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DISCOVERY OF A GOLD MINE IN MICHIGAN. A gold mine has just been found near Tecumseh, Michigan. A correspondent of the Buffalo Courier says the mine is situated in the east bank of the river, but a few feet above the water, the bank rising to the height of twenty-five or thirty feet, and so precipitously that the mine cannot be reached from above, but only by crossing the river. The gold is found principally in ore mixed, though it is said to be very rich, and many suppose it will yield 35 per cent of the pure article. A few lumps have been found, weighing from half an ounce to an ounce and a half, which has been pronounced pure. It is stated that a company has been organized to work it, Messrs. Blanchard, Hewitt, and Blood acting as directors, and that quite a gold mania has sprung up in that section of country.

BRITISH NORTH AMERICAN MINING COMPANY.

The silver mine of the British North American Mining Company, known as Colonel Prince's Location, is attracting considerable notice at present, in consequence of the ascertained extent of the vein, and the exceeding richness of the ore. The American Mining Journal states, on what is deemed good authority, that the “ vein has been distinctly traced for more than three miles on the north shore of Lake Superior, opposite Spar Island; and that the metalliferous portion is from three to five feet in width. The captain of the mine has sunk a shaft into the silver bearing portion several feet, with increased richness of the ore as he descended; and it would really seem, from the developments already made, that the mine of this company is the richest silver mine in the world. The depth of the vein cannot, of course, be determined; but if the experience of those who have worked silver mines elsewhere can have any application to this mine, the extent of its wealth cannot be well overrated.

We have just seen a number of specimens of ore taken from this mine, which are said to be a fair average of several barrels recently forwarded to the office of the company, in Montreal. They are very rich, containing, we should judge, near twelve per cent. silver. We also saw a bar of pure silver weighing about five pounds, smelted from the ore, and about forty pounds of the ore, which had been roasted and pulverized preparatory to smelting. There is a large force now at work on the mine, and it is the intention of this company to have one hundred tons of ore ready for shipment on the opening of navigation in the spring. A considerable quantity is now on its way to Montreal, where it is daily expected. The annual report of this company was published in the ninth number of the Mining Journal

CONSUMPTION, ETC., OF TEA IN THE UNITED STATES. The following statement exhibiting the qnantity and value of teas consumed annually from 1821 to 1847, and the amount of duty which accrued on the same from 1821 to 1832, together with the average rate of duty per pound, and its equivalent ad valorem, during the years in which the article was subjected to duty on importation, is derived from the Treasury Department, Register's Office, December. 7, 1847: Years ending Quantity. Value. (Years ending Quantity.

Value. Sept. 30. Pounds. Dollars. Sept. 30.

Pounds. Dollars. 1821................. 4,589,223 1,080,264 1835................. 12,331,636 3,594,293 1822................. 5,305,588 1,160 579 1936................. 14,484,784 4,472,342 1823................ 6,474,931 1,547.695 1837

..... 14,465 722

6,003,401 1824................. 7,771,619 2,224,203 1839... ....... 11,978,744 2,559,246 1825................. 7,173,740) 2,246,794 1839................. 7,748,028 1,871,824 1826 ................ 8,482,483 2,443.587 1640....... ........ 16,86 ,784

4,059,546 1827................. 3,074,895 942 439 1841................. 10.772,087 3,075,332 1823............... 6,289 581 1,771,993 1812........

....... 13,482,615

3,567,745 1829................. 5,602,795 1,531,460 1843*

....... 12,785 748

3,405,627 1830.. ............676,873,091 1,632,211 18147

*...*..., 13,054 327

3,162,225 1831................. 4,651,681 1,067 523 18157

........ 17,162,550

4,809,621 1932 ................. 8,627,144 2,081,339 18467

............ 16,891,020

3,983,337 1833...

........ 12,927 643 4,775,081 18477 ............... 14,221,910 3,200,066 1831...

13,193,553 5,122,275
Average Equivalent

Average Equivalent rate of ad valorem

rate of ad valorem Years ending Duties. duties. duties. Years ending Duties. duties. duties. September 30. Dollars. Cents. Per Cent. September 30. Dollars. Cents. Per Cent, 1821..........1,442,387 13 31.45 133.52 1827..........1,029,360 65 33.52 109.22 1822..........1,637,835 02 30.87 141.12 1829

.2,138,457 54 34.00 120 68 1823...... -2,000,754 66 30.09 129.27

1829....

.1.899.822 75 33.73 123.40 1824.

.2,587,949 13 33.03 116.35 1830.......... 2,287.364 68 32 28 149.28 1825. 2,405,355 02 33.53 107.05

1831....... 1,476,496 22 31.75 189.80 18:26.

2,911,188 17 34.32 119.13 (1832 ..........1,216,427 30 14.01 59.44

EXPORT OF CORN AND CORN MEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES.

The following table exhibits the quantity of corn and corn meal exported from the United States for fifty-seven years, commencing in 1791 and closing in 1847: TOTAL EXPORTS OF CORN AND CORN MEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES FROM 1791 TO 1847 Years. Corn. Corn meal. Years. Corn. Corn Meal. Yearg. Corn. Corn meal. Bushels. Barrels. Bushels, Barrels.

Bu ehelsBarrels. 1791.... 1,713,214

351,695 1810.... 1,054,252 86,744 1829.... 897,656 173,795

263,405 1792.... 1,964,973 1811.... 2,79),850 86,744

1930.... 444,109 154,301 1793 .... 1,233,769 189,715 1812.... 2,139,999 147,426

1831.... 561 312 207,604 1794.... 1,503,977 241,570 1813.... 1;436,970 90,810

1632... 451,230 146,710 1795. .. 1,935,345 612,445 1814.... 61,281

52,521 1833.... 437,174 146,678 1796 .... 1,173,552 640,286 1815.... 830,516 26,433

1831....

303.449 149,609 1797...

84,922 251,799 1816.... 1,077,614 72,634 1835.. 755.781 166,782 1793.... 1,218,231 211,691

1817....

387.451 89.119 1836. 124,791 140,617 1799.... 1,200.492 231,226 1818.... 1,075 190 106,762

1837..

151,275 159,435) 1800.... 1,694,327 338,108 1819.... 1,056,762 12,029 1838.... 172,321 171,843 1891.... 1,768, 162 919,353 1820.... 533,741 135,271 1839.... 162,316 165,627 1802.... 1.633,283 266,916 1821.. 607,277 146,318

571,279 1840....

207,063 1803.... 2,079,608 133,606 1822.... 609,098 131,569 1811... 635,727 232,284 1801.... 1,914,873

1823....
111,327
749,1134

600 308
148,223 1812....

209,190 1805 .... 861,501 116,131 1824.... 779,297 141,501 1843... 672,618 174,254 1806.... 1,064,263 109,312

1825....

869,641 17 ,723 1814.... 825,282 247,882 1897.... 1,018,721 136,464)

505,331 187,225 1845.... 84,184 269,080 1808.... 249,533 3),819 978,664

298,790

158,652 1816.... 1.826,068 1819.... 622,019 57,260 (1828..... 70,492 131,041 1847...17,272,815 945,039 • Nine months, ending June 30.

† Years eading June 30.

1826.... 1827....

TO THE PUBLIC PRESS. ALTHOUGH we propose to publish a Journal of Agriculture, Manufactures, &c., yet it would be unreasonable to suppose that we were acquainted with all the details connected with these several pursuits; or that we could acquire a general knowledge of the business and interests of every part of the country, without the co-operation of others.

Feeling the importanc of opening a correspondence with the agriculturists of the west, we called their attention through the last number of the WESTERN JOURNAL, to the importance of organizing agricultural societies in every county. But aware that farmers are generally slow in their movements in regard to such matters, we respectfully invite the publishers of newspapers to second our views by bringing the subject of agricultural societies before their readers.

Furthermore, we should be pleased if the conductors of the press throughout the west would encourage their readers to furnish them with facts connected with agriculture, manufactures and commerce; including the statistics of the business and population of the towns and villages; the kind of staples which are cultivated in each county — the mines, minerals and water power; and also a general description of the soil, surface and forest.

Such facts would greatly extend the usefulness of the journals of the interior, and make them more desirable to those who reside at a great distance from the place of publication.

A little attention to this subject would enable us to make the WesTERN Journal a complete repository of the statistics of the west, and greatly enhance its value as a book of reference, especially to the publishers of newspapers.

TO AGENTS. Such individuals as have been requested to act as agents, will please to let us hear from them at an early day.

CLUBS Will be furnished with six copies of the WESTERN JOURNAL for fifteen dollars, for the term of one year. .

THE

WESTERN JOURNAL.

Volume 1.]

APRIL, 1848.

[Number IV.

ART. 1.—THE NATURAL LAWS OF COMMERCE. HAVING shown in our last number that the current of commerce has hitherto followed the course of civilization from east to west, we shall proceed to consider some of the causes which are calculated, as we conceive, to give it a different direction in future.

The vast plains and mountains which separate the fertile portion of the Valley of the Mississippi from the productive valleys west of the Rocky Mountains, constitute a barrier to the progress of commerce from east to west; and, although the spirit of enterprise, and the love of adventure will induce many of our citizens to emigrate to the shores of the Pacific, yet, without a rail-way, or some mode of transportation, perhaps cheaper still, it will be impracticable to establish commercial intercourse across the mountains and plains which divide the two regions.

This barrier to the progress of commerce towards the west, will constitute an era in commercial history; for having subserved the purpose of exchanging the agricultural products of the newly settled countries for the manufactures of the old, the current will change from east to west, and in obedience to natural laws, flow from the equator in the direction of the poles, carrying the luxuries of the tropics to the inhabitants of colder climes, and returning with the more substantial products of the temperate zones. Thus, the bounties of Nature will be distributed among the inhabitants of every clime; and while, by the agency of com-, merce the physical comforts of every region will be increased, those prejudices which are so liable to exist between the people of the north and the south, will be removed, and social intercourse and universal sympathy prevail in their stead.

The great extent, the physical geography, and natural wealth of the Valley of the Mississippi, all point to the adoption of a separate and distinct system of commerce, differing in many respects from all others. Embracing every element

VOL. I, NO. IV- -19.

necessary to human subsistence, the west will require but little from foreign countries; and hence, the foreign trade will bear but a very small proportion to the internal commerce.

To give some idea of the tendency of commerce to move on a line from north to south, and the comparative decrease of the foreign trade of the United States, we refer to a tabular statement made by Col. Childs, editor of the Philadelphia Commercial List,” showing the number of arrivals at Philadelphia, from foreign ports and coastwise, from the year 1787 to 1848. From this we perceive, that the average number of foreign arrivals, for the five years ending with the. year 1805, was 595 ; and that the arrivals from coastwise during the same time, averaged 1,156, for each year; and that for the five years ending with the year 1845, the average annual arrivals from coastwise bad increased from 1,156 to 8,125, while the foreign arrivals had fallen off from 595 to 438, showing a decrease of more than twenty-five per cent in the number of foreign arrivals, and an increase of more than seven hundred per cent. in the arrivals from coastwise. This coastwise trade moves on a line from north to south, and the current is fed by tributaries falling into it from the west. This is the outline of one entire system, embracing all that portion of the United States bordering on the Atlantic Ocean, and when considered with reference to the country east of the Allegheny range, is in conformity with the natural laws which were designed to govern the commerce of the great natural divisions of the earth. But the extension of this system so as to embrace the Valley of the Mississippi, would violate these natural laws, and involve the people of the west in the absurdity of blindly overlooking their own natural channel of commerce, and fasten upon them the original system which was induced by the necessity arising from the “emigrating state” of society, and thus perpetuate the practice of sending our provisions to the Atlantic coast, to feed the operatives employed in manufacturing cotton, wool, and other raw materials of the west, to be returned here for consumption. We should call in question the intelligence and common sense of the people of the west, could we suppose that such a state of things could long exist. The physi. cal geography of the United States indicates two great systems of commerce, in themselves separate and distinct. The one, such as we have des ed as existing east of the Allegheny mountains—the other, in the Valley of the Mississippi. The latter bounded on the north by the lakes, and the waters which flow into Hudson's Bay, on the west by the Rocky Mountains, and on the south by Central America, and the tropical regions of South America, including the West India Islands. For, although our political jurisdiction extends no farther than the Gulf of Mexico, yet the tropical regions lying directly south of this Valley, must necessarily be embraced in our system of commerce, to give it completeness. This outline embraces every climate inhabitable by civilized man, and affords a direct communication between the two extremes of north and south by the Mis. sissippi river, and the Gulf of Mexico.

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