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Promotions ; Physical Exercises.

the Primary divisions, singing should be interspersed among the other exercises several times a day.

CONDITIONS OF TRANSFER FROM ONE GRADE TO

ANOTHER.

No pupils should be advanced from one grade to another, till they are able to sustain a thorough and satisfactory examination, by the Principal, on all the branches of the grade from which they are to be transferred, including the oral lessons, use of slate, etc. They should be able to read any of the pieces they have gone over, with proper expression ; explain the meaning of any of the words ; give the names and uses of the different marks used ; and spell any of the words, both by letters and by sounds. In the Grammar divisions, the examinations should be both oral and written. When practicable, all promotions from one grade to another should be made at the commencement of a school month.

Whenever the scholarship of a pupil falls behind the rank of his class, he should be sent into the class next below, unless by extra effort he is able promptly to regain his position.

PHYSICAL EXERCISES.*

$ 105. The following exercises embody the result of many careful experiments, and are believed to combine the elements of the most useful movements that are adapted to the school-room. The best ef

* Most of the “free gymnastics'' here presented, have been kindly furnished by Messrs. S. H. White, Principal of the Brown School, Chicago, G. D. Broomell, Principal of the Dearborn School, and E. C. Delano, Teacher of the Normal Department of the High School ; Assisted by three of the lady teachers.

Physical Exercises.

fects will generally be produced by executing them in order, from first to last; but teachers can at any time make selections from them, at their discretion.

The value of the exercises depends in a great degree upon the energy and force with which they are executed. In all the arm and shoulder movements, the muscles should be kept as rigid as possible, and the rapidity of the movements should not be so great as to prevent the utmost tension of the muscles. In all the body movements the motion should be full and slow.

The directions assume that the regularity and number of motions in each movement are fixed by counting, either by the teacher alone, or by both teacher and class, as may be desired. The number to be counted in the body movements may be eight; and in the others, when counted at all, twelve. In some cases, it may be thought desirable to duplicate the numbers.

The following positions are recommended, preparatory to the execution of the movements : Position A, Sit erect, hands folded in front.

B, Turn to the aisle, preparatory to rising.
O, Rise and face the teacher.

References.— 105. Root's School Amusements; Potter & Emerson's School and Schoolmaster, part 2; Calkins's Object Lessons; Beecher's Physiology and Calisthenics; Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 1; Fitzgerald's Exhibition Speaker and Gymnastic Book; Trall's Family Gymnasium ; Walker's Manly Exercises; De Laspee's Free Gymnastics; Alfonce's Instructions in Gymnasticr. Dio Lewis's New Gymnastics.

Physical Exercises.

Position D, Stand erect, with arms akimbo.

E, Pupils resume their seats. These positions may be used in dismissing school, when classes are called to recitation, and at all times when the scholars are called to rise from their seats.

While on the floor, the scholars should stand erect, with the shoulders thrown back, and, unless otherwise directed, with the hands hanging naturally at the sides.

NOTE.

Cases will sometimes occur in which pupils are affected with infirmities that render particular exercises injurious to them. Teachers should give watchful attention to this point, and never require pupils to join in any of the movements against the wishes of their parents.

The windows should generally be raised from the bottom during the physical exercises, so as to furnish a supply of fresh air. All pupils in health are expected to join in these exercises ; but if, from ill health or other cause, any one is prevented from engaging in them, he should never be allowed to sit in a current of air.

MOVEMENTS.

(1.) Inhale slowly and fill the lungs to their utmost capacity; retain the air a few seconds, and then exhale slowly until the air is expelled as completely as possible. Six inspirations and expirations.

(2.) Place the clenched hands on the shoulders, the elbows being elevated sidewise to a horizontal line with them. At count one, throw the fists foroi. bly outward, so that the arms shall be in a horizon. tal position. At count two, bring the fists back to

Physical Exercises.

the shoulders, keeping them closed firmly during the whole movement. Count twelve.

(3.) Hands hanging at the sides, closed. Counting one, pass the fists in front of the shoulders, and raise them so that the arms shall be vertical; two, bring the fists down immediately over the shoulders, at the same time throwing the elbows downward and backward; three, throw the fists downward, commencing with a short curve by bending the wrists and raising the elbows. Count twelve.

(4.) Position D. At count one, incline the body to the right at an angle of 45°. At two, incline to the left in the same manner. Count eight.

(5.) Inflate the lungs suddenly with a full breath; retain the breath a short time, and then emit as quickly as possible. Five times.

(6.) Extend the arms forward a little above the horizontal, the fists being side by side, thumbs downward. At one, bring the fists immediately in front of the shoulders, turning the thumbs upward, and throwing the elbows downward and backward forcibly, as if to strike them together behind. At two, thrust the fists forward to the first position. Count twelve.

(7.) Position D. At one, thrust the right fist upward to a vertical position; at two, bring the right hand to position D, and then thrust the left fist upward in the same manner.

Count twelve. (8.) Hands hanging in front, clasped. At one, throw the hands to the right and as far behind as possible, at the same time turning the body in the

Physical Exercises.

ner.

same direction, but keeping the face and feet straight forward. At two, turn to the left in the same man

Count eight. (9.) Position D. Inhale a full breath slowly; erit the breath audibly and slowly, giving the prolonged sound of a in father.

(10.) Let the arms hang at the sides, hands open. At one, throw the hands outward and upward, keeping the arms extended, and bring the hands together directly over the head with a clap; keeping the hands together and arms extended ; at two, bring the hands down in front to a level with the shoulders; at three, throw the hands backward, keeping the arms extended horizontally; at four, drop the arms to the sides as in position of starting. Count twelve.

(11.) Position D. At one, rise on the toes as far as possible; at two, ease back to starting position, being careful to avoid dropping noisily on the heels. Count twelve.

(12.) Hands hanging at the sides, closed. At one, bring the fists up under the arms; at two, return them to first position. Count twelve.

(13.) Hands hanging naturally at the sides. At one, raise both shoulders as forcibly and as high as possible. At two, lower them gently. Count twelve.

This exercise may be varied by raising and dropping first one shoulder six times and then the other six; or by raising and dropping one shoulder once and then the other once, alternating to count twelve.

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