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ing, food, habitations, motions. Plumage of birds, nest-building, migratory habits, etc. Contrasts and resemblances of different classes of animals.
$ 55. Trees and Plants. Similar lessons to those given in the 8th and 9th grades, but more extended Compare the leaves of different plants and trees; the flowers; the seeds; the fruit. Compare flowers with leaves; branches with roots. Specimens should be brought to the school, and the children should have exercises, in naming and distinguishing them.
$ 56. Foreign Productions.—Object lessons on foreign productions in general use, including ginger, pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nutmegs, oranges, lemons, olives, dates, almonds, tamarinds, prunes, pineapples, tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, figs, bananas, raisins, sago, india-rubber, ivory, pearls, camphor, sponge, whalebone, gum arabic.
$57. Miscellaneous Topics.—Description and value of the different coins in common use, with exercises in distinguishing them. The names of thirty differ
References.-$ 55. Child's Book of Nature, part 1; Fireside Philosophy, index; Willson's 4th and 5th Readers; Carll's Child's Book of Natural History; Manual of Elementary Instruction, vol. 2; Hailman's Object Teaching; Reason Why, index; Brande's Cyclopædia ; Allen's Primary Geography; Webster's and Worcester's Quarto Dictionaries.
§ 56. Fireside Philosophy, index ; Reason Why, index; Calkins's Object Lessons; Mayo's Lessons on Objects; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 9 and 12.
$ 57. Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 9 and 12; Willson' Third Reader; Brande's Cyclopædia, words Coinage, Numis. matics, Money.
Common Things ; Reading.
ent kinds of vessels to contain liquids and solids, and the use of each. Object lessons on spring, summer, autumn, winter.
$.58. Common Things.-Object lessons on common articles, including leather, sugar, honey, glass, porcelain, starch, hemp, flax, cotton, wool, ink.
Manners and Morals.-See 7.
$ 59. Reading.–Pupils should now be required to devote a portion of each day to the preparation of their reading lessons. They will need the special assistance of the teacher in learning how to set themselves at work, and the reading exercises should be conducted in such a manner, as to test the fidelity of the pupils in making the necessary preparation. See, also, SS 1, 26, and 27.
Spelling.–See $ 2.
References.—$ 58. Fireside Philosophy, index ; Reason Why, index; Mayo's Lessons on Objects; Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 2.
$ 59. Davies' Logic of Mathematics.
* “It is in connection with the reading lessons that the peculiar work of the intermediate grade—the work of learning how to get lessons-begins. The first step will be to secure the careful attention of the pupils to the meaning of their lessons, by questioning them on the sense. This should be kept up from day to day, till the pupils acquire the habit of reading attentively, and become able to close their books immediately and give the substance, first of a single sentence, then of a paragraph, and finally of a page or an entire lesson. The inflections and emphasis should be carefully studied, to bring out the true sense of the lesson.”—Course of Studies for a True Graded School, in Report of J. M. Gregory, Superin!cndent of Public Instruction, Michigan.
Drawing.–See § 33.
$ 60. Numbers.—Counting by three's, four's, and five's, forward and backward.
Special pains should be taken to explain and illustrate the operation of multiplying one number by another, and of dividing one number by another; the relation of multiplication to addition, division to subtraction, multiplication to division, etc. Let the pupils also repeat these explanations and illustrations till the relations are thoroughly understood.?
$ 60. Writing.--Pupils must be provided with long pencils, and hold them as they would hold a pen.
See, also, SS 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
References.-$ 60. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Manual of Elementary Instruction, vol. 2.
Age of children eight to nine years, “ The design of the lesson was to show the relations between addition, multiplication, and division.
" The teacher wrote on the blackboard, and the children repeated the following:
3+3=6, 6+3=9, 9+3=12, 12+3=15, etc., up to 99. " Then the teacher wroie 99—3=16, 96—3=93, and so on down to 6-3=3. Then ttl=2,
24:6=1, and so on. ". The children read 6+6=12, two times 6 are 12, etc. iti=14,
28:1=1, and so on to 100. “Children read 7+7=14. two times 7 are 14. 14 divided by T=2. 7+7+7=21, three times 7 are 21. 21 divided by 7=3.”Report of Examination ; Oswego Primary Schools.
Regular Course ; Formi.
Oral Instruction.-Form ; color; common things; trees, plants, etc. ; animals ; shells; geography; miscellaneous topics ; morals and manners. Two or more oral exercises a day, each from ten to twenty minutes long.
Reading and Spelling.- Last half of Second Reader completed and reviewed, with punctuation, definitions, and illustrations. Frequent exercises in enunciating the elementary sounds and their combinations, using charts and tablets of sounds, etc. Spelling both by letters and by sounds, with definitions from speller and from reading lessons.
Primary Geography from text-book, gradually introduced in connection with Oral Geography.
Sentence-making, written abstracts, etc. See SS 6, 9, and 49.
Drawing, writing, etc., with slate or lead pencil ; writing with mk in script hand.
Mental Arithmetic.-Multiplication table to 12X12, and Division table to 144:12, thoroughly reviewed, in course and out of course. Estemporaneous exercises in combining series of numbers. See $ 5. Reading and writing Arabic and Roman numerals to 10,000. Slate and blackboard exercises in adding numbers-examples of three or four columns each.
Physical exercises, from two to five minutes at a time, not less than four times a day. See § 105.
Oral Instruction.--See SS 8, 18, and 49.* § 61. Form.—Brief lessons on the five regular
* " The pupils, it should be remembered, are to observe and tell what they have observed, rather than to learn what the teacher
solids-cube, tertrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron; and on the pyramid, prism, parallelopiped, cylinder, cone, sphere, hemisphere, spheroid, etc. Terms, spherical, cylindrical, conical, spheroidal.
§ 62. Color.—A few lessons in mixing colors. IIow to produce secondary colors. Harmony of colors. *
References.—$ 61. Davies' Elementary Geometry and Trig. onometry, which contains full directions for making the five regular solids from pasteboard; Welch's Object Lessons; Calkins's Object Lessons; Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 9; Brande's Cyclopædia. knows. Knowledge lying much beyond their power of observation and discovery is of but little use to them yet."'--J. M. Gregory.
* The following is a report of one of the exercises before an Educational Convention held at Oswego, N. Y., to examine into a system of Primary instruction by Object Lessons:
“Children from nine to ten years of age.
“The children were led to distinguish primary, secondary, and tertiary colors from mixing colors. The teacher held up vials containing liquids of red, yellow, and blue. She then mixed some of each of the red and yellow liquids, and the children said the color produced by the mixture is orange. She then mixed yellow and blue, and the children said green had been produced. Then she mixed blue and red, and purple was the result.
“The teacher printed the result of each' mixture on the blackboard thus :
First Colors or Primaries. Second Colors or Secondaries.
Purple. “Next she proceeded to show how the idea and term tertiary is derived from the secondaries by mixing the secondaries, and printing the result on the board, as before :