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be brought to bear at all times upon the children, which will serve as a substitute for more than half of all the corporal punishment that is now inflicted by teachers who have not learned the use of school records.
Similar remarks might also be made respecting the records of attendance and scholarship, and similar lessons drawn from them, respecting the importance of obtaining the best results by the best means.
In compiling and arranging the forms herewith presented, the two great objects sought were simplicity and completeness. The writer examined and compared a large number of the blanks used in different cities, and endeavored to copy their best features. A trial of over four years in the schools of Chicago, has proved the efficiency of these forms in accomplishing the object for which they were prepared.
The form marked A is the upper portion of a single folio of the Class-Book, arranged for a month of five weeks. When the month contains only four weeks, the last week of the form will be left blank.
*“As a general rule, the teacher, as well as the merchant or · man of business, who keeps his accounts in a loose, irregular manner, and seldom posts his books, is the one most likely to meet with failure, without knowing the cause." —Rochester Report.
“Those teachers who so employ a well-adjusted method as to reach the highest results, deem the practice of keeping records not only a most valuable agency in the whole management of a school. but quite indispensable, for which no equivalent can be found as a substitute."'-- Ariel Parish, Member of Mass. Board of Education.
The following directions and explanations will be a sufficient guide to the use of the Class-Book.
A small a denotes sence, t tardiness, and d dismissal ; to be placed at the lower left-hand corner of the square for A. M., and at the lower right hand for P. M. A blank space at the upper lefthand corner denotes good scholarship; at the upper right-hand corner, good deportment. Marks at the upper left hand denote bad lessons; at the upper right hand, bad conduct. Entries of special credit may be made by turning a pencil on its point, so as to leave a dot in the same corner that is devoted to the marks of error or demerit.
The highest degree of excellence in the Average columns is denoted by 100. The column headed General Average combines the three averages of Attendance, Scholarship, and Deportment. The pupil having the highest rank in the General Average, is marked 1 in the col. umn headed Relative Standing; the next highest, 2; and so on through the class.
The daily record of scholarship and deportment should be made with such fullness and care that the averages at the close of the month, may, in the main, be based upon it. In the lower classes of the primary divisions, these daily marks will necessarily be less full and exact than in the more advanced classes, and the teachers will be obliged to rely more upon general impressions, and less upon the daily record ; but even in the lowest classes, some account should be kept of the daily lessons and deportment of the pupils.
At the close of the school month, the results should be carried out in the columns of the Monthly Report, and the name of the teacher affixed. The averages should all be carried out in whole numbers. When there is a fraction of one half or more, add one to the whole number. All fractions less than one half should be dropped.
The numbers under Punctual, Late, Absent, and Dismissed represen half-days. These columns should all be footed up at the close of the month.
Each half-day's absence, unless for sickness, may deduct two from 100 in the Attendance Average, and each tardiness or dismissal may deduct one. Absences and dismissals occasioned by sickness, are carried out in their respective columns, but do not affect the Attendance Average.
The Scholarship and Deportment Averages may be found by deducting the number of marks for bad lessons and bad conduct from 100, provided the pupil has been present through the month ; but if the pupil has been absent any part of the month, the number should be proportionally larger. If teachers give their pupils marks of special credit, these may, at the discretion of the teacher, be applied to cancel a limited number of errors or marks of demerit. Thus, one or two special credit marks may cancel one error or mark of demerit; two or four credit marks may cancel two errors or marks of demerit, etc. But rules for removing marks of error or demerit should be applied with great caution. Pupils should never be suffered to feel that it is an easy matter to secure the removal of errors or marks of demerit which have once been placed against their names.
When the month contains five weeks, the Averages may be found by deducting four-fifths of the marks from 100. When the month contains only two weeks, the Averages may be found by deducting four halves of the number of marks, or twice the number; and for three weeks, four-thirds of the number may be deducted. The same principle applies to the Attendance Average.
It may in some cases be proper to deduct more or less than the exact number of marks for bad lessons or bad conduct. Whatever rule is adopted, the results arrived at in the General Average should be such that ranks from 95 to 100 may be designated as highest ; from 90 to 95, high ; from 80 to 90, diate ; from 70 to 80, low ; and under 70, lowest.
In noting the Relative Stunding of different members in a class, it will often be found that several pupils have the same General Average. In such cases they should be marked alike. Thus, if two pupils have each a rank of 98, and that is the highest rank attained by any one in the class, they should both be marked 1 in the column of Relative Standing, and so of any lower rank.
The Monthly Report to Parents is copied directly from the right-hand column of the Class-Book. See accompanying form marked B.
The two great objects of intellectual education, are mental discipline and the acquisition of knowledge. The highest and most important of these objects is mental discipline, or the power of using the mind to the best advantage. The price of this discipline is effort. No man ever yet made intellectual progress without intellectual labor. It is this alone that can strengthen and invigorate the noble faculties with which we are endowed.
However much we may regret that we do not live a century later, because we can not have the benefit of the improvements that are to be made during the next hundred years, of one thing we may rest assured, that intellectual eminence will be attained during the 20th century just as it is in the 19th—by the labor of the brain. We are not to look for any new discovery or invention that shall supersede the necessity of mental toil; we are not to desire it. If we had but to supplicate some kind genius, and he would at once endow us with all the knowledge in the universe, the gift would prove a curse to us, and not a blessing. We must have the discipline of acquiring knowledge, and in the manner established by the Author of our being. Without this discipline our intellectual stores would be worse than useless.
The general law of intellectual growth is manitestly this ;-whatever may be the mental power
which we at any time possess, it requires a repetition of mental efforts, equal in degree to those which we have put forth before, to prevent actual deterioration. Every considerable step of advance from this point must be by a new and still higher intellectual performance.
There are many impediments in the path of the student, which it is desirable to remove; but he who attempts to remove all difficulties, or as many of them as possible, wars against the highest law of intellectnal development. There can not be a more fatal mistake in education, than that of a teacher who adopts the sentiment, that his duty requires him to render the daily tasks of his pupils as easy as possible.
There is, perhaps, no error in our schools at the present time more deeply seated or more widely extended than the ruinous practice of aiding pupils in doing work which it is all-important they should do for themselves. Our progress in the art of cultivating habits of earnest, independent thought, has not kept pace with our improvements in other departments of education. Familiar explanations, and illustrations, and simplifications, and dilutions, too often spare the pupil the labor of thinking for himself, and thus dwarf the intellect, and defeat the highest object for which our schools are established.
To secure from a pupil the solution of a difficult problem will often cost time which the teacher can ill afford;
often cost more effort to secure a solution from the pupil, than it costs the pupil to do the work. The pupil has tried the problem, and