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gaged in the sport, his collar bone was broken by a fall from his horse, and this hastened his dissolution. He died on Sunday, the

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8th of March, of an asthma and fever, in the thirteenth year of his reign. His amiable consort, Mary, had fallen a victim to the small-pox a few years before.

The character of William, which had been distorted by prejudice, or exalted beyond its proper pitch, by partiality, during his life, after his death became still more difficult to appreciate. England, unquestionably, gained much by the revolution, in some respects, while it was a severe sufferer in others. The system of borrowing money on remote funds, which began in this reign, has been attended with the most pernicious consequences. A standing army, too, which was first sanctioned by parliament in the time of William, is only to be defended by the relative situation of Europe. Though regarded as an evil, it must be allowed to have become a necessary one. But, on the other hand, if we contemplate the noble stand which William made for freedom, and the anxiety he shewed to perpetuate it, we must be led to acknowledge, that he possessed qualities of the first order, which entitle him to the applause and admiration of posterity.

In person, William was small and slender. His complexion was brown, his nose Roman, and his eye piercing. His genius was penetrating, and his judgment sound; but in his manners he was distant, and better qualified to gain respect than love. In 1694, the bank of England, and the salt and stamp offices, were established..



The Reign of Queen Anne.

ANNE, princess of Denmark, the eldest A. D. surviving daughter of James II. as


cended the throne on the death of William, with the general good will of all parties. She was now in the thirty-eighth year of her age, and by her husband, George prince of Denmark, had had a numerous offspring; but they all died in infancy, except the duke of Gloucester, who reached the age of eleven, and was just beginning to give high promises of fu ture worth, when he was arrested by the hand of death.

As a wife and a mother, Anne had ever supported the most exemplary character; but her genius and understanding were unequal to the station she was called to fill. The facility of her disposition rendered her the dupe of interested and artful dependants; and owing to this, a serious misunderstanding had taken place between her and the late king and queen, which terminated only with the lives of the latter. The courtiers too, entering into the feelings of their sovereign, had shewed her very little attention; but no sooner was she elevated to the throne, than all parties vied with each other to win her favour, by professions of duty and attachment.

As the whigs had been least friendly to her when in a private station, she naturally inclined to the tories; and Somers and Halifax, with some others, were excluded from her councils,


and their places supplied by men of the opposite faction.

As the tories, on very substantial grounds, had shewn a reluctance to enter into new defensive and offensive alliances, the United States were under some alarm lest Anne should abandon the politics of her predecessor; but they were soon relieved from their anxiety, by the arrival of the earl of Marlborough, with full assurances that her majesty would adhere to all the stipulations entered into by the late king.

In her first speech to parliament, Anne made the most conciliatory declarations of her views and principles; and in return they settled on her, during life, the same revenue as had been enjoyed by William. The queen, not to be outdone in generosity, though she observed that the funds appropriated to the civil list might probably fall short of what they had formerly produced, assigned one hundred thousand pounds from the amount for the public service of the year.

When the business of the intended war against France was debated in the queen's privy council, the earl of Rochester, maternal uncle to the queen, justly observed, that as England had least to fear from the power of France, it would be but fair that the chief burden of the war should rest on the continental allies; but this being violently opposed by the earl of Marlborough, the queen's chief favourite, his lordship prevailed, and was farther appointed captain general of all her majesty's forces, to be employ. ed in conjunction with the troops of the allies.

The Dutch too, to whom the earl had been sent ambassador extraordinary, gave him the


same appointment over their forces; and the several allies having promised to furnish their quotas with alacrity, every thing was concerted for opening the campaign with activity and vigour; the avowed object of which, as far as concerned England, was to put the house of Austria in possession of the throne of Spain, and to procure a barrier for the Dutch in the Netherlands. Marlborough, at the head of sixty thousand men, taking the field in July, obliged the duke of Burgundy, who commanded the French army, to retire before him, and to leave Spanish Guelderland exposed. The town and castle of Werk surrendered; Venlo capitulated; and Ruremonde was reduced, after an obstinate defence. The French, under Boufflers, returning towards Brabant, the confederate army followed, and took Liege by assault, in which they found considerable public booty.

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Meanwhile, the combined fleets of England and Holland, having received intelligence that the Spanish galleons from the West Indies had put into Vigo, under the convoy of a French squadron, made sail to that port; and from the skill and intrepidity of sir George Rooke, who commanded the English, they were driven to the necessity of destroying their ships and galleons, to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. Ten ships of war, however, were taken, and eleven galleons, with riches to the amount of seven million pieces of eight. This compensated for an unsuccessful attempt made on Cadiz, under the duke of Ormond, which failed principally from the insubordination of the military. But the loss of admiral Benbow was more severely felt. This brave, rough officer, in an engagement

engagement with a squadron of the enemy's ships, lost his leg, while attempting to board the French admiral, and being defeated through the treachery of his own captain, vexation threw him into a fever, of which he died.

Nevertheless, parliament met in the best possible humour; both houses congratulated her majesty on the success of her arms; and the commons went so far, as to depute a committee of their own house to thank the favourite and successful general, who about this time was created duke of Marlborough, and complimented by his mistress with a grant of five thousand per annum out of the post office. At the same time the yearly sum of one hundred thousand pounds was settled on the queen's consort, George prince of Denmark, in case he should survive her.

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The next campaign opened with great advan tage to the allies; but from several instances of misconduct, in which the English had no share, it was on the whole rather favourable to the house of Bourbon. Some towns indeed were taken by the confederate forces in Flanders; but they failed in their attempts on the strong lines, formed by the enemy for the protection of that country.

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In the beginning of the following year, the duke of Marlborough, having concerted the plan of operations with the States, 1704. crossed the Rhine at Coblentz with his army, and, being joined by prince Eugene and the imperialists, advanced to Brentz, and fixed their camp within two leagues of the elector of Bavaria's army.

On the second of July, they forced the ene


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