereof, provided the location is in all respects legal.

53. The proceedings for obtaining patents for veins or lodes having already been fully given, it will not be necessary to repeat them here, it being thought that careful attention thereto by applicants and the local oflicers will enable them to act understandingly in the matter and make such slight modifications in the notice, or otherwise, as may be necessary in view of the different nature of the two classes of claims, placer claims being fixed, however, at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, or fractional part of an acre.

54. By section 2330, authority is given for the subdivision of forty-acre legal subdivisions into ten-acre lots, which is intended for the greater convenience of miners in segregating their claims both from one another and from intervening agricultural lands.

55. It is held, therefore, that under a proper construction of the law these ten-acre lots in mining districts should be considered and dealt with, to all intents and purposes, as legal subdivisions, and that an applicant have ing a legal laim which conforms to one or more of these ten-acre lots, either adjoining or cornering, may make entry thereof, after the usual proceedings, without further survey or plat.

56. In cases of this kind, however, the notice given of the application must be very specific and accurate in description, and as the forty-acre tracts may be subdivided into ten-acre lots, either in the form of squares of ten by ten chains, or if parallelograms five by twenty chains, so long as the lines are parallel and at right angles with the lines of the public surveys, it will be necessary that the notice and application state specifically what ten-acre lots are sought to be patented, in addition to the other data required in the notice.

57. Where the ten-acre subdivision is in the form of a square it may be described, for instance, as the “SE. 14 of the SW. 4 of NW. 14, or, if in the form of a parallelogram as aforesaid, it may be described as the “W. 12 of the W. ln of the SW, 14 of the NW. 44 (or the N. 12 of the S. ln of the NE. 24 of the SE. 11) of section

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as the case may be: but, in addition to this description of the land, the notice must give all the other data that is required in a mineral applicution, by which parties may be put on inquiry as to the premises sought to be patented. The proof's submitted with applications for claims of this kind must show clearly the character and the extent of the improvements upon the premises.

Inasmuch as the surveyor-general has no duty to perform in connection with the entry of a placer claim of legal subdivisions, the proof of improvements must show their value to be not less than five hundred dollars and that they were made by the applicant for patent or his grantors. The annual expenditure to the amount of one hundred dollars, required by section 2321, Revised Statutes, must be made upon placer claims as well as lode claims.

58. Applicants for patent to a placer claim, who are also in possession of a known vein or lode included therein, must state in their application that the placer includes such vein or lode. The published and posted notices must also include such statement. If veins or lodes lying within a placer location are owned by other parties, the fact should be distinctly stated in the application for patent, and in all notices, But in all cases whether the lode is claimed or excluded, it must be surveyed and marked upon the plat: the field notes and plat giving the area of the lode claim or claims and the area of the placer separately. It should be remembered that an application which omits to include an application for known vein or lode therein, must be construed as a conclusive declaration that the applicant has no right of possession to the vein or lode. Where there is no known lode or vein, the fact must appear by the affidavit of two or more witnesses.

59. By section 2330, it is declared that no location of a placer claim, made after July 9, 1870, shall exceed one hundred and sixty acres for any one person or association of persons, which location shall conform to the United States surveys.

60. Section 2331 provides that all placer-mining claims located after May 10, 1872. shall conform as nearly as practicable with the United States systems of public surveys and the subdivisions of such surveys, and no sucn locations shall include more than twenty acres for each individual claimant.

61. The foregoing provisions of law are construed to mean that after the 9th day of July, 1870, no location of a placer claim can be made to exceed one hundred and sixty acres, whatever may be the number of locators associated together, or whatever the local regulations of the district may allow; and that from and after May 10, 1872, no location made by an individual can exceed twenty acres, and no location made by an association of individuals can exceed one hundred and sixty acres, which location of one hundred and sixty acres can not be made by a less number than eight bona fide locators; and no local laws or mining regulations can restrict a placer location

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to less than twenty acres, although the locator is not compelled to take so much.

62. The regulations hereinbefore given as to the manner of marking locations on the ground, and placing the same on record, must be observed in the case of placer locations so far as the same are applicable, the law requiring, however, that where placer claims are upon surveyed public lands the locations must hereafter be made to conform to legal subdivisions thereof as near as practicable.

63. The first care in recognizing an application for patent upon a placer claim must be exercised in determining the exact classification of the lands. To this end the clearest evidence of which the case is capable should be presented.

(1) If the claim be all placer ground, that fact must be stated in the application and corroborated by accompanying proofs; if of mixed placers and lodes, it should be so set out, with a description of all known lodes situated within the boundaries of the claim. A specific declaration, such as is required by section 2333, Revised Statutes, must be furnished as to each lode intended to be claimed. All other known lodes are, by the silence of the applicant, excluded by law from all claim by him, of whatsoever nature, possessory or otherwise.

(2) Section 2395, Revised Statutes (subdivision 7), requires the surveyor to "note in his field books the true situation of all mines, salt licks, salt springs, and mill seats which come to his knowledge;" also "all watercourses over which the lines he runs may pass.” It further requires him to "note the quality of the lands. These descriptive notes are required by subdivision 8 to be incorporaied in the plat by the surveyor-general.

(3) If these duties have been performed, the public surveys will furnish a reasonable guide to the district officers and to claimants in prosecuting their applications. But experience has shown that great neglect has resulted from inattention to the law in this respect, and the regular plats are of very little value in the matter. It will, therefore, be required in the future that deputy surveyors shall, at the expense of the parties, make full examination of all placer claims surveyed by them, and duly note the facts as specified in the law, stating the quality and composition of the soil, the kind and amount of timher and other vegetation, the locus and size of streams, and such other matters as may appear upon the surface of the claim. This examination should include the character and extent of all surface and underground workings, whether placer or lode, for mining purposes.

(4) In addition to these data, which the law requires to be shown in all cases, the deputy should report with reference to the proximity of centers of trade or residence; also of well-known systems of lode deposit or of individual lodes. He should also report as to the use or adaptability of the claim for placer mining; whether water has been brought upon it in sufficient quantity to mine the same, or whether it can be procured for that purpose; and, finally, what works or expenditures have been made by the claimant or his grantors for the development of the claim, and their situation and location with respect to the same as applied for.

(5) This examination should be reported by the deputy under oath to the surveyor-general, and duly corroborated: and a copy of the same should be furnished with the application for patent to the claim, constituting a part thereof, and included in the oath of the applicant.

(6) Applications awaiting entry, whether published or not, must be made to conform to these regulations, with respect to examination as to the character of the land. Entries already made will be suspended for such additional proofs as may be deemed necessary in each case. VIII. MILL-SITES:

64. Section 2337 provides that “where non-mineral land not contiguous to the vein or lode is used or occupied by the proprietor of such vein or lode for mining or milling purposes, such nonadjacent surface ground may be embraced and included in an application for a patent for such vein or Jode, and the same may be patented therewith, subject to the same preliminary requirements as to survey and notice as are applicable to veins or lodes: but no location hereafter made of such nonadjacent land shall exceed five acres, and payment for the same must be made at the same rate as fixed by this chapter for the superficies of the lode. The owner of a quartz-mill or reduction-works, not owning a mine in connection therewith. may also receive a patent for his mill-site, as provided in this section."

65. To avail themselves of this provision of law, parties holding the possessory right to a vein or lode, and to a piece of non-mineral land not contiguous thereto, for mining or milling purposes, not exceeding the quantity allowed for such purpose by section 2337, United States Revised Statutes, or prior laws, under which the land was appropriated, the proprietors of such vein or lode may file in the proper land office their application for a patent, under oath, in manner already set forth herein. which application, together with the plat and field-notes. may include, embrace, and describe, in addition to the vein or lode, such noncontiguous mill-site, and after due proceedings as to notice, etc., a patent will be issued conveying the same as one claim.

66. In making the survey in a case of this kind, the lode

claim should be described in the plat and field-notes as “Sur. No. 37, A," and the mill-site as “Sur. No. 37, B," or whatever may be its appropriate numerical designation; the course and distance from a corner of the mill-site to a corner of the lode claim to be invariably given in such plat and field-notes, and a copy of the plat and notice of application for patent must be conspicuously posted upon the mill-site as well as upon the vein or lode for the statutory period of sixty days. In making the entry no separate receipt or certificate need be issued for the mill-site, but the whole area of both lode and mill-site will be embraced in one entry, the price being five dollars for each acre and fractional part of an acre embraced by such lode and mill-site claim.

67. In case the owner of a quartz mill or reduction-works is not the owner or claimant of a vein or lode, the law permits him to make application therefor in the same manner prescribed herein for mining claims, and after due notice and proceedings, in the absence of a valid adverse tiling, to enter and receive a patent for his mill-site at said price per acre.

G8. In every case there must be satisfactory proof that the land claimed as a mill-site is not mineral in character, which proof may, where the matter is unquestioned, consist of the sworn statement of two or more persons capable from acquaintance with the land to testify understandingly. IX. POSSESSORY RIGHT:

69. With regard to the proofs necessary to establish the possessory right to a mining claim, section 2332 provides that “where such person or association, they and their grantors, have held and worked their claims for a period equal to the time prescribed by the statute of limitations for mining claims of the state or territory where the same may be situated, evidence of such possession and working of the claims for such period shall be sufficient to establish a right to a patent thereto under this chapter, in the absence of any adverse claim."

70. This provision of law will greatly lessen the burden of proof, more especially in the case of old claims located many years since, the records of which, in many cases, have been destroyed by fire, or lost in other ways during the lapse of time, but concerning the possessory right to which all controversy or litigation has long been settled.

71. When an applicant desires to make his proof of possessory right in accordance with this provision of law, he will not be required to produce evidence of location, copies of conveyances, or abstracts of title, as in other cases, but will be required to furnish a duly certified copy of the statute of limitation of mining claims for the state or territory, together with his sworn statement giving a clear and succinct narration of the facts as to the origin of his title, and likewise as to the continuation of his possession of the mining ground covered by his application; the area thereof; the nature and extent of the mining that has been done thereon; whether there has been any opposition to his possession, or litigation with regard to his claim, and, if so, when the same ceased; whether such cessation was caused by compromise or by judicial decree, and any additional facts within the claimant's knowledge having a direct bearing upon his possession and bona fides which he may desire to submit in support of his claim.

72. There should likewise be filed a certificate, under seal of the court having jurisdiction of mining cases within the judicial district embracing the claim, that no suit or action of any character whatever involving the right of possession to any portion of the claim applied for is pending, and that there has been no litigation before said court affecting the title to said claim or any part thereof for a period equal to the time fixed by the statute of limitations for mining-claims in the state or territory as aforesaid, other than that which has been finally decided in favor of the claimant.

73. The claimant should support his narrative of facts relative to his possession, occupar.cy, and improvements by corroborative testimony of any disinterested person or persons of credibility who may be cognizant of the facts in the case and are capable of testifying understandingly in the premises.

74. As a condition for the making of application for patent according to section 2525, there must be a preliminary showing of work or expenditure upon each location. either by showing the full amount sufficient to the maintenance of possession under section 2324 for the pending year: or, if there has been failure, it should be shown that work has been resumed so as to prevent relocation by adverse parties after abandonment.

The “pending year" means the calendar year in which application is made, and has no reference to a showing of work at date of the final entry.

75. This preliminary showing may, where the matter is unquestioned, consist of the affidavit of two or more witnesses familiar with the facts. X. PROOF OF CITIZENSHIP:

76. The proof necessary to establish the citizenship of applicants for mining patents must be made in the following manner: In case of an incorporated company, a certified copy of their charter or certificate of incorporation must be filed. In case of an association of persons unincorporated, the allidavit of their duly authorized agent, made upon his own knowledge or upon information and belief, setting forth the residence of each person forming such association, must be submitted. This affidavit must be accompanied by a power of attorney from the parties forming such associauon, authorizing the person who makes the affidavit of citizenship to act for them in the matter of their application for patent.

it. In case of an individual or an association of individuals who do not appear by their duly authorized ageni, you will require the affidavit of each applicant, showing whether he is a native or naturalized citizen, when and where born, and his residence.

78. In case an applicant has declared his intention to become a citizen or has been naturalized, his affidavit must show the date, place, and the court before which he declared his intention, or from which his certificate of citizenship issued, and present residence.

79. The affidavit of the claimant as to his citizenship may be taken before the register or receiver, or any othe. officer authorized to administer oaths within the land district; or, if the claimant is residing beyond the limits of the district, the affidavit may be taken before the clerk of any court of record or before any notary public of any state or territory.

W. If citizenship is established by the testimony of disinterested persons, such testimony may be taken at any place before any person authorized to administer oaths, and whose ofhcial character is duly verified. XI. ADVERSE CLAIMS:

81. Section 2326, and the act of April 26, 1882, provide for adverse claims, fix the time within which they shall be filed to haie legal effect, and prescribe the manner of their adjustment, etc.

82. An adverse mining claim must be filed with the register and receiver of the land office where the application for patent was filed, or with the register and receiver of the district in which the land is situated at the time of filing the adverse claim. It must be on the oath of the adverse claimant, or it may be verified by the oath of any duly authorized agent or attorney-in-fact of the adverse claimant, cognizant of the facts stated.

23. Where un agent or attorney-in-fact verifies the adverse claim, he must distinetly swear that he is such agent or attorney, and accompany his affidavit by proof thereof.

8. The agent or attorney-in-fact must make the affidavit in verification of the adverse claim within the land district where the claim is situaied.

55. The adverse notice must fully set forth the nature and extent of the interference or conflict; whether the adverse party claims as a purchaser for valuable consideration or as a locator; if the former, a certified copy of the original location, the original conveyance, a duly certified copy thereof, or an abstract of title from the office of the proper recorder should be furnished, or if the transaction was a mereiy verbal one he will narrate the cireumstances attending the purchase, the date thereof, and the amount paid, which facts should be supported by the affidavit of one or more witnesses, if any were present at the time, and if he claims as a locator he must file a duly certified copy of the location from the oitice of the proper recorder.

56. In order that the “boundaries" and "extent" of the claim may be shown, it will be incumbent upon the adverse claimant to file a plat showing his entire claim, its relative situation or position with the one against which he claims, and the extent of the contlict. This plat must be made from an actual survey by a United States deputy surveyor, who will oflicially certify thereon to its correcta ness; and in addition there must be attached to such plat of survey a certificate or sworn statement by the surveyor as to the approximate value of the labor performed or improvements made upon the claim by the adverse party or his predecessors in interest, and the plat must indicate the position of any shafts, tunnels, or other improvements, if any such exist, upon the claim of the party opposing the application, and by which party said improvements were made: Provided, however, that, if the application for patent describes the claim by legal subdivisions, the adverse claimant, if also claiming by legal subdivisions, may describe his adverse claim in the same manner without further survey or plat.

57. l'pon the foregoing being filed within the sixty days as aforesaid, the register, or in his absence the receiver, will give notice in writing to both parties to the contest that such adverse claim has been filed, informing them that the party who filed the adverse claim will be required within thirty days from the date of such filing to conimence proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction to determine the question of right of possession, and to prosecute the same with reasonable diligence to final judgment, and that, should such adverse claimant fail to do so. his adverse claim will be considered waived, and the application for patent be allowed to proceed upon its merits.

GR. When an adverse claim is filed as aforesaid, the register or receiver will indorse upon the same the precise date of filing, and preserve a record of the date of notifications issued thereon; and thereafter all proceedings on

the application for patent will be suspended, with the exception of the completion of the publication and posting of notices and plat, and the filing of the necessary proof thereos, until the controversy shall have been adjudicated in court, or the adverse claim waived or withdrawn.

89. Where an adverse claim has been filed and suit thereon commenced within the statutory period, and final judgment determining the right of possession rendered in favor of the applicant, it will not be sufficient for him to file with the register a certificate of the clerk of the court, setting forth the facts as to such judgment, but he must, before he is allowed to make entry, file a certitied copy of the judgment, together with the other evidence required by section 2326, Revised Statutes.

90. Where such suit has been dismissed, a certificate of the clerk of the court to that effect, or a certified copy of the order of dismissal, will be sufficient.

91. In no case will a relinquishment of the ground in controversy, or other proof, tiled with the register or receiver, be accepted in lieu of the evidence required.

92. Where an adverse claim has been filed, but no suit commenced against the applicant for patent within the statutory period, a certificate to that effect by the clerk of the state court having jurisdiction in the case, and also by the clerk of the Circuit Court of the l'nited States for the district in which the claim is situated, will be required.

93. A party who is not an applicant for patent under section 2325, Revised Statutes, or the assignee of such applicant, is not entitled to make entry under said section, and in no case will the name of such party be inserted in the ceruificate of entry. This regulation has no reference to proceedings under section 2326.

91. Any party applying to make entry as trustee must disclose fully the nature of the trust and the name of the cestui que trust; and such trustee, as well as the beneficiaries, must furnish satisfactory proof of citizenship: and the names of beneficiaries, as well as that of the trustee, must be inserted in the final ceruficate of entry.

95. No entry will be allowed until the register has satisfied himself, by a careful examination, that proper proofs have been filed upon all the points indicated in official regulations in force, and that they show a sufficient bona fide compliance with the laws and such regulations.

96. The administration of the mining laws as prescribed by these regulations will be, so far as applicable, adopted for, and extended to Alaska.

(1) The ex-otlicio register, receiver, and surveyor-general, while acting as such, and their clerks and deputy surveyors, will be deemed subject to the laws and regulations governing the official conduct and responsibilities of similar officers and persons under general statutes of the United States.

(2) The Commissioner of the General Land Office will exercise the same general supervision over the execution of the laws as are or may be exercised by him in other mineral districts. XII. DEPUTY SURVEYORS, SURVEY AND PUBLI

CATION CHARGES, REGISTERS' AND RECEIVERS' FEES: 97. Section 2334 provides for the appointment of surveyors of mineral claims, authorizes the commissioners of the general land office to establish the rates to be charged for surveys and for newspaper publications.

Under this authority of law the following rates have been established as the maximum charges for newspaper publications in mining cases:

(1) Where a daily newspaper is designated, the charge shall not exceed seven dollars for each ten lines of space occupied, and where a weekly newspaper is designated as the medium of publication five dollars for the same space will be allowed. Such charge shall be accepted as full payment for publication in each issue of the newspaper for the entire period required by law.

It is expected that these notices shall not be so abbreviated as to curtail the description essential to a perfect notice, and the said rates established upon the understanding that they are to be in the usual body-type used for advertisements.

(2) For the publication of citations in contests or hearings involving the character of lands, the charges shall not exceed eight dollars for five publications in weekly newspapers, or ten dollars for publications in daily newspapers for thirty days.

98. The surveyors-general of the several districts will, in pursuance of said law, appoint in each land district as many competent deputies for the survey of mining claims as may seek such appointment; it being distinctly understood that all expenses of these notices and surveys are to be borne by the mining claimants and not by the United States: the system of making deposits for mineral surveys, as required by previous instructions, being hereby revoked as regards field work; the claimant having the option of employing any deputy surveyor within such district to do his work in the field.

99. With regard to the platting of the claim and other office work in the surveyor-general's office, that officer will make an estimate of the cost thereof, which amount the claimant will deposit with any assistant United States

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