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dation to prevent any one from working in mines who may desire to do so is punishable by fine or imprisonment. Payment of wages every two weeks in cash to operatives in mines and to employees of manufacturing establishments is enforced. The effect of alcoholic drinks on the human system is to be taught in the public schools, and an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors, except for sacramental, medicinal, and mechanical purposes, has been proposed by the Legislature, and it will be submitted to a vote of the people at the next general election.

WISCONSIN.

In Wisconsin, the father of a minor child, and in case of his death the mother, is allowed to appoint by will a guardian therefor. In case a person dies leaving no debts, or his estate has been settled, and the administrator or executor has been discharged, a

a special administrator may be appointed for any special purpose which shall be stated in his letters of administration, and when that purpose has been served his authority ceases. To the actions which survive at common law Wisconsin has added actions for assault and battery, false imprisonment, or other damage to the person; it has also extended the liability of municipal corporations for injuries by mobs, so as to include responsibility for any bodily harm or injury sustained by persons not implicated in the riot who have not by their own act or negligence contributed to the injury. Where the mortgagor of a stock of goods, or stock in trade, remains in possession, and is permitted to make sales and apply the proceeds to the payment of the mortgage debt, he is required to file every sixty days a sworn statement of sales made and of additions to stock; if he fails to do so, the mortgage debt becomes due and payable, and the mortgage ceases to be a lien as to third persons at the expiration of fifteen days thereafter,

The absolute power of alienation cannot be suspended by any limitation or condition for a longer period than during

the continuance of two lives in being at the creation of the estate and twenty-one years thereafter, except when real estate is granted or devised to literary or charitable corporations created by the laws of the State, or where a contingent remainder in fee is created on a prior remainder in fee, to take effect in the event that the persons to take under the first remainder die under twenty-one years of age. When an assignment is made for the benefit of creditors, the assignee may, in the name of the debtor, contest the validity of any attachment levied on his property within sixty days prior to the assignment, and he may traverse the affidavit on which the attachment issued. If a married man execute a mortgage of personal property exempt from seizure, such mortgage is not valid unless signed by his wife in the presence of two witnesses. The formation of corporations for the purpose of carrying on any trade or business on the co-operative plan has been authorized, the shares to be not less than one dollar nor greater than ten dollars each. Corporations may be organized for the purpose of insuring or guaranteeing owners and mortgagees of real estate from loss by reason of defective titles or incumbrances. Executors or trustees who are authorized by the will of the testator to organize a corporation, may, individually or as executors, together with the legatees, form a corporation to carry out the intentions of the testator as expressed in the will, and may convey to such corporation the property referred to in the will, or subscribe for stock to the value of the property, and transfer the property in payment of the stock. The safety and health of employees in factories and workshops have been provided for by acts regulating those establishments and enlarging the powers conferred on the State factory inspector.

“Boycotting” has been declared unlawful and is punished by fine and imprisonment; black-listing employees by employers is prohibited, and interference by threats, intimidation, or coercion with persons employed at lawful labor, or with the use of or operation of machinery, cars, or engines,

by injuring the same, or by removing any part thereof, is also punished with fine and imprisonment. An act has been passed to protect children from neglect, abuse, or the vicious or immoral habits of parents or guardians or any person having custody of them, and to remove them to a comfortable home, or to such place of safe-keeping as may be available; the removal is effected by judicial authority after due notice to the parents or other custodian of the children. The sale of liquor to a drunkard, or to a person given to the excessive use of drink, may be forbidden by his wife or by the supervisors or by the trustees of the village or the aldermen of a city or any of them; the penalty for disobedience is fine and imprisonment. Milliners must have incurred the displeasure of Wisconsin men if their sentiments are expressed in a spiteful law which forbids the killing of birds for millinery purposes. You cannot in that State kill or catch for a milliner any robin, sparrow, thrush, bluebird, swallow, catbird, kingbird, woodpecker, flicker, pigeon, dove, blackbird, wren, finch, lark, pewee, oriole, humming-bird, bunting, grackle, grosbeak, warbler, flycatcher, swift, waxwing, chickadee, creeper, goatsucker, tanager, or whip-poor-will; it is a misdemeanor to kill for a milliner any bird in the foregoing catalogue, which the State ornithologist must have prepared.

The enforcement of the law, I apprehend, will be difficult, as the violation of it depends on the intention of the person killing, and I venture to assert that the murder of birds will go on in Wisconsin, and the milliners will get them, and yet they will all be killed for the hairdresser, the florist, the baker, the butcher, but not one for the milliner. Wisconsin has made it criminal for an architect to draw plans for, or superintend the erection of any school-house, church, factory, hall, or hotel without providing the fire-escapes and outward swinging doors required by law. The abduction or the deceitful enticement of chaste unmarried women to improper places is punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not more than fifteen nor less than five years. A com

mon drunkard may be sentenced to imprisonment in an inebriate asylum for not more than two years nor less than three months; and when a person is sentenced to imprisonment in the county jail the court may also sentence to hard labor under the direction of the supervisors of the county where the offense was committed. The Governor of this State is directed to have placed in the old Hall of the House of Representatives at Washington “a statue of Pere Marquette, the faithful missionary, whose work among the Indians and explorations within the borders of the State in the early days are recognized all over the civilized world.”

It is my impression that this long and, I fear, tedious review will give you a very correct idea of the tendency of public thought, and of the influence of the legal profession in directing that tendency. The effort to repress crime, the anxiety to ameliorate the condition of laborers, the solicitude for women and children, and the energy of the legislation respecting corporations, while they attest the evils of the day, nevertheless strengthen our confidence in democratic institutions, and increase our respect for the intelligence and virtue of the American people.

Having performed the duty assigned me, I declare the Tenth Annual Session of the American Bar Association to

be now open.

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