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vessels, and also the kind and capacity of pumps or other appli. ances for freeing the steamer from water in case of heavy leak. age, the capacity of such pumps or appliances being suited to the navigation in which the steamer is employed.

SEC. 4489. The owner of any such steamer who neglects or refuses to provide such lifeboats, floats, rafts, life-preservers [line-carrying projectiles and the means of propelling them], drags, pumps, or appliances, as are, under the provisions of the preceding section, required by the board of supervising inspectors, and approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be fined one thousand dollars.

*SEC. 4490. Every seagoing steamer, and every steamer navi. gating the great Northern or Northwestern lakes, carrying passengers, the building of which shall be completed after the twenty-eighth day of August, eighteen hundred and seventyone, shall have not less than three water-tight cross bulkheads, such bulkheads to reach to the main deck in single-decked vessles, otherwise to the deck next below the main deck; to be made of iron plates, sustained upon suitable framework; and to be properly secured to the hull of the vessel. The position of such bulkheads and the strength of material of which the same shall be constructed shall be determined by the general rules of the board of supervising inspectors.

SEC. 4491. No kind of instrument, machine, or equipment for the better security of life, provided for by this Title shall be used on any steam vessel which shall not first be approved by the board of supervising inspectors, and also by the Secretary of the Treasury.

SEC. 4492. Every barge carrying passengers, while in tow of any steamer shall be subject to the provisions of this Title relating to fire buckets, axes, life-preservers, and yawls, to such extent as shall be prescribed by the board of supervising inspeotors; and for any violation of this section the penalty shall be two hundred dollars, recoverable one-half for the use of the informer.

* SEC. 3. That steam vessels of one hundred tons burden or under, engaged in the coastwise bays and harbors of the United States, may be licensed by the United States local inspectors of steam vessels to carry passengers or excursions on the ocean or upon the Great Lakes of the North or Northwest, not exceeding fifteen miles from the mouth of such bays or harbors, without being required to have the three water-tight cross bulkheads provided by section forty-four hundred and ninety of the Revised Statutes for other passenger steamers: Provided, That in the judgment of the local inspector such steamers shall be safe and suitable for such navigation without danger to human life, and that they shall have one water-tight collision bulkhead not less than five feet abaft the stem of said steamer. [Act approved July 9, 1886.]

* SEC. 4493. Whenever damage is sustained by any passenger or his baggage, from explosion, fire, collision, or other cause, the master and the owner of such vessel, or either of them, and the vessel shall be liable to each and every person so injured, to the full amount of damage if it happens through any neglect or fail. ure to comply with the provisions of this Title, or through known defects or imperfections of the steaming apparatus or of the hull; and any person sustaining loss or injury through the carelessness, negligence, or willful misconduct of any master, mate, engineer, or pilot, or his neglect or refusal to obey the laws governing the navigation of such steamers, may sue such master, mate, engi. neer, or pilot, and recover damages for any such injury caused by any such master, mate, engineer, or pilot.

SEC. 4494. Every master or commander of any steam vessel carrying passengers shall keep on board of such vessel at least two copies of the provisions of this Title, to be furnished to him by the Secretary of the Treasury; and if the master or comman. der neglects or refuses to do so, or shall unreasonably refuse to exhibit a copy of the same to any passenger who asks for it, he shall be liable to a penalty of twenty dollars.

SEC. 4495. Every steam vessel of the United States, in addition to having her name painted on her stern, shall have the same conspicuously placed in distinct, plain letters, of not less than six inches in length, on each outer side of the pilot house, if it has such, and in case the vessel has side-wheels, also on the outer side of each wheelhouse; and if any such steamboat be found without having her name placed as required, she shall be subject to the same penalty and forfeiture as provided by law in the case of a vessel of the United States found without having her name, and the name of the port to which she belongs, painted on her stern.

SEC. 4496. All collectors, or other chief officers of the customs, and all inspectors within the several districts, shall enforce the provisions of this Title against all steamers arriving and departing.

SEC. 4497. Every collector, or other chief officer of the customs, or inspector, who negligently or intentionally omits any duty under the preceding section, shall be liable to removal from office, and to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each offense, to be sued for in an action of debt.

SEC. 4498. No license, register, or enrollment shall be granted, nor any other papers be issued, by any collector or other chief officer of the customs, to any vessel propelled in whole or in part by steam, until he shall have satisfactory evidence that all the provisions of this Title have been fully complied with.

SEC. 4499. If any vessel propelled in whole or in part by steam be navigated without complying with the terms of this Title, the

* See section 5344, page 63

owner shall be liable to the United States in a penalty of five hundred dollars for each offense, one-half for the use of the informer, for which sum the vessel so navigated shall be liable, and may be seized and proceeded against by way of libel in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction of the offense.

SEC. 4500. The penalty for the violation of any provision of this Title, not otherwise specially provided for, shall be a fine of five hundred dollars, recoverable one-half for the use of the informer.

TITLE XLVIII.

REGULATION OF COMMERCE AND NAVIGA.

TION.

CHAPTER FIVE.

NAVIGATION.

Sec.

Sec. 4233. Rules for preventing col- 4235. State regulations of pilots. lisions.

4236. Pilots on boundaries be. 4234. Forfeiture of sailing ves

tween States. sels for omission of 4237. No discrimination in rates lights.

of pilotage. *SEC. 4233. The following rules for preventing collisions on the water, shall be followed in the navigation of vessels of the Navy and of the mercantile marine of the United States :

STEAM AND SAIL VESSELS.

Rule one. Every steam vessel which is under sail, and not under steam, shall be considered a sail vessel; and every steam vessel which is under steam, whether under sail or not, shall be con. sidered a steam vessel.

LIGHTS.

Rule two. The lights mentioned in the following rules, and no others, shall be carried in all weathers, between sunset and sun. rise.

Rule three. All ocean-going steamers, and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way, carry

(A) At the foremast head a bright white light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft of the beam on either side.

(B) On the starboard side, a green light, of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side.

* Reenacted by act of Congress approved February 19, 1895. (See p. 71.)

(C) On the port side, a red light of such a character as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and so constructed as to show a uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side.

The green and red lights shall be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the lights so as to prevent them from being seen across the bow.

Rule four. Steam vessels, when towing other vessels, shall carry two bright white masthead lights vertically, in addition to their side lights, so as to distinguish them from other steam vessels. Each of these masthead lights shall be of the same character and construction as the masthead lights prescribed by Rule three.

Rule five. All steam vessels, other than ocean-going steamers and steamers carrying sail, shall, when under way carry on the starboard and port sides lights of the same character and construction and in the same position as are prescribed for side lights by Rule three, except in the case provided in Rule six.

Rule six. River steamers navigating waters flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries, shall carry the following lights, namely: One red light on the outboard side of the port smoke pipe, and one green light on the outboard side of the starboard smoke pipe. Such lights shall show both forward and abeam on their respective sides.

Rule seven. All coasting steam vessels, and steam vessels other than ferryboats and vessels otherwise expressly provided for, navigating the bays, lakes, rivers, or other inland waters of the United States, except those mentioned in Rule six, shall carry the red and green lights, as prescribed for ocean-going steamers; and, in addition thereto, a central range of two white lights; the after light being carried at an elevation of at least fifteen feet above the light at the head of the vessel. The headlight shall be so constructed as to show a good light through twenty points of the compass, namely: From right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side of the vessel ; and the after light so as to show all around the horizon. The lights for ferryboats, barges and canal boats when in tow of steam vessels,* shall be regulated by such rules as the board of supervising inspectors of steam vessels shall prescribe.

Rule eight. Sail vessels, under way or being towed, shall carry the same lights as steam vessels under way, with the exception of the white mastheaŭ lights, which they shall never carry.

Rule nine. Whenever, as in case of small vessels during bad weather, the green and red lights can not be fixed, these lights shall be kept on deck, on their respective sides of the vessel, ready for instant exhibition, and shall, on the approach of or to

* As amended by act approved March 3, 1893

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