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Horticultural Societies may be justly ranked among the benevolent institutions of the country. They are calculated to cheapen the price and improve the quality of both fruits and vegetables; and more than all, to improve the taste and refine the moral tone of society. These remarks may be considered as common-place, yet it would seem that they are not generally understood by our citizens, if we are allowed to judge from the indifference with which they regarded the late horticultural exhibition.

Those who labor for the public good make many sacrifices, while their rewards consist in the pleasing consciousness of having discharged their duties, and in the approbation of those for whom they toil; the former is certain, and more solid it is true--but they are justly entitled to the latter, and that community which neglects suitable occasions to countenance and encourage the public benefactor, in his benevolent undertakings, is chargeable with ingratitude.

A company of vagabond circus riders shall erect a pavilion in our city, and it is crowded to suffocation ; and, perhaps, the street is througed with those who cannot gain admittance—while, although occurring but once a year, a horticultural exhibition, of much that is rare and beautiful, possesses little attraction when brought in competition with the stale jests of the clown and the ring-master.

We trust, however, that these considerations will not discourage our worthy horticulturalists. They are engaged in a good work, and if they persevere they inust succeed in producing a revolution in the general taste of the community, as well as in promoting the comfort of all classes.

MINERAL DISCOTERIES IN MISSOURI. Editors of the Western Journal:

Following the plan of previous communications, I desire in this to call your attention to the description of minerals in this part of the country, so far as they have come under my observation.

The discovery of mines are often accidental. One of this kind was made the other day by myself and Mr. Calvin Keith, of St. Louis. We were making one of those excursions commonly called in this country Prospecting,” when our attention was suddenly arrested by something for which we were not looking, nor should have dreamed of looking for in such a location. Our discovery proved to be pure Galena, or sulphuret of lead; its location is near Caledonia, among the primitive rock, known as Porphyry Granite, associated with the rock, and accompanied with the sulphate of Barytes.

I am a practical miner, or at least have had considerable experience in mining, and consider the location of this mine very remarkable; never meeting it in my own mining operations, nor having heard of it being found in such locations in this mining region by others. The lead is of the purest quality, and I think will yield eighty-five per cent. As the discovery is new, the extent of the mine is a matter of conjecture. I would remark, however, that according to Dr. Ure, Ga. lena as it occurs in the primitive formations in Europe, contains more silver than that of calcareous formations.

I have also recently discovered Cobalt near Caledonia, accompanied with Manganese Ore, along with the yellow sandstone rock. The quantity of this ore is yet unknown. The quality is apparently very pure. It is well adapted to the manufacture of zaffre, smalts, &c.

In a late tour through the country I have discovered Manganese Ore and Black Wad in quantities. These are pronounced to be of good quality. They are found in the western edge of Cape Girardeau county. I have also discovered Manganese Ore in the southern part of St Genevieve county, which is very extensive and of the purest quality. It is located about twenty-one miles from the Mississippi river.

There has been some tin discovered near Caledonia, accompanied with quart. zose felspar, but not in any workable quantity. Many other minerals have been discovered in this neighborhood, but it is not known yet what they really

I will speak of them at some future day. Caledonia, May 12, 1848.






I PRAY thee, fair lady, no longer accuse
The friends who admire thee of flatt'ry profuse ;
If they look, they must feel; if they seel, they must speak,
Though unbidden it bring the deep blush to ihy cheek.

In the far-distant realms of the East, we are told,
There are beings who worship the sun more than gold;
But fure'er would they turn from the light of those skies,
Could they catch but a ray of the light of thine eyes.

Then while the poor heathen is dazzled and won,
And looks with delight at the rays of the sun,
Deny not to us the one blessing we prize
of bowing beneath the sweet light of thine eyes.

Other lights are around us, above and below,
And we heed not their rays; but the soft, witching glow
That lurks on thy cheek, and distils from thine eyes,
Is sweeter by far than the lights of the skies.

Then a toast to the light of the eyes that outshine
The bright orbs of the Heav'ns, and the gems of the mine,
And a health to her, who, though caress'd and belovd,
Is with gentleness, kindness, and modesty cloth'd.

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Our life is two-fold.-BYRON, Our existence is three-fold : the impressions of the present are assimilated with our mental and moral natures; while memory and hope conjoining, extend the province of man to little less than infinite.

In our rapid and resistless speed on the wing of time do we bear along with us these captive impressions; or does the mind leave the subjects of its conquest in the occupation of their respective places, and expanding as it proceeds, add each new acquisition to its former dominion ? Be this as it may, the impressions of the present are incorporated with those of the past; and are not the less permanent because the objects that made them ‘may have perished from the earth. And thus this mental dominion of man is peopled with the images of forms which have ceased to exist in the material world. Nay more, the thoughts and affections which pertained to the beings of the past are also impressed upon our mental and moral natures; and thus rescued from oblivion, survive the corporeal existence of those from whom they emanated.

But still these images of the material world--as also those of thought and affection-adhere to time and place, and retain all their former relations to the past. Has the form of one whose love constituted our highest delight faded from our vision, and its substance returned thither whence it came; and do we desire to refresh our hearts at the pure fountain from which in times past we drank deep draughts of pleasure—we return to the time, the place, and the circumstances which called forth some unwonted demonstration of affection; and then, although long since dried up, the living fountain is again opened; and as the gentle showers of heaven descending on the withered plant, causeth it to rejoice—so do the consecrated impressions made by beings which have ceased to exist, revive our sympathies; and wrapped in the pleasures of the past, we escape for a season from the evils of the present.

Then, truly, the past is ours : and we are permitted even, in our present state of existence to draw both pleasure and instruction from beings whose material forms have been dissolved into their original elements.

The future, also, that illimitable space where dwell our hopes—that Eden of desire-that better land, abounding in every good that fancy can devise, is ours. Had we not free ingress into this boundless region, whither could we escape from present ills? Or who would toil, did Hope promise no reward beyond the present hour? Did not the anticipations of the future mingle with our present enjoyments, they would no longer aftord delight-and hope failing, life itself would




Volume 1.]

JULY, 1848.

[Number VII.

ART. 1-ARTIFICIAL AGENTS OF EXCHANGE. In the last number of the WESTERN JOURNAL, we endeavored to show that although the whole civilized world recognize money as the representative of all other commodities, yet this recognition has reference only to its functions as an agent of exchange, and that its specific value is the subject of agreement between the parties to every transaction. We also noticed the constant tendency of money to accumulate at the great commercial emporiums, and the advantages which this accumulation give to those who reside at or near those places; and having made a practical application of these principles to the economy of the country, we now propose to examine the subject of credit as an agent of exchange.

No topic is, perhaps, more familiar to the people of this country than that of credit; yet, when we attempt to trace out its effects, and consider the subject with regard to all its bearings upon the condition of a people, we perceive at each step as we proceed, that it becomes more intricate and difficult of apprehension. Credit may be regarded as absolutely essential to the existence of society; for, without trust or confidence between individuals, no social compact could have been formed in the beginning, nor could society exist even at the present day. If an individual is employed to labor for but one day, he must either credit the employer until the labor is performed, or the employer must pay in advance, and credit the laborer until he executes his work. Hence, crerlit is the result of necessity, and must have preceded all laws designed to enforce the rights of the creditor ; and in cases not induced by necessity, the inference arises that it was originally based upon the moral character of the individual. The introduction of money as an agent of exchange, did not, nor could it obviate the necessity of credit, for both are necessary to the advancement of civilization. The same functions, although differing in power, are common to both. The credit of an individual must necessarily be limited and local, and he who holds the obligation of another can turn it to but little account where the debtor is

VOL I, NO. VII.-34

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