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$ 27. An important direction to be observed from the commencement, is to give constant and special attention to articulation. There can be no good reading without correctness of articulation, and it is far easier to form good habits at first, than to correct bad ones at a later period. *
$ 28. Numbers.-It is highly important that the first exercises in counting and adding should be illustrated by the use of the numeral frame and various convenient objects, such as pebbles, beans, kernels of corn, etc. Let each number or addition named be illustrated by a corresponding number or addition of objects. Let the children count around the class, each giving a number for himself in turn; let them count the number of children in the room ; the lights of glass, the seats and desks, etc.
See, also, SS 4, 6, 10, 12.
References.—$ 28. Calkins's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Manual of Elementary Instruction, vol. 2.
*“Every faculty of the mind, as well as of the body, with regard to its mode of action, has a strong tendency to take a set, according to the first impressions made upon it, or the character of its first observations. It becomes, as it were, preoccupied by the first impressions, to the exclusion or diminished force of succeeding impressions."-Reid's Principles of Education.
Oral Instruction, embracing lessons on parts, form, and color, illustrated by common objects; on plants; on animals, mostly those with which the children are already familiar ; morals and manners; miscellaneous topics. Two or more lessons a day, each from five to ten minutes long.
Verses and maxims.
Reading and Spelling.–Blackboard exercises continued. Cards reviewed. Primer completed. Spelling both by letters and by sounds. The exercises in both reading and spelling to be heard twice a day.
Counting from one to a hundred, forward and backward. Reading and writing Arabic numbers to 100. Addition tables from blackboard, to 4 + 10, forward and backward, in course ; also, by taking any of the numbers irregularly ; with use of numeral frame. Extemporaneous exercises in adding series of small numbers. See § 5. Roman numerals to L, both in course and out of course.
Exercises, at least twice a day, with slate and pencil, using elementary drawing-cards, plain figures, pictures placed on the blackboard, and other copies; and printing lessons in spelling, numerals, etc.
Physical exercises from two to five minutes at a time, not less than five times a day. See $ 99.
Oral Instruction.-See SS 8 and 18.
$ 29. Parts.—Pupils in this division should have frequent exercises in distinguishing and naming the different parts of which objects are composed.
References.—$ 29. Mayo's Object Lessons; Manual of Elementary Instruction.
Thus, the parts of the human frame, as the head, arms, shoulders, elbows, hands, wrists, fingers, nails, forehead, eyes, eyelids, teeth, etc.; the parts of a house, as sides, ends, doors, windows, floors, roof, stairs, etc.; the parts of a table, book, chair, tree, field, road, carriage, coat, knife, etc. *
Form.-See $ 19.
§ 30. Plants.—Common and obvious properties and uses. Distinguish the parts, as roots, stem, leaves, buds, flowers, fruit, and seeds. See $ 21.
*" Object.—To concentrate observation on actions done in the sight of the children ; to call upon them to imitate those actions ; and to teach them to describe them in accurate language.
“1. The teacher to perform some action,-such as placing the palm of the right hand on that of the left; and, without requiring the children to describe the act, call upon them to imitate it; or placing the right hand on the left shoulder; the left hand on the right shoulder; extending the right arm, and bending the wrist ; holding up the extended right arm, while the left is held downward ; folding the arms, etc., requiring the children to imitate each action exactly.
“ 2. The teacher may then describe an action, in place of performing it, requiring the chil' a co carry it out: Put the right hand on the right shoulder, the left hand on the left shoulder; put one arm behind, the other across the chest, extend the left arm, and bend the wrist, etc., etc.
“3. The teacher to perform the action, and the children to describe it : for example, the teacher may touch the upper eyelid of the right eye with the forefinger of the left hand; or touch the inner corner of the left eye with the thumb of the left hand; or fold the arms; or hold up both arms extended, etc., the children describing each successive action : if in doing this they express themselves inaccurately, the teacher should correct them.”—Manual of Elementary Instruction.
Animals.—See $ 22.
$ 31. Miscellaneous Topics. - Meaning and use of the terms hard, soft, dozen, score, right, left. Time by clock or watch. Name ten articles of table furniture; six articles made of glass ; eight different kinds of fruit; four things that please the teacher; four things that displease the teacher, etc. The teacher will vary and expand these exercises at pleasure.
Verses and Maxims.-See $ 23.
$ 32. Reading and Spelling. The following method will be found highly useful in securing the attention of Primer classes, and giving to each pupil the benefit of reading the whole lesson, or such portion of it as may be desired : Let one scholar read the first sentence; then let the class follow, reading the same in concert, and pointing to all the words as they read. Let the next scholar read the second sentence, and the class follow in concert as before, and so on.
The practice of mental reading should also be frequently introduced; all the members of the class pointing carefully to the words of a paragraph or lesson, as they are read by the teacher. If these exercises are properiy conducted, they will advance
References.—$ 31. Fireside Philosophy; Graded Course of Instruction, by Home and Colonial School Society; Calkins's Object Lessons.
a class much faster than the method of hearing each pupil read a sentence in turn, without the concert practice in oral and mental reading.
The pupils should be able to point out and explain the title-page, table of contents, leaves, puges, margins frontispiece, and the headings or the titles of the les sons. They should also be able to spell all these words before leaving the 9th grade.
Let them be taught to hold a book in a proper manner,
in the left hand, with the thumb and little finger on the pages in front, and three fingers on the cover behind.
In preparing an exercise in spelling, it is highly important that young pupils should hear the words pronounced by the teacher. A very useful method is, for the teacher first to pronounce all the words of the lesson distinctly, while the pupils listen attentively and point to the words in the books, as they are pronounced. Next, the teacher pronounces one word, which is repeated by the first scholar in the class; then another word, which is repeated by the second scholar, and so on. After this, if time permits, the teacher and class may pronounce in concert, and then the class pronounce in concert without the teacher.
All the spelling lessons should be neatly printed by the pupils on their slates, and the classes should be required to read the words from their slates in connection with the spelling exercises. See, also, SS 1, 2, 26, and 27.
Numbers.-See $ 28.