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orders to her troops to commerce their ope

rations.

A. D.

1560.

The appearance of the English soon turned the tide of the war; and a treaty was speedily concluded, in which it was stipulated that the French should evacuate Scotland, and an amnesty should be granted for all past offences. Soon after the parliament abolished the papal jurisdiction in Scotland, and established the presbyterian form of discipline, regardless of the refusal of Mary to sanction

their acts.

Francis IV. of France died not long after, and Mary, finding her residence in that country no longer agreeable, applied to Elizabeth for a safe conduct, in case she should be obliged to pass through England, in her way to her native country. Answer was made, that she must expect no favour, unless she ratified the treaty that Elizabeth had concluded with her subjects; on which Mary, with indignation, replied, "Tell Elizabeth, I can return to Scotland without her leave." Accordingly, though she knew an English fleet was waiting to intercept her, she embarked at Calais, and landed safely at Leith. Though a widow, she was then only nineteen years of age, and by her beauty and the elegance of her manners, was well qualified to win the affections of her people; but, unfortunately, she was a zealous papist, and, on this account, John Knox, whose power was now paramount to royalty itself, took a brutal pleasure in treating her with insult and contumely.

The queen of Scots, destitute of the means of resistance, and pressed by a turbulent nobility and a bigotted people, was glad to come to

L 3

terms

terms with Elizabeth; and, for a time, all the exterior appearances of a cordial reconciliation and friendship subsisted between them.

Elizabeth, finding that she had nothing further to dread from the machinations of the Scots, employed herself in regulating the affairs of her own kingdom. She furnished the arsenals with arms, fortified the frontiers, promoted trade and navigation, and, by building vessels of force herself, suggested the same idea to the merchants. In a word, by uniting economy with vigour in all her undertakings, she was able to give a new character and direction to the nation, and justly acquired for herself the titles of the restorer of naval glory, and the queen of the northern

seas.

Though the queen did not choose that her subjects should dictate to her in regard to marriage, and in consequence had made some declarations in favour of celibacy, she, nevertheless, listened to proposals from the archduke Charles, from Eric king of Sweden, and Adolphus duke of Holstein. Even some of her own subjects flattered themselves with the hopes of obtaining the hand of their sovereign; but the agreeable exterior of lord Robert Dudley, of the Northumberland family, seemed to engage her more than all the splendid offers of princes and monarchs. She took care, however, to mix policy with coquetry; and while she claimed the privilege of pleasing her own fancy, she avoided giving offence to any candidate for her favour. She appeared to be pleased with courtship, but kept aloof from matrimony.

Jealous of every person who was likely to institute pretensions to the crown, even as her suc

cessor,

vale of misery, in hopes of being able to settle that momentous affair with satisfaction and security.

During this interval, the duke of Guise had been assassinated before Orleans, and Condè and Montmorency had come to terms of accommodation, on condition that a toleration should be granted to the French protestants, and that both parties should unite their efforts to expel the English.

In consequence of this change of views and measures, Havre, which had remained for some time in possession of the English, was obliged to surrender to the arms of France; and Elizabeth, whose usual vigour and foresight does not appear in this transaction, was now glad to compound matters, by agreeing that the hostages, which had been previously given on account of Calais, should be restored on the payment of two hundred and twenty thousand crowns, and that both sides should retain all their claims and pretensions.

The peace still continuing with Scotland, Elizabeth affected to be much interested in the happiness of Mary, and advised her to marry some English nobleman, which would put an end to ail jealousies and misunderstandings between them. At last, Robert Dudley, now created earl of Leicester, was named as the person on whom it was wished the choice of the queen of Scots should fall.

Leicester, the great and powerful favourite of Elizabeth, possessed so many qualities that win with women, that he was even able to blind the 5.2acious Elizabeth in regard to his marked defects of character. He was proud, insolent,

and

Havre, but the intestine divisions of the kingdom diverted their attention to another object. By the influence of Elizabeth, the Hugonots had levied a considerable body of protestants in Germany, and, with this reinforcement, they were able to take the field. A famous battle took place at Dreux, and Condé and Montmorency, the commanders of the opposite armies, by a singular fatality, fell into the hands of their enemies. The appearances of victory remained with Guise, whose faction had seized the person of the young king, Charles the ninth; but the admiral Coligni, the able associate of Condé, soon turned the fortune of the day.

1563.

The expences incurred by supporting A. D. the Hugonots had emptied the queen's exchequer, and obliged her to call a parliament. On opening the session, as the life of Elizabeth had lately been endangered by the small-pox, the commons respectfully renewed their solicitations that she would choose a husband, whom they promised faithfully to serve; or, if she entertained any reluctance to the married state, they desired that the lawful successor might be appointed by an act of the legislature.

The queen, sensible that every heir was in some degree a rival, and balancing between the queen of Scots and the house of Suffolk, gave an evasive answer to the house of commons, declaring that she had fixed no absolute resolution against marriage, and felt the difficulties attending the question of the succession to be so great, that, for the sake of her people, she would be contented to remain some little time longer in this

vale of misery, in hopes of being able to settle that momentous affair with satisfaction and security.

During this interval, the duke of Guise had been assassinated before Orleans, and Condè and Montmorency had come to terms of accommo dation, on condition that a toleration should be granted to the French protestants, and that both parties should unite their efforts to expel the English.

In consequence of this change of views and measures, Havre, which had remained for some time in possession of the English, was obliged to surrender to the arms of France; and Elizabeth, whose usual vigour and foresight does not appear in this transaction, was now glad to compound matters, by agreeing that the hostages, which had been previously given on account of Calais, should be restored on the payment of two hundred and twenty thousand crowns, and that both sides should retain all their claims and pretensions.

The peace still continuing with Scotland, Elizabeth affected to be much interested in the happiness of Mary, and advised her to marry some English nobleman, which would put an end to all jealousies and misunderstandings between them. At last, Robert Dudley, now created earl of Leicester, was named as the person on whom it was wished the choice of the queen of Scots should fall.

Leicester, the great and powerful favourite of Elizabeth, possessed so many qualities that win with women, that he was even able to blind the sigacious Elizabeth in regard to his marked defects of character. He was proud, insolent,

and

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