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Drawing, Printing, etc

. $ 33. Drawing, Printing, etc.—The teachers of the several Primary grades should assign definite lessons in drawing, printing, etc., to be prepared by all the pupils, with the same regularity and care as any other exercise.* The teacher should spend at least ten minutes each day in assisting the pupils and giving such directions as they may need. When the exercises are completed, they should in all cases be examined by the teacher. Lessons of special excellence should receive marks of credit, and failures resulting from carelessness or indifference, should receive marks of error.

See, also, SS 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 15.

EIGHTH GRADE.

[PRIMARY DEPARTMENT.]

REGULAR COURSE, Oral Instruction.-Parts ; size; general qualities ; color ; animals; plants ; trades and professions ; morals and manners ; miscellaneous topics. Two or more oral exercises a day, each from five to twelve minutes long.

Verses and Maxims. See § 23.

First half of First Reader read and reviewed, with punctuation, definitions, and illustrations. Short daily drill in enunciating the

References.—$ 33. Welch's Object Lessons; Calkins's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching; Philbrick's Primary School Tablets ; Manual of Elementary Instruction.

*“The spreading recognition of drawing as an element of education, is one among the many signs of the more rational views on mental culture now beginning to prevail." —Herbert Spencer.

Eighth Grade.

vowels and consonants, and their combinations.* Spelling the columns of words, and words selected from the reading lessons, both by letters and hy sounds.

Drawing and Printing.-Two or more exercises a day with slate and pencil, or paper and pencil, using blackboard sketches prepared by the teacher when practicable, drawing-cards when they can be obtained, pictures and various figures from books and cards, etc. Printing lessons in spelling and arithmetic. See § 33.

Addition table completed; thoroughly and constantly illustrated and applied. Extemporaneous exercises in adding series of numbers. See § 5. Reading and writing Roman numerals to one hundred, forward and backward in course ; also irregularly.

Physical exercises, from two to five minutes at a time, not less than five times a day. See § 105.

DIRECTIONS.

ence.

Oral Instruction.-See SS 8 and 18. Parts.-See $29. § 34. Size.—Let the children receive their first ideas of a foot, a yard, an inch, etc., by the actual measurement of these different lengths in their pres

Place lines of known lengths on the blackboard as standards of comparison. Let the pupils estimate the length of the room, the hight of one of their own number, the width of the street, etc., and then test their different estimates by measuring the objects. Now let the pupils draw lines of speci

References.—§ 34. Calkins's Object Lessons; Welch's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching; Manual of Elementary Instruction, vol. 1; Mayo's Lessons on Objects.

* See Watson's National Phonetic Tablets, Philbrick's Primary School Tablets, Sanders's Elocutionary Chart, and Page's Normal Chart of Elementary Sounds.

Size; General Qualities.

fied lengths on their slates or on the blackboard, as a foot, half a yard, two inches, etc.; after which their lines should be subjected to the test of measurement. The same measures may next be applied to width, and illustrate as before. *

§ 35. General Qualities. After completing the special exercises on each of the qualities of form, color, etc., a large number of lessons should be devoted to the general qualities of objects, including those that have already been taken up separately.

$ 35. Barnard's Object Teaching, particularly art. 12, by James Currie, of Edinburgh; Welch's Object Lessons; Calkins's Object Lessons; Mayo's Lessons on Objects; Manual of Elementary Instruction.

* The following is a report of one of the exercises before an Educational Convention recently held at Oswego, N. Y., to examine into a system of Primary Instruction by Object Lessons :

“Ages of children, five to seven.

"The children were requested to hold their foretingers one inch apart while the teacher measured the space between them.

“Then the children were required to draw lines on the black. board an inch in length, and others to measure them, stating whether too long, too short, or correct.

“Next they were required to tear papers an inch in length; then to tear them two inches in length ; then to fold them three inches in length, and so on, the teacher measuring them meanwhile. At

east two out of each three tore and folded their papers of the exact length named.

“ Then the children were requested to draw lines on the blackboard one foot in length ; then to divide them into twelve inches.

They readily measured inches, and feet, and yards, both with the rule and with the eye, and drew lines representing them, showing that they understood the relations of these to each other as well as the length of each,"

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Eighth Grade.

Thus, the following qualities will be discovered in a quill. It is long, light, stiff, useful, natural, inanimate, animal production. The barrel is transparent, or semi-transparent, hard, elastic, bright, light-colored or yellowish, cylindrical, hollow. The shaft is feathered, white, stiff or limber, opaque, solid, grooved. Let each of these qualities be illustrated by comparing it with a similar quality in some other object, and let the meaning of each term be clearly fixed in the mind by an actual examination of the object in which it exists. The principal topics introduced and the names of qualities should be written very plainly on the blackboard, to aid in impressing the lesson on the minds of the pupils. Before closing, the exercise, let the pupils be called on to explain the meaning of the terms used, in their own words, and to construct short sentences or phrases embracing them.

This is the best class of lessons that can be given to aid the pupils in enlarging their vocabulary of useful words; and the teacher should be careful to select such subjects as will introduce one or more new words at each exercise. *

$36. Color.-More extended exercises in discrim

References.—$ 36. See the references of $ 20.

* If properly conducted, these lessons will be found the most efficient means of improving the children's powers of observation, discrimination, and description, and of increasing their stock of useful information. They will also do much to prevent the confusion and misunderstanding of terms which we so often witness in ordi. nary conversation.-See Marcel on Language

Animals ; Trades, etc.

inating the shades and tints of color. Primary and secondary colors.

$ 37. Animals. These lessons should be gradually extended to include aniinals less common and familiar, as the squirrel, the fox, the deer, the owl; with a few foreign animals, as the lion, the camel, the ostrich. As far as practicable, the lessons should be illustrated by pictures in books and on the blackboard, to be copied by the pupils.

Let the characteristics of different animals be pointed out; as, the fidelity and sagacity of the dog, the docility of the horse, the intelligence of the elephant, and the cunning of the fox. Let examples be selected from each of the different classes of animals, for object lessons. Attention should frequently be directed to the wisdom and goodness of the Creator, as shown in adapting the form, covering, etc., of the different animals to their peculiar modes of life, and the climate in which they are found.

Plants.-See 3 30.

$ 38. Trades, Professions, etc.—Object lessons relating to different employments—the farmer, the blacksmith, the shoemaker, the carpenter, the teacher, the lawyer, etc.; including a particular description of the tools used by the mechanic, farmer, etc., and illustrated, when practicable, by presenting the instruments themselves, and by drawings on the slate and blackboard.

References.—$ 37. See the references of $ 22. § 38. Hazen's Trades and Professions, in Harpers' Family Lib.

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