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Compositions, abstracts, and written reviews.
Geography completed and reviewed, with map-drawing from memory, and use of terrestrial globe. See 88 87 and 88.
History of the United States, completed and reviewed. Outlines of English history, with review.
Fifth Reader (or corresponding number of the series), with explanations, analysis of derivative and compound words, and elementary sounds.
Written exercises in spelling from reading lessons, and other words selected by the teacher. Analysis of derivative and compound words, and a few selected rules of spelling. *
Slate arithmetic completed and reviewed. Extemporaneous exercises in combining series of numbers. See § 5. Difficult examples in mental arithmetic reviewed. See § 81.
Declamations and recitations.
Physical exercises, from two to four minutes at a time, not less than twice a day. See § 105.
Oral Instruction.-See SS 8 and 18. $ 96. Popular Astronomy.—Ten or more elemen
The earth — its size and motions Change of seasons-how caused; difference in the length of days and nights at different seasons of the year; length of the longest day at the equator;
References.—$ 96. Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 1; Child's Book of Nature, part 3; Fireside Philosophy, index; Brande's. Cyclopædia; Brownell's How to Use Globes.
“The rules for spelling derivatives are not very commonly learned in our schools, or if memorized they are not comprehended and practically applied. Certainly a large share of the bad spelling which I have witnessed is chargeable to a neglect of these rules.''B. G. Northrop, Agent of Massachusetts Board of Education.
tropics; polar circles; at the poles. Tides. Solar System. The sun-its office, distance, magnitude, spots. The moon-its size, distance, telescopic appearance, different phases; eclipse of the moon; of the sun. Name the planets in their order; relative size; satellites of each, and ring of Saturn. Morning and evening stars. Comets. Fixed stars. Teach the pupils to point out in a clear night five or more conspicuous constellations; five or more stars of the first or second magnitude; all the larger planets that are above the horizon.
§ 97. Elementary Exercises in Book-keeping.–A dozen simple exercises in single-entry book-keeping, illustrated by the teacher on the blackboard, and written out by the pupils, will be sufficient to enable them to keep ordinary accounts with a good degree of facility and accuracy; and pupils should never be allowed to pass through the Grammar divisions and leave school, without this knowledge.
$ 98. Government.--Seven or more elementary lessons on government, embracing the general structure of National, State, city, and town governments, and their relation to each other; government of United States, compared with that of Great Britain, Russia, Switzerland. Legislative, executive, and
References.—$ 97. Introduction to Mayhew's Book-keeping.
$ 98. Mansfield's Political Manual; Howe's Young Citizen's Catechism; Shurtliff's Governmental Instructor; Sheppard's Constitutional Text-book; Young's Science of Government; Brande's Cyclopædia, words Jury, Homicide, etc.; Webster's and Worcester's Quarto Dictionaries.
judicial branches of government; origin of our National government; Declaration of Independence; Constitution; trial by jury. Terms homicide, manslaughter, felony, arson, burglary, treason, perjury, forgery, etc. Names of the principal sovereigns of Europe.
$ 99. Heat.-In expanding the following topics, explain and apply the principles, and illustrate them as far as practicable. Sources of heat; heating by conduction, radiation, convection. Sensation of heat and cold; burning-glasses; good and poor conductors; different kinds of clothing; double windows; ice-houses; use of a fan; protection of the ground by snow. Contraction and expansion; putting tire
a wheel ; fire balloons; thermometer; glass cracked by hot water; why clocks go faster in cold weather than in warm ; freezing water; heat absorbed by change from solid to liquid state, and from liquid to gaseous; freezing mixture of salt and ice; cooling a heated room by sprinkling water on the floor. Boiling water; how the force of steam is produced. Flame-how produced. Carbon. Flame of a candle—why no combustion in the center; wick-why not consumed; use of circular wick in astral and solar lamps; use of glass chimney ; of small hole in top of lamp; gas used in lighting buildings; use of a blower in kindling a fire; action
References.—$ 99. Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 2; Science of Common Things, index; Reason Why, index; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 2 and 4; Brande's Cyclopædia.
of a common chimney ; proper construction; advantages of stoves, as compared with open fireplaces; disadvantages.
$ 100. Geology.-Five or more oral lessons on the geological formation of the United States ; coal fields; mineral ores; geology of the State in which the pupils reside; fossiliferous rocks.
$ 101. Grammar and use of Language. At least half the time appropriated to Grammar in the first grade, should be spent in parsing and analyzing select pieces from Milton, Pope, and other authors, embracing several different varieties of style. The extracts required for this purpose may be selected from the reading-books.
No exercise should be regarded as complete and satisfactory that does not analyze the thought as well as the language of the writer.
Pupils of this grade should receive special instructions in letter-writing, including the form and manner of beginning and ending, with the date; paragraphs; dividing between syllables at the end of a line; margin; folding; superscription ; sealing, etc. See, also, SS 6 and 89.
§ 102. Use of Globe.—Pupils should receive so much instruction in the use of the terrestrial globe,
References.- 100. Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 2; Willson's Fifth Reader; Brande's Cyclopædia; Webster's and Worcester's Quarto Dictionaries; any of the Physical Geographies.
§ 102. McIntyre on the Use of the Globes; Keith on the Uso of the Globes; Brownell's How to Use Globes.
Spelling, etc. ; Music,
that they will be able to solve by it, before the class, not less than five common problems; as, To find the length of a degree of longitude at any given latitude: To find the hours of sunrise and sunset, and the length of day and night at a given place on a given day: To find how long the sun shines without setting, at any given place in the north frigid zone, and how long it is invisible, etc.
Reading.--See SS 1, 41, 78.
$ 103. Spelling and Analysis of Derivative Words. -Spell one hundred names selected from the geography of Asia and Africa; the names of fifty islands and groups of islands, situated in any part of the world. Dictation exercises. Special attention to the analysis of derivative and compound words. Seo SS 2 and 79.
Writing.–See $ 3.
$ 104. It is highly important that all the divisions in the Grammar and Primary Departments should have one or more regular lessons in vocal music every week. Each division should also have daily exercises in singing both devotional and secular pieces. In
References.—§ 103. Northend's Dictation Exercises ; San ders's Analysis of English Words; Town's Analysis of Deriva tive Words; McElligott's Analytical Manual.