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Five Senses; Common Things.
Animals.-See $ 37.
$ 46. The Five Senses.-General description of the eye, the ear, and other organs of sense.
Exercises illustrating the cultivation and use of these organs. Let the children name ten things discovered by the eye; five discovered by the ear; five by touch, etc. Name different qualities, etc., and let the children tell the sense by which they are discovered.
$ 47. Common Things.—Object lessons on a clock, watch, nail, carriage, pin, needle, rope, pitch, tar, etc.
$ 48. Miscellaneous Topics. — Name six public buildings in the city or town; six different kinds of carriages; ten different foreign fruits; six bir of prey; six different kinds of stores.
The names of the young of different animals. The flesh of different animals used for food, -what called? The voice or natural call of different animals. The largest fish, quadruped, bird, insect, reptile. A collection of men, birds, cattle, fishes, insects,—what called ?
Meaning and use of the terms density, attraction of gravitation, quadruped, biped, insect, reptile.
$ 49. Sentence-making, etc.-At the close of every object lesson, let each pupil make up one or more
References.—$ 46. Child's Book of Nature, part 2; Calkins's Object Lessons; Mayo's Lessons on Objects; Mayhew's Popular Education, chap. 6.
§ 47. Fireside Philosophy, index; Mayo’s Lessons on Objects, passim; Brande's Cyclopædia, words Horology, Pin.
$ 48. Hooker's Natural History, chap. 13, $ 49. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12
Seventh Grade. sentences embodying certain points of the lesson, or containing new words that have been learned. The pupils may ordinarily be called on to repeat these sentences in course, extemporaneously; but they should occasionally be required to print or write them with care on their slates, for the inspection or the teacher. Exercises specially meritorious should receive marks of credit; and defective exercises should receive marks of error.
Reading.–See $S 1, 26, 27, and 41.
$ 50.-- Analysis of Sounds.-- Besides the ordinary exercises in analyzing, by uttering the different sounds, pupils should frequently be called on to analyze by describing the sounds. Other explanations respecting the forms of words, uses of letters, etc., may be given at the same time.
EXAMPLES.—Fate : sound of f, atonic; first sound of a; sound of t, atonic; e silent. Garnish: hard sound of g, subtonic; second sound of a; sound of 7, subtonic; sound of n, subtonic; second sound of i; sound of sh, atonic.-How many sounds has g? What are they? Give a word containing the soft sound of g; one containing the first sound of a. How many syllables in garnish? Which syllable is accented? What is accent? Which of the letters in garnish are vowels? Which consonants? What letter or letters represent the last sound in garnish ? Can you name any other elementary sound that
ie represented by two letters united ?
Reference.- 50. Wright's Analytical Orthography.
The description and utterance of the sounds should generally be united in the same exercise; first analyze by uttering the sounds; then by describing them.*
$ 51. Spelling.–Spell and review the new terms introduced under “Miscellaneous Topics." Spell the names of all the objects that can be seen in the school-room. Let the scholars bring objects to the school to furnish names for spelling. Spell twenty or more names of visible objects not in the schoolroom ; twenty or more names of invisible objects; twenty or more words denoting motion. The more difficult of these words should be written on the blackboard, and reviewed several times. See, also, $2.
Drawing.See $ 33.
* The following is a very complete form of analysis, copied from Watson's National Phonetic Tablets :
ANALYSIS. — 1st. The word salve, in pronunciation, is formed by the union of three oral elements : så v-salve. (Here let the pupil utter the three oral elements separately, and then pronounce the word.) The first is a modified breathing; hence, it is an atonic. The second is a pure tone ; hence, it is a tonic. The third is a modified tone ; hence, it is a subtonic. 2d. The word salve, in writing, is represented by five letters ; sal v e-salve. S represents an atonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the teeth ; hence, it is a dental. Its oral element is produced by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of 2; hence, it is a cognate of 2. A represents a tonic; hence, it is a vowel. L is silent. V represents a subtonic; hence, it is a consonant. Its oral element is chiefly formed by the lower lip and the upper teeth ; hence, it is a labia-dental. Its oral element is formed by the same organs and in a similar manner as that of f; hence, it is a cognate 1 of f. E is silent.
See, also, Holbrook's Normal Methods of Teaching.
$ 52. Numbers.-Counting to 100 by two's and by three's, forward and backward: 2, 4, 6, etc., 1, 3, 5, etc., 3, 6, 9, etc., 2, 5, 8, etc., 1, 4, 7, etc.* Adding single columns of figures on the slate and blackboard.
See, also, SS 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
Oral Instruction.-Form ; animals ; trees and plants ; foreign productions ; miscellaneous topics ; common things; manners and morals. Two or more oral exercises a day, each from eight to fifteen minutes long.
Reading and Spelling.–First half of Second Reader completed and reviewed, with punctuation, definitions, and illustrations. Frequent exercises in enunciating the elementary sounds separately and in their principal combinations.† Spelling, both by letters and by sounds, with definitions, from speller, and from reading lessons.
Drawing, writing, etc., with slate and pencil or paper and pencil, using drawing cards when obtainable, cuts from books, and other copies ; writing the large and small letters of the alphabet in plain script hand.
References.—$ 52. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Manual of Elementary Instruction; Davies' Grammar of Arithmetic.
* See a valuable article on Oral Lessons in Arithmetic, by Daniel Hough, of Cincinnati, in Ohio Educational Monthly for February, 1862. Also Course of Studies for a True Graded School, in Report of Hon. J. M. Gregory, for 1861.
+ See Sanders's Elocutionary Chart; Watson's National Phonetic Tablets; and Philbrick's Primary School Tablets.
Form ; Animals.
Elementary arithmetic. Multiplication and division tables completed, with constant illustrations and applications. Extemporaneous exercises in combining series of numbers. See § 5. Reading and writing Arabic and Roman numerals to 1,000.
Physical exercises, from two to five minutes at a time, not les. than four times a day. See § 105.
$ 53. Form.--Copious explanations and illustrations on the circle, and on the terms connected with it, as diameter, radius, chord, segment, sector, tangent, semicircle, quadrant. Also, terms oval, ellipse, parabola ; pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, nonagon, decagon, polygon; line of beauty. Measurement of angles.
$ 54. Animals.—Twenty or more lessons on the following topics, with pretty full descriptions and copious illustrations by engravings, and cuts, and slate and blackboard sketches. Division into class- . es—beasts, birds, fishes, insects, reptiles; quadrupeds, bipeds; domestic, wild; useful; amphibious ; poisonous; beasts and birds of prey, etc., with illustrative examples of each class. Instinct of animals, care of their young. Tools of animals, their cover
References.—$ 53. See references of $ 43.
$ 54. Child's Book of Nature, part 2; Reason Why, index; Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 17; F. A. Allen's Primary Geography; Hooker's Natural History; Willson's 4th and 5th Readers; Carll's Child's Book of Nature; Webster's and Worcester's Quarto Dictionaries; Hailman's Object Teaching; Chambers's Elements of Zoology.