« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
Teachers will increase or diminish the number of points at their discretion; but care should be taken not to burden the memory with more numbers than are really necessary to secure accuracy in the form of the map. Some teachers would have more points fixed in the map of Europe than the number here given. Very few maps require more than half as many of these points as the map of Europe.
Suppose the first lesson to be a map of the coast line from Cape North to St. Petersburg. The points essential to this exercise are Cape North, The Naze, Tornea, and St. Petersburg.
The latitude and longitude of these points having been learned, recitation may be required in the following manner:
Cape North is situated 21° N., 26° E. The gen: eral direction of the coast line is southwesterly to The Naze at the south point of Norway, with many small indentations; thence northeasterly to Christiana, coast line regular; thence southeasterly to the most southern point of Sweden, very regular. The position of the remaining points and the regularity and direction of the coast line should be learned and recited in a similar manner.
The class is now prepared to draw. First each pupil draws upon the board a vertical line called the scale, representing 5° or 10° of latitude, according to the size of the map. A dotted vertical line should now be drawn representing the central meridian in Europe, the 20th degree. Supposing our scale to represent 50 of latitude, the most southerly point
being about 35°, the most northerly 70°, the difference will contain seven spaces of 5° each; hence there will be eight parallels. Now divide the meridian into seven equal parts, each equal in length to the scale assumed, and draw dotted curved lines through the points of division, representing parallels of latitude. Next draw the meridians. On the parallel of the 70th degree, a degree of longitude is nearly one-third of a degree of latitude. The most easterly point being in longitude 60°, and the most westerly nearly 10° W., there will be eight spaces and eight meridians east of the meridian of 20°, and six spaces and six meridians west of it.
Now set off on the parallel of 70°, eight spaces equal to one-third of the scale, east of the meridian of 20°, and two on the west. A degree of longitude on the parallel of 35° is of a degree of latitude, nearly. Now proceed to lay off the same number of spaces as before, each being of the scale, and connect the parallels of 70° and 35° with straight or curved dotted lines.
The frame being completed, let the points learned and described be located with dots and connected with lines, in conformity with the description previously given. After the class has acquired the ability to represent with accuracy and rapidity the first lesson, another section of the boundary, together with that previously drawn, should be assigned for the next lesson. Let successive sections be assigned until the outline is completed. The teacher can not overestimate the value of rapid exe
Grammar and Composition.
cution in map drawing, which is attainable only by frequent reviews.
The mode of representing lakes, rivers, mountains, and prominent towns, will be readily suggested to the teacher.
$ 89. Grammar and Composition.---One of the most common faults in teaching grammar, is that of requiring pupils to commit too many rules and observations to memory. The most important princi
. ples only should be learned and recited directly from the text-book, and always in connection with illustrative examples furnished by the pupils. The less important principles, embracing more than half of the remarks, observations, etc., of the different school-grammars, should be learned chiefly as they are called into use by the grammatical study of selected passages of prose and verse.
As fast as the principles of grammar are learned, let the pupils be required in all cases to embody them in sentences of their own construction. The ability to use language correctly, and the demonstration of this ability by actual performance, should ever be regarded as the only satisfactory test of the pupil's attainments in this branch. 66 The art of speaking and writing correctly,” is something more than “ the art of knowing how to speak and write correctly.” The knowledge of pupils is generally found to be far in advance of their practice. It is
References.—89. Mansfield's American Education, chap. 11; Page's Theory and Practice, chap. 7.
true that most teachers give some attention to the language employed by their pupils, especially during recitations; but it would be a very great improvement if still more time was spent in cultivating habits of freedom and accuracy in the use of language. If one-fourth of the time usually devoted to the regular recitation in grammar was distributed through the day, and employed in cultivating the art of conversation, and propriety and elegance of expression on all occasions, the loss would prove a great gain.*
The rule adopted by Dr. Johnson deserves a place in the memory of every pupil. “Sir Joshua Reynolds once asked him by what means he had attained his extraordinary accuracy and flow of language. He told him, that he had early laid it down as a fixed rule to do his best on every occasion and in every company; to impart whatever he knew in the most forcible language he could put it in; and that by constant practice, and never suffering any careless
· Unless the principles of the science are applied in daily practice, and fixed in the mind by habitual exercise, comparatively little is gained from theoretical study of the formulas and parts of speech. The ability to think clearly, and express one's thoughts elegantly and perspicuously, in one's own spoken or written words, is a great acquisition, and a rare one in our grammar schools." —Report of School Committee, Lowell, Mass.
“ The deficiency alluded to is in the lack of appliances in our school studies and exercises for the proper cultivation of the faculty of expression.”—Isaac J. Allen, Superintendent of Schools, Cincinnati.
• No teaching of grammatical rules will counteract the injurious effect of the frequent hearing and use of ungrammatical language.” --Report of Boston Committee.
expressions to escape him, or attempting to deliver his thoughts without arranging them in the clearest manner, it became habitual to him.”*
The oral lessons of the course should in all cases be regarded as exercises for the cultivation of the conversational powers of the pupils, and they should always be conducted with special reference to the accomplishment of this object.
$ 90. Reading.-The standard of excellence in reading should be set a little higher in each successive grade. Pupils of the third grade should be able to read with good expression and effect in every variety and style. Take care that all the voices, especially those of the girls, are kept up to the proper
References.-$ 90. Northend's Teacher and Parent, chap. 23; Page's Theory and Practice, chap. 4; Bates's Institute Lectures, lect. 4; Holbrook's Normal Methods; Zachos's Analytic Elocution.
* Boswell's Life of Johnson.
† . Oral lessons cultivate in young people the talent of rational conversation, which, in ordinary education, is entirely left to chance, although it is the most useful, the most social, and the most intellectual of all talents. They impart that free excursive acquaintance with various learning which makes the pleasing and instructive companion ; and if they were generally adopted, they would not fail, in the course of time, to raise the tone of conversation in society. The powers of language of the learners being constantly called forth in proposing and answering questions, in stating the results of their observations, and in making verbal or written summaries of the subjects on which they have conversed, they will necessarily acquire great facility of expression in connection with great clearness of thought. And if they excel in conversation, they have every prospect of success in public speaking.” — Marcel on Language.