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birds are rare. Peacock, pheasant, parrot, cassowary, eagle, vulture, stork, cormorant, etc.

(4) Reptiles. Very abundant and of great size. Crocodile, boa-constrictor, python, cobra-di-capello, and other serpents, turtle, lizard.

(5) Insects. Very abundant. Locust, musquito, scorpion.

(6) Fishes. Of nearly every kind. Shark, sturgeon, flyingfish, pearl-oyster, and most kinds of common fish.

VEGETATION. Of great variety and abundance.

(1) Trees. Teak, ebony, banyan, cocoa-nut, cedar, oak, palm, bamboo, plantain (in the south); fir, birch, willow in the north).

(2) Objects of culture. Tea, sugar, coffee, cotton, vine, maize, rice, wheat, indigo, pepper, spices, orange, mulberry, olive, pine-apple (and other southern fruits).

POPULATION. Estimated at 700,000,000. The number of the inhabitants is very uncertain. It is impossible, for example, to arrive at a tolerable approximation to the population of China. The following are the principal races of Asia :

(1) The Caucasian, inhabiting the northern, western, and south-western parts of Asia. It includes the Jews, Arabians, Persians, Circassians, Syrians, Armenians, Turks, Siberians, and Hindoos.

(2) The Mongolian, inhabiting the central and eastern parts of Asia. It includes the Tartars, Chinese, and Japanese.

(3) The Malays, inhabiting the south-eastern portion of Asia. RELIGION. The principal religions of Asia are :

(1) Mahometanism, in Arabia, Persia, Turkey, India, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Beloochistan.

(2) Brahminism, in Hindostan.
(3) Buddhism, in China, Further India, Japan, Ceylon.
(4) Christianity, in Siberia and parts of India.

DIVISIONS. The following are the names of the countries of Asia, with their capitals :

Turkey in Asia, Capital Constantinople (in Europe).

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Arabia, Capital Mecca.
Persia,

Teheran.
Afghanistan,

Cabul, on the Cabul. Beloochistan,

Kelat.
Hindostan,

Calcutta, on the Hooghly.
Further India :-
Burmah,

Mandalay, on the Irrawady.

Bangkok, on the Meinam.
Anam,

Hué, on the east coast.
Chinese Empire,

Pekin.
Turkestan,

Bokhara.
Asiatic Russia, St. Petersburg (in Europe).
Japan,

Jeddo.

Siam,

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TURKEY IN ASIA.

I. PHYSICAL.
BOUNDARIES.
North, by the Black Sea, Sea of Marmora.
West, by the Archipelago and the Levant.
South, by Arabia.
East, by Persia and Asiatic Russia.
EXTENT.
Length, 1,400 miles.
Breadth, 900 miles.
Area, 730,000 square miles.
SEAS, BAYS, STRAITS, etc.
Black Sea, in the north.

Bosphorus, or Straits of Constantinople, connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora.

Sea of Marmora.

Dardanelles, a narrow strait connecting the Sea of Marmora and the Archipelago.

Archipelago and Levant, parts of the Mediterranean Sea. Gulf of Smyrna, on the west coast.

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Gulfs of Adalia and Iskenderoon, in the Levant.
Persian Gulf.
CAPES.
Sinope, on the north.
Baba, Krio, on the west.
Khelidonia, Anamour, on the south of Asia Minor.
ISLANDS.
Mytilene, Scio, Samos, Cos, Rhodes, in the Archipelago.

Cyprus, in the Levant, now occupied by England (see Colonies).

MOUNTAINS. Chiefly in the north and west. Asia Minor is an elevated table-land. The principal ranges are :-

Mountains of Armenia. The highest peak is Mount Ararat, 17,000 feet, which lies near the junction of the Russian, Persian, and Turkish territories. This is the famous mountain on which Noah's ark rested after the flood.

Taurus, 13,000 feet, Ramadan, Enamas, Soultan. These form a continuous range running along the south of Asia Minor.

Mount Olympus, a mountain system in the north-west, with Mount Ida, famous in Grecian mythology.

Lebanon, in Syria, with Djebel-es-Sheikh, 10,000 feet.
PLAINS, etc.

There are two great table-lands : those of Armenia and Asia Minor.

The largest tract of flat land is the great Plain of Mesopotamia, traversed by the Euphrates and Tigris.

RIVERS.

Euphrates, Tigris, Kizil-Irmak, Sakaria, Jordan. See general description of Asia.

Menander, flowing into the Archipelago.
Sarabat, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna.
LAKES.

Van, Salt Lake of Koch Hissar, Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee. The last two are traversed by the river Jordan.

CLIMATE. Warm in the south ; severe winters in the hilly regions ; temperate on the shores of the Black Sea.

MINERALS. Abundant in Asia Minor. Iron, silver, copper. The minerals are very little worked.

VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. Pine, fir, oak, olive, myrtle.

II. POLITICAL. AGRICULTURE. In a very backward state, owing to bad government. There is much fertile soil, but it is badly cultivated. Corn (wheat, maize), rice, hemp, flax, tobacco, olive, mulberry, date, vine, melon, and other fruits are grown. Sheep are reared by the nomadic tribes of Syria. Horses, goats, asses, sheep, are the principal domestic animals. Silk. worms are reared in large numbers.

MANUFACTURES. Somewhat important.

Silk, fine cotton, leather, cutlery, fire-arms, dyeing, carpets, tapestry.

COMMERCE. Important. Chiefly with Great Britain, Persia, France, Austria, and Russia.

Imports. Cotton and woollen goods, hardware, colonial produce, coal.

Exports. Silk, wool, fruits, olive-oil, Turkey leather, carpets, tobacco.

Ports. Trebizond, Scutari, Smyrna, Latakia, Tripoli, Acre, Bassorah.

Aleppo, Damascus, Bagdad, are important centres of inland trade carried on by means of caravans.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION. Very bad. Few roads. The camel is employed for carrying purposes. Travellers and goods are conveyed by caravans, consisting of long trains of camels, which travel along the principal routes. The Euphrates and Tigris are connected by canals towards the south part of their course.

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POPULATION. About 17,000,000, consisting of Turks, Armenians, Jews, Greeks, Arabs, and Kurds.

RELIGION. Mahometans, Christians (principally Greeks and Roman Catholics), Jews. The Christian religion arose in Palestine, now a portion of the Turkish empire.

GOVERNMENT. Under the Sultan, who resides at Constantinople, in Europe. A constitution was granted to the Turkish dominions in 1876, but the government is still in effect despotic.

DIVISIONS.

Asia Minor, or Anatolia; Armenia; Kurdistan; Syria (including Palestine); Mesopotamia, or Algesira; Irak Arabi.

These provinces are subdivided into Eyalets, each ruled by a pacha.

TOWNS.

Smyrna, in Asia Minor, on the Gulf of Smyrna. Population, 150,000, consisting chiefly of Turks, Greeks, Jews, and Armeni

The largest city of Asia Minor, and chief port of Asiatic Turkey having an excellent harbour and great trade with Great Britain, France, etc. Its chief exports are raw silk, fruits, Turkey carpets, wool.

Damascus, in Syria. Population, about 150,000. Many beautiful mosques and other fine public buildings. Said to be the oldest city in the world, being first mentioned in Genesis xv. 2. Formerly celebrated for the manufacture of sword-blades. Manufactures of silk and cotton are now carried on. Important caravan station. Great inland trade.

Bagdad, in Irak Arabi, on the Tigris. Population, about 100,000. Former residence of the caliphs.

Centre of great caravan trade, with splendid bazaars and large markets.

Erzeroum, in Armenia. Population, about 100,000. Considerable manufactures and trade.

Aleppo, in Syria. Population, about 100,000. It has silk and other manufactures, and is the seat of great inland trade.

Mosul, on the Tigris, the site of the ancient Nineveh.

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