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Common Things; Trees and Plants.
$ 63. Common Things.—Object lessons on mon objects, including vinegar, alcohol, wine, yeast, bread, paper, glue, soap, putty, silk, linen, spermaceti, wax, indigo, butter, cheese.
$ 64. Trees, Plants, etc. — Ten or more oral exercises. Qualities, structure, and office of roots, leaves, buds, stem, flowers, seeds, etc., Growth of the differ
References.—$ 63. Fireside Philosophy, index; Mayo's Les sons on Objects; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 5 and 9; Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 2; Brande's Cyclopædia.
$ 64. Willson's Fifth Reader; Child's Book of Nature, part 1; Fireside Philosophy, index; Reason Why, index: Worcester's and Webster's Quarto Dictionaries.
Third Colors, or Tertiaries.
Olive, “ After the children had read over in concert what had been printed on the board, it was erased, and the pupils were required to state from memory what colors are produced by mixing primaries, with the name of each secondary ; also, what by mixing the secondaries, and the name of each tertiary.
An exercise on Harmony of Colors was then given to the same class of children. They were requested to select two colors that would look well together, and place them side by side; then two were placed together that do not harmonize. During these exercises, the teacher printed on the boardPrimary yellow harmonizes with secondary purple. red
orange. * This was read by the pupils, then erased, and the individuals were called upon to state what color will harmonize with these several colors, as their names were respectively given.”
ent parts. The teacher should bring as many specimens as practicable to the class, and encourage the children to bring them also. Let the pupils examine several different kinds of wood, and exercise their skill in naming them. Some attention to the classification of trees, plants, etc., in families—the oak family, the pod-bearing family, the rose family, the grasses, etc., with specimens and illustrations when practicable. The innumerable uses to which vegetable substances are applied, in food, medicine, clothing, building, etc., furnish an ample field for extending these exercises as far as time permits.
Name five different evergreen trees; ten fruit trees; five ornamental trees; five used for fuel, etc. Lessons on cork, mahogany, logwood, rosewood.*
S 65. Animals.-Transformations of certain insects. Animalculæ.
$ 66. Shells.-Five or more lessons on shells, illustrating some of the principal classes.
$ 67. Geography.—This branch should be introduced by familiar lessons on the geography of the city or town; its rivers or small streams, direction in which they flow, their width and depth; bridges;
References.—$ 65. See references of $ 54.
§ 66. Hooker's Natural History; Brande's Cyclopædia, word Conchology; Mayo's Lessons on Shells; Worcester's and Webster's Quarto Dictionaries.
$ 67. Primary Geography on the basis of the Object Method of Instruction, by F. A. Allen; Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Calkins's Object Lessons.
* See Hailman's Systein of Object Teaching.
Miscellaneous Topics ; Metals. location and direction of the principal streets, their width and length; public buildings, their location and use; public and private schools; manufactories; boundaries; date of settlement; early history; present population; population twenty years ago ; town or city officers, etc.
Let these exercises be illustrated by the use of an outline map of the city or town, drawn on the blackboard.
Next, extend the exercise so as to embrace the county, and illustrate by map on the board as before. Then extend to the State; boundaries of the State; rivers ; cities; capital; railroads; canals; length and width of the State; surface; soil ; climate; productions ; Governor; Legislature; population, etc.
§ 68. Miscellaneous Topics.—Origin and meaning of the names of the months. Traveling by land; by water.
$ 69. Metals.—Which are the precious metals ? Which the most useful of the metals? Which are the heaviert? Which is a fluid ?
Object lessons on iron, zinc, tin, copper, lead, mercury, silver, gold; on steel, wire, brass, pewter, etc.
Terms ductile, malleable.
References.—$ 68. Fireside Philosophy, word Month, in index; Sargent's Third Reader, lesson 139.
§ 69. Carll's Child's Book of Natural History; Fireside Philosophy, index; Mayo's Lessons on Objects; Calkins's Object Lessons; Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 2; Brande's Cyclopædia.
Morals and Manners.-See $ 7.
$ 70. Spelling.-Spell the names of the different books of the Bible; of the different studies pursued in school; of a hundred different articles, selected from the Prices Current” of the newspapers ; of the principal streets of the city or town; of the numerals, both ordinal and cardinal, from one to twenty. Dictation exercises.
The spelling exercises of this grade should be mostly oral; but the classes may occasionally be called on to spell by printing the words with a pen or pencil, on their slates or on paper. See, also, $ 2.
$ 71. Arithmetic.-Pupils should receive special assistance from the teacher, in learning how to prepare
their lessons in mental arithmetic. Counting by sixes, sevens, eights, nines, and tens, forward and backward : 1, 7, 13, etc., 2, 8, 14, etc., 3, 9, 15, etc.; 1, 8, 15, etc., 2, 9, 16, etc., 3, 10, 17, etc.; 1, 9, 17, etc., 2, 10, 18, etc., 3, 11, 19, etc.; 1, 10, 19, etc., 2, 11, 20, etc., 3, 12, 21, etc.; 1, 11, 21, etc., 2, 12, 22, etc., 3, 13, 23, etc.
Slate arithmetic should be gradually introduced, on the blackboard and on slates, preparatory to the use of a text-book in the next grade. Elementary exercises in notation, numeration, and addition.
Adding columns of numbers; short columns grad
References.—$ 70. Northend's Dictation Exercises; Parker & Watson's Speller; Worcester's Speller; Sanders's Speller, etc.
$ 71. Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 12; Manual of Elemen. tary Instruction, vol. 2.
ually extended to long ones; slowly at first, but more and more rapidly as the pupils acquire facility in the operations. Dictate columns of twenty or more figures; then let all the pupils commence at the same moment and note the time required by each to complete the addition. All the pupils should learn to add by giving the sum at each step, without naming the number to be added : thus, in adding the numbers 5, 8, 6, 9, etc., say 5, 13, 19, 28, etc., and not 5 and 8 are 13, and 6 are 19, and 9 are 28, etc.
§ 713. Drawing;--The study and application of the principles of drawing should be gradually extended till the pupils are able to produce representations of objects with facility and accuracy. Let the classes use cuts from books, drawing-cards, when obtainable, and other copies. They should also have frequent exercises in sketching directly from the objects represented.* See, also, $ 33.
Writing.–See $ 3.
* “This beautiful art should certainly be placed among the necessaries of education, to be begun early, and imparted to all. There is no one who has not, on some occasion, found that it would have been extremely serviceable to him to have been able to draw his ideas, as well as to speak or to write them; a slight sketch will often show in a moment, and with great precision, what many words would fail to make clear ; and a very little time in early youth devoted to lessons in drawing, including mechanical as well as other branches of drawing, would impart to every one a power which, in after life, could not fail to be useful in a variety of ways; that is, real practical lessons in drawing, carried out on the principles of the art-not mere copying, nor getting the master to patch up for