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degree of loudness and force. Low voices should always be regarded as great defects in reading; and, except in cases of ill health, pupils who fail to make themselves plainly heard in every part of an ordinary school-room should receive marks of error. If pupils are inspired with a suitable degree of ambition to give the proper expression to the pieces they read, there will generally be very little difficulty in regard to fullness of voice.
§ 91. Spelling.–Spell one hundred or more words, selected from the geography of the United States. Dictation exercises.
Write six or more exercises of entire paragraphis, selected from the "Review of the Market," in one of the daily papers, including all the figures, abbreviations, etc. See, also, SS 2 and 79.
Writing.--See § 3.
[G RAMMAR DEPARTMENT.]
REGULAR COURSE. Oral Instruction.- Properties of matter; laws of motion, etc.; pbysiology and hygiene ; morals and manners. The time devoted to
oral instruction each week, to be equal in amount to fifteen minEnglish grammar.
Reference.—$ 91. Northend's Dictation Exercises.
utes a day.
Properties of Matter, etc.
Composition, abstracts, and written reviews.
Geography. to Asia, and reviewed, with use of outline maps and map-drawing from memory. See 88 87 and 88.
History of the United States, to the Revolution, and reviewed.
Fourth Reader (or corresponding number of the series) completed, with punctuation, definitions and illustrations, and elementary sounds.
Written and oral spelling, with definitions, from speller, and from reading lessons.
Mental arithmetic completed and reviewed. Slate arithmetic through vulgar and decimal fractions, and reviewed. Extemporaneous exercises in combining series of numbers. See § 5.
Declamations and recitations.
Physical exercises, from two to four minutes at a time, not less than twice a day. See § 105.
Oral Instruction.-See SS 8 and 18.
$ 92. Properties of Matter, Laws of Motion, etc.— In presenting the following topics, explain and apply the principles, and introduce illustrations when practicable: General properties of matter-extension, impenetrability, etc. Solids, liquids, gases. Inertia, different kinds of attraction, specific gravity, center of gravity, centripetal and centrifugal forces, flying, swimming, rowing, water-wheels, the action of
powder in firing a gun, mechanical powers, the pendulum, air-its common properties and uses, pressure of the air, balloons and soap-bubbles, sailing a boat,
References.-$ 92. Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, part 1; Child's Book of Nature, part 3; Fireside Philosophy, index; Science of Common Things, index; Reason Why, index; Barnard's Object Teaching, arts. 2 and 4; Brande's Cyclopædia.
flying a kite, suction-pump, siphon, barometer, friction.
$ 93. Physiology and Hygiene, etc.—Let the expansion and application of the following topics be continued and reviewed, till the pupils are able to sustain a satisfactory examination upon all of them: The blood, mastication, the teeth, saliva, digestion, chyme, chyle, nutrition, blood-vessels, structure and office of the heart, circulation of the blood through the system, impurities, waste of the system, how repaired, proper and improper food, eating too much, too fast, too often, late in the evening, irregularity of meals, dyspepsy, alcoholic drinks.
Structure and office of the lungs, respiration, capacity of the lungs, exercises for their healthy development, obstructed action, dangerous habit of bending over desks, process of purifying the blood, different colors ; carbonic acid of the breath, how formed, amount, composition of carbonic acid, weight, relation to life, experiment of lighted candle in air that has been held in the lungs a few seconds, carbonic acid in wells, burning charcoal in close room, carbonic acid in the stomach, soda fountains, raising bread; ventilation.
Brief account of the bones, joints, muscles.
References.-$ 93. Child's Book of Nature, part 2; Beecher's Physiology and Calisthenics, passim; Root's School Amusements ; Science of Common Things, index; Fireside Philosophy, index; Reason Why, index ; Calkins's Object Lessons, Barnard's Object Teaching, art. 4; Brande's Cyclopædia.
Physiology ; Topics.
Structure and office of the skin, sensible and insensible perspiration, importance of frequent bathing, danger from exposure to currents of air applied to the school-room.*
The brain, excessive use of; nerves of sensation, of motion.
Physical exercise, its relation to health, kind and amount required.
Clothing, kind and quantity required to preserve health ; importance of frequent change; danger from cold or damp feet.
Sleep, nature and uses, amount required, effect of sleeping too much, too little; rising early, late; retiring early, late; ventilation of sleeping-rooms.
Recreation and amusement-relation to health. Importance of change and variety of mental labor.+
$ 94. Reciting by Topics.—One of the best modes of reciting history, geography, etc., is by the use of topics. Thus, in geography, a pupil passes to an outline map, suspended on the wall, with a set of topics in his hand, as boundaries, rivers, mountains, climate, surface, soil, productions, commerce, etc., and proceeds to describe the country assigned, stating all he recollects under each topic. When his description is completed, other members of the class are called on for corrections and additions, and the teacher makes such suggestions as the case may re
*“Avoid a current of air as you would an arrow.”—Chinese Proverb.
+ "The mind is as much refreshed by variety as by idleness.' Todd's Student's Manual.
quire. This made of reciting by topics leaves the pupils in a great degree to their own resources, secures a more thorough and systematic preparation of the lessons, and furnishes important aid in imparting that discipline of mind which is more valuable than knowledge. It will be found particularly adapted to reviews.
Reading.--See SS 1, 41, 50, 78.
§ 95. Spelling.–Spell one hundred words selected from the geography of South America and Europe; thirty words selected from the terms and definitions used in arithmetic; thirty from the lessons and definitions used in grammar. Şee, also, SS 2 and 79.
. Write five dictation exercises of paragraphs selected from the “Marine Journal” of a newspaper.
Writing.--See $ 3.
Oral Exercises.- Popular astronomy; elementary book-keeping ; government; heat; geology; morals and manners. The time devoted to oral instruction each week to be equal in amount to fifteen minutes a day.
Grammar completed, with parsing and analysis from reading. book.
Reference.-$ 95. Northend's Dictation Exercises.