« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
ject; and the writer who thus deals Each is deduced by Skinner and in names, should recollect that the Junius, followed by Bailey and John. question, who is, and who is not a son, from the Saxon æle ; and in purdabbler, is to be decided by future suance of this etymology, I have, in generations.
the preface to my Dictionary, cited Without further remark on this and referred to a number of authori. exceptionable part of the review, I ties to establish the precise meaning will proceed to vindicate my own of the word, as equivalent to every criticisms on the words, each and ei. It is probable that this etymol. ther, which the gentlemen have call. ogy is erroneous; and that each is the ed in question.
Celtic gach ; the guttural being dropIn the preface to my Dictionary, ped. But vele and gach being prepage 1, I have cited authorities from cisely synonymous, it is not of impor: the translation of the scriptures, and tance to the present question, which from Saxon books, to convict John- is the word from which we have deson of a mistake in the definition of rived each; for both had, in the primcoch; and Lowth, of an error in itive languages, the sense of every: criticism on the word either. The Junius and Skinner define each, by Reriewers do not deny my authori. unusquisque, which, as translated by ties; but they say, “ What if Saxon Ainsworth, signifies, every, or every briters, and the venerable translators Somner, in his Dictionary, de. of the Bible, confounded the proper fines ale by omnis, all. Lyc, in his meanings of each and every one ? Did Dictionary, defines it by omnis, and they bind all their posterity to do the unusquisque ; and cites, [I suppose the same? Is any thing more obvious, Saxon version of the gospels, which than that every one can only be appli- I do not possess] Matthew ii. 10. ed to more than two? while each “ Every tree, which bringeth not forth must be used of two, and is there. good fruit." He defines the fore best restricted to that num word also by singuli, and cites Mat. ber)"
XX. 2. John ii. 6. Luke xxi, 36. These remarks are error and ab. In all which passages, the word resurdity, from beginning to end.
fers to more than two, and signifies What, let me ask in reply; did not all, or every one. Lye cites also a Saxon writers and the venerable passage in Psalm cxv. but I think translators of the Bible use words there must be an error in printing. with precision ? Were they ignorant Every authority ! possess, is in my of the true signification of the words favour: not a single exception. Í they used ? Did they contound terms ? have marked a great number of pasSurely, these critics should be the sages in Saxon authors to the same last to charge other men with "in- point, and every instance I have found suuting the remains of great schol. justifies the definition of the foregoars." No, gentlemen; they did not ing lexicographers. Confound terms; nor have posterity But I believe each to be the Celtic deviated from their practice. The gach, u bich Lhuyd, in the Irish Dic. practice of ancient and of modern tionary, in his Archæologia, translates writers is uniform and correct. I by every, gach aon, every one ; gach complain not of the practice, but of neach, each; gach uile, all. The same Johnson's definition of each. He definition is given in Shaw's Analysis says that each, in the sense of “ of the Galic language, page 57. And ry one of any number," is rare, except it appears that in the primitive lanin poetry. This is not true. On the guage, this word was used with one, other hand, I affirm, and will prove, gach aon, each one, a use which that the primitive sense of each was is still preserved in English. “ Each stery one of any number ; that resembled the children of a from the first Saxon writings to this king," Judges viii. 18. See also day, it has been used in that sense, Num. i. 44, vii. 3, Isai. ii. 20, vi. 2, in prose, in poetry, and in discourse, lvii. 2. But one is more usually and that it has not, nor ever had any omitted. appropriate application to two, more Whichever word therefore may be can to two thousand or any other the original of each, the Celtic gach pun ber.
or the Saxon ale, the authorities,
without an exception, prove, that the Surely the gentlemen do not mean a original signification of the word was volume of two sermons only. Page every or every one, applicable to the 26, speaking of Courts Martial in separate individuals of any indefinite general, they say, “The fundamental number. So far the point is estab. laws. by which they are governed, lished beyond the possibility of being their different kinds, the analogy controverted.
they bear to each other..." If the Modern authorities are equally de. gentlemen are not satisfied with all the cisive of the question. Skinner and
authorities cited, supported by their Junius have already been cited. Bai. own, they would not be “persuaded ley, who, as far as his definitions go, though one should rise from the dead.” is more correct than Johnson, defines My remarks on either are equally each by every one, giving it no other well supported by authorities. To signification. The late compilers of save trouble, the Reviewers are refer. dictionaries, having copied Johnson's red to Lye’s Saxon Dictionary, where definitions, are chargeable with the the senses of either are explained and same inaccuracies.
the authorities cited. Lye defines In twenty passages of scripture out the word by uterque and ambo. It of twenty eight, cited in Cruden's was appropriately used for two, equiv. Concordance, in which each is used, alent to each, when used of two only. the word refers to more than two.
See the authorities cited. Mat. ix. 17. The translators did not « confound xiii. 30. Gen. xxi. 31. xiii. 11, and terms,” as the Reviewers insinuate ; others in Lye's Dictionary; to which they used the word in its true sense,
I can add a multitude of passages, either as applicable to two or to any
which I have marked on the margins other number; and so is the word of Saxon books, but the insertion of still used by every man who speaks them would be of no use to readers in English; ; nor, until Johnson's defini- general. Its disjunctive use was an. tion appeared, was it ever supposed ciently very rare, but since it is es. that the word had any appropriate ref. tablished by usage, I do not com
Each soldier in the plain of the change; I contend only army, and each ship in the navy are that the original sense of the word, perfectly good English. Indeed each “ on either side,” for“ on each side,” is is applied to two, only for the same still a legitimate use of the word, reason that it is to any other number, which no man has a right to proviz. because that is the whole number scribe. In poetry, it has a peculiar which is the subject of discourse. force and beauty; and it is not the
There is one other authority in my man, who vindicates such ancient and favour, which, I presume, must be long established usages, who “anni. conclusive with these gentlemen, and hilates precision and introduces conthis is, their own use of the word fusion;" but it is the learned critics, The Reviewers
“each must be the Johnsons' and Lowths, who con. used of two;" but in the very number demn such usages, without that mi. of the Review in which this criticism nute attention to the bistory, progis found, they apply the word to a ress, and present state of the lan. greater number. Page 10, “In a guage, which the intricate nature of volume of sermons, each discourse the subject deserres. N. WEBSTER. must have its head and tail piece.”
( To be continued.)
erence to two.
Religious Intelligence. An Account of the origin and progress of pointment by the Committee of Misthe Mission to the Cherokee Indians ;
sions, to the superintendence of eduin a series of Letters from the Rev.
cation among the Cherokee Indians. Gideon Blackburn, to the Rev. Dr. In this I shall notice the progress of Morse.
the mission. Upon my return home LETTER II.
in the month of July, I had several Marysville, ( Tenn.) 1807. interviews with the Chiefs of the na. Rev. Sir,
tion, and sent letters, or as they call In my last, I had mentioned my ap them, talks, to their councils, in which
was stated the design and advantages check to their leaving the school, till of such an institution ; taking care they become so pleased, that checks not to propose any thing, in the per were unnecessary. formance of which, I could not ex With regard to order and discipline, ceed the promise ; as a single failure I presume few schools can exceed would have destroyed my credit and ru. this. Between inducements and strict ined the design. The effect was, that discipline, the children were insensi. in October, at the time of the distribu. bly brought to yield entire submission tion of the annuity, a council, consisting to the regulations of the school. of upwards of 2000 Indians, assembled, At each examination a prize was including all the Chiefs of the nation. proposed for the next examination, to Before this council I laid my plan, and be given to the one making the greatstated all the points I conceived nec est progress. This was faithfully givessary to aid me in its execution. en according to promise. And lest
After spending a day or two in close the others should be depressed and deliberation, I received their appro- discouraged, small presents were giv. bation in writing, with a declaration en to each one according to his mer. that they would send their children its. All this was done, as much as according to my wishes ; at the same possible, under the eye of their partime they agreed to assist me in fix. ents. As my design was to introduce ing a place for the school. The place Christianity, as the young mind should was chosen near the Highwassee be capable of receiving it, the first river, in a part of the nation most un principles of religion, as contained in likely to be civilized. A school-house, the shorter Catechism, were early and a house for the teacher were im taught, together with other short mediately erected. The school-house questions of a similar nature. Many was so constructed that it might serve hymns of praise were committed to the children to eat in, and be comfort memory from Dr. Watts' Divine able for the lodging of the males. Songs, Rippon's Selection, and other The females were appointed to sleep compositions. They were taught to in the master's family. I was re sing plain and melodious tunes with a markably fortunate in the choice of a great deal of ease and sweetness. master; he was a man of prudence, During all these exercises the utmost good sense, and piety ; with a heart care was taken to impress them with fully set on the work.' His family was solemnity, in order to avoid those hab. conveniently small, consisting of a
its of levity so often discovered among wife and one child.
ourselves, when acquiring the music All things being now fully prepared, we expect to use in the worship of the school was opened in the spring
God. With one of these songs, a of 1804. In the course of the first portion of Scripture, and prayer, the week we had twenty-one children, school was begun and closed each who all gave flattering evidences of day: This acquisition of songs of promising geniuses.
praise was also useful, in assisting to I had conceived it would be one open the minds of the parents to hear of my greatest difficulties to keep the the truths designed to be communichildren at the school. In order to cated to them. While seated round guard against this contemplated evil, in a convenient semi-circle, and the I had agreed with the Chiefs, that if children in the midst, after communi. any of the children should leave the cating a few ideas by an interpreter, school without permission, or if per
(which was one of the children, as soon mitted to go home should stay ten as they were capable of the service) days longer than allowed, without a the children would join in one of those reasonable excuse, they should forfeit
songs of Zion. Then more instructhe clothing I had given them The tion could be given, and then another Chiefs were bound to send the clothes song, and in this way the mind be kept back, or on their refusal, then, at the open to the truth; and also the profit. distribution of the next annuity, I ing of the children be made to ap. should have a cight to deduct the pear to their parents and friends. I amount from the dividend of such will not say music can transform, but Chief, to be applied to the use of the sure I am, it has a remarkable tenschool. This proved an effectual dency to sofien, the savage mind. I
have seen it so impressive, that old It is my decided opinion, if the institu; warriors (who are remarkably averse
tion should be continued, it will event. to feelings) have sprung on their feet ually, not only be the highest means of in time of a song, clapt their hand on their national civilization, but a saving their breast, and in the Cherokee lan to the United States, as they must guage exclaimed,
my heart sing very soon become a branch of the too." I am yours, &c.
SAMUEL LOVE. P.S. You will be able to form a judg. ment of their progress in literature, and Extract of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. their submission to disipline, by the re. William Carey, dated at Calcutta part of a committee of the Presbytery
Fan. 20, 1807, to the Rev. Dri of Union, and a certificate politely Staughton, of Philadelphia. handed by a respectable attorney and
MY DEAR BROTHER, merchant, who had spent some time in the school, both which I take the liberty take the opportunity of sending a few
By the return of Mr. M'Farlane, I to enclose.
hasty lines, to inform you of the
Jan. 1, 1807. changes which have taken place since To the Presbytery of Union,
I wrote you last. WE your Committee beg leave to
Through a severe affliction brother report, that we attended at and exam.
Biss has been obliged to leave his ined the Highwassee Indian school, station here and return to Europe. I and do highly approve of the progress hope, that the Lord, who knows the the children have made in every wants of all his churches, will eventbranch of literature they have at. ually overrule this very afflicting tempted : reading, writing, cyphering, providence for the good of his church, spelling off the book, and singing and for the furtherance of the gospel. spiritual songs. Their progress is
He will probably arrive in America really flattering in those different before this reaches you. If he be branches, and perhaps is not exceed. still with you, give my, and all our od in any school amongst ourselves. brethren and sisters' love to him and They appear to understand the things sister Biss.* they have attempted to learn, as well When captain Wickes was here we as they are generally understood by were directed to plan a mission to the white children. We highly approve Burman empire. I expected to have the method of teaching and the order been able to say, that our brethren of the school, and the children appear are gone thither; but the ship is de. to have as just conceptions of order, layed a day or two for a pilot. They and as cheerfully to submit to disci came down this evening, thinking to pline, as any children.
go on board to-morrow. I believe Josh. B. LAPSLEY, they will go the next day. May the
ISAAC ANDERSON. Lord send prosperity! N. B. The School contains from 45 When captain Wickes was with us to 50 Scholars.
he attended a meeting, which was held
at a place (formerly an idol temple) Marysville, Feb. 25, 1807. belonging to the Rev. Mr. Brown, It is hereby certified, that on the first chaplain of the presidency, on ac3d of January, 1807, I spent some time count of a pious clergyman being disin the Highwassee Indian School,
missed to his station. In that same established by the Rev. Gideon Black. place we this day met, and commend. burn. The number of the scholars was ncar fifty. Their progress in lit.
• Mr. Biss died on his passage to erature, and their advancement in civ. America, about four weeks after his ilization exceed all betief. The mod embarkation from Serampore ; leaving esty of their deportment, the ease and a widow and four children, who are now decorum of their manners, is not sur. in Philadelphia, and to whom, we doubt passed by any school of white children not, all that attention will be paid, which I have ever seen, nor have I ever wit their situation requires. 'It is said, messed greater docility, or submission that Mrs. Biss contemplates a return to discipline, in the course of my life. to India.
ed our brethren Chater and Mardon very great reductions in the expenses. to God, for the work to which they are In the old state I was teacher of called. Little did the builder of that Bengalee, Sangskrit and Mahratta, edifice think to what purpose it would with a salary of five hundred rupees be appropriated. From thence have per month. Last week I received a seven ministers of the gospel been dis. letter from government acquainting missed to their various stations with me, that I was appointed by the goverin a few months ; and in these ser nor general in council professor of the ces churchmen, independents and bap- Bengalee and Sangskrit languages, tists, have united as brethren in the with a salary of one thousand rupees most cordial manner: I think with a per month, or one hundred twenty five cordiality unknown in England. Two pounds sterling. Thus the earth baptists, two independents, and three helpeth the woman. This will enable churchmen, have been from thence us to do something more for our sent to their work.
Lord.t This day we heard a long letter from a minister, who has lately gone the attention of those in power, by to risit the Christian churches and promotion, Sc.
* Knowing; as I do," the Jews in the south. He has found says Mr. Carey, “the natives of this much real Christianity among some country, and hearing, as I do, their in those parts, and has just visited a daily observations on our government, number of Syrian Chiristian churches character and principles, I am warrant. hid among the mountains of Mal- ed to say, that the institution of this colabar
, which, it is supposed, were lege was wanting to complete the happlanted in the fourth century. These piness of the natives under our dominion ; Christians had never seen a printed for this institution will break down that Bible, but have the Syriae Bible in barrier (our ignorance of their lanmanuscript. Some of their manu
guage) which has ever opposed the influe scripts are very ancient. Some of
ence of our laws and principles, and has them did not know that there were despoiled our administration of its enerany other Christians in the world be. Sy and effects. Were the institution to sides themselves and the Roman
cease from this moment, its salutary efCatholics at Goa, whom they abhor, fects would yet remain. Good has been having been severely persecuted by done, which cannot be undone. Sources them. Some of the bishops talked of useful knowledge, moral instruction, about the necessity of the religion of and political utility, have been opened the heart, and I should hope the fear to the natives of India, which can never of God is among them.
be closed, and their civil improvement, An order was sent out from the like the gradual civilization of our own court of directors to new model the
country, will advance in progression for college of Fort William,* and to make
ages to come.” The gospels and New
Testament, translated into several lan. The college of Fort William, in guages of the east, have been printed in Bengal, was instituted in 1800, upon a this college. -Literary Panorama. fuggestion by the marquis of Wellesley. k met with great opposition at first, resolved to devote nothing to private use.
+ The missionaries disinterestedly but this was overcome by the cogent rea. With what remains of their income, afso urged in favour of the establish. munt, from which important advantages they form a common fund, which is
ter defraying their necessary expenses, tere expected. Suitable instructers are employed in teaching the languages of appropriated to promote the object of the country, with others adapted to be
their mission. We were well informed, useful
in Invia. Nor is English composi- in September, 1804, that not less than tim neglected; brut, together with the 15,0001. sterling had then been expended : mtudy of oriental dialects, proper atten.
whereof only 5,7401. 178. 7d. had been tion is paid to the language of the mothe received from England in money, goods,
&c. So that besides dezvoting themselves er country, to the sciences, arts, and im. prorements of Europe. The meritori.
to the work, their pecuniary contribuour student is rewarded by a degree of
tions to its support have been reinarkahangur, which the college confers ; by