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“ Nova Scotia.--The Albion mines are in Pictou, on the northern side of Nova Scotia, and eight and a half miles distant from the town of the same name. The coal is transported the whole distance by railroad, or by the river barges. The strata are similar to those of Staffordshire. The Sydney and Bridgeport mines are on the eastern side of the island of Cape Breton. The coal in this field is similar in quality to that at Newcastle. Railroads are required here, and also steam “tugs' to tow coal vessels in and out of the harbors. The shallowest pit described is one hundred and eighty feet deep; as the dip of the veins is rapid and towards the sea, the workings tvill continually increase in depth. The seams, perhaps, are not as thick as those of England, and, judging from the price at which the coal is sold in New England, the cost of working them is not less.
“ Martin, in his Colonial Library,' states that all these mines are held by the "General Mining Association'as tenants of the crown and the late Duke of York, with a capital of $2,000,000, chiefly invested in boats, machinery, and other means of carrying on its mining operations. The nearest and only great market for this coal is New England, where its price ranges from twenty to thirty cents per bushel, after paying an import duty of about forty-five cents per ton. Before I touch on the coal measures of the United States, I must ask space to make a few quotations from various writers on the importance and value of this mineral.
6:" It cannot here be necessary to point out the many advantages which we derive from the possession of our coal mines, the sources of greater riches than ever issued from the mines of Peru, or from the diamond grounds at the base of the Neela Mulla mountains. But for our command of fuel, the inventions of Watt and Arkwright would have been of small account; our iron mines must long since have ceased to be worked, and nearly every important branch of manufacture which we now possess must have been rendered impracticable, or, at best, have been conduceed upon a comparatively insignificant scale.'— Porter's Progress of the Nation.
• The ascent of Mount Blanc from Chamouni is considered, and with justice, as the most toilsome feat that a strong man can execute in two days. The combustion of two pounds of coal would place him on the summit.:—Sir J. F. W". Hershel.
" The amount of work now done by machinery, moved by steam, in England has been supposed to be equivalent to that of between three and four hundred mil. lions of men by direct labor.'
“Dr. Thompson says that in the coal fields on the north and northwest of Birmingham, the loss in mining, owing to the tender nature of the substance itself, and the comparatively trifling demand for small coal, amounts to about two-thirds of he entire steam. In allusion to this statement, and the efforts of a celebrated philosopher to economize the application of suel, Mr. Tredgold exclaims : “ The waste, which Count Rumford lamented so much, dwindles to nothing in comparison with the wholesale destruction of a valuable material. Are you a manufac.
turer? Look around and see what generates the power which enables you to compete with other nations. Are you a philanthropist ? Consider that a substance is destroyed which would add comfort to millions of your fellow creatures ; consider the risk at which it is procured; the number of lives that are lost by explosions, and the misery these catastrophes create. Surely, some means of rendering that portion useful, which is now wasted, may be devised."
“« In a work, lately published by a Spaniard, there is a comparison between the produce of the gold and silver mines in America and the coal mines of England, in which the author exhibits a balance in favor of the latter of no less than 229,500,000 francs annually.'
Pennsylvania realizes from her coal mines an annual income of four and a half millions, and Great Britain of one hundred and ninety-two millions of dollars.? -Hitchcock's Geology, Mass. 1841.
My last quotation is from the splendid speech of Mfr. Webster. *** It (steam) is on the rivers, and the boatman may repose on his oars; it is in the highways, and begins to exert itself along the courses of land conveyances ; it is at the bottom of mines, a thousand (he might have said 1,800) feet below the earth's surface; it is in the mill, and in the workshops of the trades. It rows, it pumps, it excavates, it carries, it draws, it lifts, it hammers, it weaves, it spins, it prints."
The writer says of the great Illinois coal field, that “ in the opinion of geologists, the whole field is what is termed a “basin,' and, on the Ohio, is lowest about Henderson. Probably there are only two strata that are worth working. The lower, in geological position, is seen at Cannelton and Trade Water; the upper at Bon Harbor ; each of these, at different points, is from 3 to 10 feet in thickness.
“On the eastern side the dip is westwardly about fifty feet in a mile ; on the western side the dip is estwardly, but how rapid is not known. Near the Missis. sippi river the lower strata is said to be very sulphurious.
“ The positions where it has been worked, and where the coal appears to be of an excellent quality and convenient thickness, are at Cannelton, and on the Walash and White rivers, in Indiana; about one hundred miles up the Green river, at Bon Harbor, and on the Tradewater river, in Kentucky; and on the Saline and Big Muddy rivers in Minois.”
ART. VII.-HOPS. THE QUANTITY CONSUMED IN ST. LOUIS. -- THE CULTIVATION OF HOPS IN THE WEST.
We have bestowed much labor in ascertaining the quantity of hops consumed by the breweries in St. Louis, and have learned from the proprietors of these establishments that they purchased last year, 71,700 ds. We have not been able to ascertain the quar tity used by the bakers, distillers, &c., but we imagine that there can be little less than 100,000 pounds of hops annually consumed in this city, and the demand is rapidly increasing.
We have also ascertained that much the larger portion of these hops are of eastern growth; and to this fact we desire to call the attention of our agricultural readers.
In a country like this, where over-production is so liable to occur in every staple, it would seem extremely absurd that we should continue to import from a great distance, and at great expense, an article which can be as easily produced here as in any part of the world.
We learn from the brewers that they consider the properties of the western hops superior to the eastern; but, owing to the manner of gathering and preparing them for market, the eastern article is preferred. We perceive from the St. Louis Price Current of January 15th, that prime eastern hops were worth from 14 to 15 cents, and western do. 11 to 14 cents. This difference of price is doubtless owing to the cause above mentioned.
If the New England farmer can afford to produce hops on land of many times the market value of land in the west, and where one bushel of corn is worth three times as much money; and, in addition to this, transport the article more than two thousand miles by ocean and river navigation, it would seem to place the matter beyond doubt, that the growth of hops must be highly profitable in Missouri. It is true that the western market is limited, and might be readily overstocked; but why not produce for exportation? It seems to us, upon comparing the elements that enter into the cost of production in the two countries, that we ought to supply New England with bops, rather than to import the article from there for our own consumption.
We profess to know nothing of the culture, or of the manner of preparing hops for use. We therefore invite our agricultural readers to inquire into the subject, and to afford us such practical information in regard to the culture and preparation of the article for use, as they may possess.
ART. VIII.-MANUFACTURES IN ST. LOUIS.
GRIMSLEY'S DRAGOON, OR MILITARY SADDLE-TREE. The nature of this invention consists of an improvement upon the pommel, and cantle made use of in the construction of the French Hussar, or old Dragoon Regulation Saddle-tree, and in the combination, without metalic fastening, of the French Hussar or Dragoon Regulation style of pommel, and cantle with winding side bars, of such a form, and arranged in such a manner, that they will bear equally and uniformly on the back of a horse or mule, thereby superseding the necessity of a pad. The timber of which this saddle-tree is constructed, is ash, beech or maple, and it is fastened together by means of a raw hide covering. The front of the pommel is shaved to a level surface, with a slight curvature at the upper end, giving the head an inclination to the front, while on the inside it is worked off each way from the centre, giving it a convex form. The cantle is worked out each way from the centre, on the inside, bringing it to a concave form, and affording the rider an upright posture, and an easy seat in the saddle. From two and a half to three inches from the upper end of the cantle it is curved to the rear, while the rear surface of the same is brought to a convex form.
The side bars, the most important part of the tree, are nineteen to twenty inches long, and are made from timber in the rough state, from three to four inches thick. The iwo ends where the pommel and cantle are joined to the same, are shaved to a smooth surface. The space between is so formed as to fit tħe seat of the rider, and afford ease to, and a close application of, the inside muscles of the thighs to the saddle, and the sides of the horse. The under side of the side bars are worked off, and so formed as to fit the back of a horse below the great leaders, and a sufficiently winding and oral surface is given to them, to insure a uniform, even pressure on the back, from front to rear. They are from five to seven inches wide, and from one-fourth to one inch in thickness, An aperture is made through the upper end of the pommel, through which a strap passes, to fasten the coat or other luggage of the Dragoon. There is also an aperture in the upper end of the cantle, to which the valise is suspended, which holds it above the back of the horse, and prevents it from chafing or bruising his loins. From all we can learn of the construction and form of this saddle-tree, it combines the strength and durability of the Spanish, the grace and elegance of the French, and the handsome proportions and finish given to it by the inventor in this city. We learn that the saddles made on these saddle-trees were first constructed by Mr. Grimsley some two years and a half since, and have, since that time, been introduced into every arm of the mounted service of the country. Its great celebrity, and complete adaptation to the purposes for which it was intended, caused the Quarter Master General of the United States army to order samples to be forwarded to Washington, where a board of officers, of high rank and great practical experience, was ordered to convene to decide upon the merits of the equipments of Mr. G., and other samples which were submitted for their inspection. The result of their deliberations was the adoption of every part of the saddle offered by Mr. Grimsley, and of the whole of his equipments except the bridle bit, which was submitted by Lieut. Col. May, of the 2d Dragoons. The improvements in this article are of essential service to the country, and the one under consideration has been tested thoroughly by some of the oldest and ablest officers known to the Dragoon service. Amongst the samples which were in the office and under consideration, was the Spanish, French, the Ringgold, and Sam Walker saddles, with several other specimens, but none were considered equal to the sample from St. Louis. It was, therefore, adopted, and is now the regular army saddle' for the mounted service of the United States.
The business capacity and enterprise of Col. Grimsley might well place him at the head of his profession in this, or any other country. His establishment on Main Street, in this city, in regard to both extent and arrangement, is unequalled by any thing of the kind that we have ever visited.
Here he gives constant employment to from sixty to seventy hands, and so complete is his supervision, that we have never heard of a bad job that was turned out from his establishment. And more than this, his enterprise is not limited to the building up of his own establishment merely, but acting upon the true principles of political economy, he delights to encourage his neighbors, and employs St. Louis mechanics to manufacture the stirrup irons, bridle bits, and other hardware used in his business. Such individuals well deserve the highest degree of prosperity that talent and industry can impart.
BLOW'S WHITE LEAD AND OIL FACTORY. The following statement in relation to this extensive and flourishing establishment, has been furnished by Mr. HENRY T. Blow, the enterprising proprietor.
The establishment is situated at the corner of Clark Avenue and Tenth Street, and fronts on the latter one hundred and thirty-five feet.
The machinery is propelled by a steam engine of thirty horse power.
16,000 pigs of lead,
2,000 barrels of vinegar,
40,000 bushels of good coal. The establishment gives employment to sixty-five hands, and produces annually about 50,000 kegs of white lead, 4,000 barrels of oil, and 350 casks of red lead and lytharye, and pays for lahor, fuel and insurance, $22,000, and for stock generally, from $140,000 to $175,000.
The work at the establishment is carried on both day and night for six days in the week, and has seldom stopped for the last three years, except to repair accidents, and for the holydays. The oil and lead manufactured at this establishment is sold in almost every city in the Union.
“ The St. Louis Chemical Works” carried on by Mr. SAMUEL CUTHBERT, produced last year about 20,000 kegs of white lead, and has machinery and capacity of buildings sufficient to turn out, perhaps three times that quantity.
BREWERIES. This is a branch of business which has greatly increased within the last two or three years. We have now in the city sixteen breweries; which, according