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Morals and Manners.-See $ 7.
§ 39. Miscellaneous Topics.—Relative position oi objects, as the direction of a pupil from the teacher, or from another pupil, or from the door. Let the children name the city they live in; the county ; the State; the country; capital of the State; of the country; mayor of the city; governor of the State; President of the United States, etc. Day of the week; of the month. Short table, embracing the common divisions of time. Estimate by pupils of the length of a minute, of five minutes, fifteen minutes, etc., without the aid of a clock or watch; submitted to the test at the close of the trial. Five duties to parents; five to brothers and sisters; five to companions at school; six different modes of conveyance; six things made of wood; six made of leather; six streets, with their relative location; six different kinds of food, etc. Meaning and use of terms natural, artificial ; animal, vegetable, mineral ; metal ; simple, compound; native, foreign ; indigenous, exotic; century, etc.
Reading.–See SS 1, 26, 27, and 32.
$ 40. Spelling.—Let the children spell their own names; the name of the city or town; State; days of the week; months of the year. These exercises should be repeated till the pupils are able to perform them well. See, also, S 2.
$ 41. Analysis of Sounds.-“ Articulation should be taught and practiced by a thorough analysis of
References.—$ 39. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 9.
Analysis of Sounds.
the elementary sounds of the language, and their separate and powerful execution by the organs of speech; then, sentences and short passages that require unusual command of the articulate powers may be made the subject of diligent practice."* It will also be found a highly useful exercise to give the elementary sounds occasionally, in a clear and forcible whisper. The analysis of sounds relates chiefly to reading, and should, therefore, be studied and practiced more in connection with the lessons in reading than with those in spelling:+
* Zachos's Analytic Elocution.
† “ After all the elements and their combinations have been made so familiar by practice as to be readily recognized, proceed to analyze, and then to spell the words in the following exercises, in this
1. Pronounce deliberately and firmly. “2. Divide the word into its syllables, speaking each one separately, and as fully as if it were a word by itself.
"3. Articulate, in proper order, every element separately and very fully.
"4. Enunciate every syllable as it is completed, preserving the distinctness of its elements.
“5. Pronounce the word with due proportion of force and time on each syllable, taking care that the elements, as before articulated, be distinctly preserved in the pronunciation.
" The mode of spelling here proposed is the only proper way of assisting a child that is learning to talk. It can not reasonably be expected that a distinct and organically correct articulation can be acquired by the common custom of learning merely to pronounce words. There can be no doubt that nearly all the stammering, blundering, and indistinct articulation which we so continually hear, while few are conscious of it in themselves, have come very naturally, if not of mere necessity, from the folly of those who expect or allow children to execute words without mastering the simplest elements of which they are composed.”—Hillard's Third Class Reader,
Drawing.See $ 33.
§ 42. Numbers.—Counting to 100 by twos, using the even numbers, 2, 4, 6, etc.; also using the odd numbers, 1, 3, 5, etc.; forward and backward.
See, also, SS 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
REGULAR COURSE. Oral Instruction.-Form ; size ; general qualities ; weight; color; animals; the five senses ; common things; miscellaneous topics ; morals and manners. Two or more oral exercises a day, each from seven to fifteen minutes long.
Last half of First Reader completed and reviewed, with punctuation, and definitions and illustrations. Short daily drill in enunciating the vowels and consonants, and their combinations. *
Spelling, both by letters and by sounds, from Speller, and from reading lessons.
Drawing and Printing.-Two or more lessons a day; same as in eighth grade.
Subtraction table completed, and multiplication table to 5X10 or 5X12, constantly illustrated by use of beans, etc., and applied. Extemporaneous exercises in adding and subtracting series of numbers. See § 5. Reading and writing Arabic and Roman numerals to five hundred, forward and backward in course ; also out of course.
Physical exercises, from two to five minutes at a time, not less than four times a day. See § 105.
References.—$ 42. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Calkins's Object Lessons; Davies' Grammar of Arithmetic.
* See Philbrick's Primary School Tablets, Page's Normal Chart of Elementary Sounds, Sanders's Elocutionary Chart, and Watson's National Phonetic Tablets.
Form ; Size.
Oral Instruction.See SS 8 and 18.
$ 43. Form.—Lessons on the various relations and conditions of lines, as horizontal, vertical, perpendic ular, oblique, parallel, diverging, converging, curved waving, spiral, etc.; on angles-right, acute, obtuse, on the different kinds of triangles, and on parallelograms, quadrangles, the square, rectangle, rhombus, oblong, rhomboid, trapezoid, trapezium; use of the term diagonal.
Copious slate and blackboard exercises, illustrating all the above lines and figures.
§ 44. Size. It is now time to introduce measures of surfaces and solids. Actual measures, as the gill, the quart, the gallon, the peck, should be brought to the school-room and used in illustrating these lessons, till the children become familiar with them. Let the pupils estimate the measure of a cup, bowl, bottle, pail, basket, etc., and then correct their errors by measuring. Similar exercises should be introduced in relation to surfaces. First, place a square inch, foot, yard, etc., on the board, as standards of comparison. Next, illustrate the division of a square yard or foot into square inches, etc. Let the pupils estimate the number of square yards, feet, inches, etc., in various objects, as the floor, the teacher's
References.--$ 43. Calkins's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 9 and 12; Hill's First Lessons in Geometry.
$ 44. Calkins's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts, 9 and 12.
desk, a slate, blackboard, window, ete. Test their accuracy by calling on them to measure the objects. Accompany with copious slate and blackboard exercises.
General qualities.—See $ 35.
$ 45. Weight.–First call the attention of the pupils to the attraction of the earth, as shown in falling bodies, the tendency of water to run down hill, the effort required to lift a heavy body, etc. Give them different articles of the same size, but made of different substances, as cork, wood, iron, lead, a vial of water and a vial of quicksilver, a bag of shot and a bag of beans. Let them handle and compare them. Distinguish bodies heavier than water from those which are lighter, by actual experiment. Now introduce various standard weights. Let the pupils handle a pound of lead, a pound of wood, a pound of cotton ; a body weighing 5 lbs., 10 lbs., 20 lbs., etc. Next let them handle a variety of bodies, and estimate the weight of each; after which their judgment should be tested by the scales.* In this way they will cultivate accuracy of judgment in respect to the weight of different objects presented, an attainment which very few persons ever make.
References.-$ 45. Science of Common Things, index; Barard's Object Teaching, art. 9; Welch's Object Lessons.
* A pair of scales, or some other instrument for weighing, can Pasily be obtained for this purpose, through some of the pupils.
† Sce Young's School Teacher's Manual.