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4. The pupil must remember, that the slide of the voice on a word often determines the sense. For example:

Died Abner as the fool dieth'?

Died Abner as the fool dieth'. In the first instance, I ask if he thus died; in the second, I de clare it.

EXAMPLES.

Rising Inflections. 1. Is there no excess of cold', none of heat to offend me'l 2. Is everything subservient', as though I had ordered all myself "?

3. Is life so dear' or peace su, sweet', as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery'?

4. To purchase heaven has gold the power'!

Can gold remove the mortal hour'?
In life, can love be bought with gold'!
Are friendship's pleasures to be sold'!

FALLING INFLECTION.

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1. The Falling Inflection is a downward turn and continuous slide of the voice, ending in a lower key than it began.

2. This inflection takes place when the sense is finished ; when an affirmation is made, or a command given; and in all languages expressive of authority, boldness, energy and power.

3. The proper use of inflections is important, as they are agents of thought and sense. For example, if the rising inflec tion is given on the word “pauper," in the following passage, the sense will be totally perverted :

4. A person who neglects his business, if he does not become a pauper', will not be likely to amass wealth.

5. By the use of the rising inflection on “ pauper," the pas sage is made to mean, that if he should become a pauper, he would amass wealth—a solecism in terms. But if an intense falling inflection is employed on the same word, the sense is obvious and natural.

ILLUSTRATION.

Falling Inflections. 1. Man was designed for action! 2. An hour passed on, the Turk awoke';

That bright dream was his last'. 3. Read this declaration at the head of the army' Send it to the public halls'; proclaim it there'. Let them hear it who heard the first roar of the enemies cannon'.

4. Charge' ! Chester, charge!! on'! Stanley, on!!

EXAMPLES OF THE RISING AND FALLING INFLECTIONS.

1. The voice must rise', then fall".
2. Did you say high', or low'.
3. Are the people virtuous', or vicious'.

CIRCUMFLEX.

1. A certain kind of emphasis, that unites the rising and falling inflections on one word or syllable, is called circumflex.

2. This is a very peculiar and important modification of the voice, and holds a high rank in reading and oratory, in conse quence of its great significance and power. Its officework is to express doubt, contrast, supposition, contempt, reproof, and irony. When used in the language of irony, it has the pecu liar property of reversing the meaning of words to which it is applied.

3. For example, should a person haughtily refuse you a fivor, and should you reply in a reproving spirit-—“Sir, you are wondrous condescēnding;" you would unite the inflections in such a manner, on “wondrous ” and condescending,” as to make those words imply very disobliging. This, then, is circumflex, used for the expression of irony.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

1. I may go to-morrow, though I cannot go to-dăy.

2. Why, sir, you were paid to fight against Darius, not to mo vile him.

3. But you are very wise men, and deeply learned in the trůth; we are weak, contemptible, méan persons.

4. If you said sô, then I said sô. 5. Chărming house! and chărming lădy of the house ! ha! ha! ha!

6. They boast they come but to improve our stăte, enlărge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error.

7. Thèy follow an adventurer whom they fear, serve a monarch whom we love, a God whom we adore.

MONOTONE.

1. The monotone in Elocution is the continuation of speaking, with little or no variation of pitch.

2. Nature has given it an exalted place in oratory, and when properly applied it is beautiful and effective. It has great force and dignity when used in the delivery of solemn, sublime, and devotional sentiments. Its appropriate and effective use implies a high oratorical accomplishment. But in ordinary conversation, or in colloquial reading, its use is as improper as would be the dinner-horn for church-music. There is only aucasionally a sentence or paragraph that even sublime delivery requires the application of the monotone. Properly used, it may be compared to a wave of the ocean, moving in majesty, and rolling its solemn, unvarying murmur upon the shore.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

1. O thoũ that rõllest above, rõūnd as the shield of my fāthers

Whēnce are thy bēams, O sūn, thy ēverlāsting light, 2. Mārk the storm, as it nēarer comes and rõlls its āwful būrden on the wind.

3. Greāt ocean, that rõlled the wild profõūnd, etērnal bāss in nāture's ānthem.

4. He lõõketh on the ēarth and it trēmbleth; he toucheth the hills and they smoke. The ēverlāsting mõūntains were scattered, and the perpētūal hills did bow. 5. Hīgh on a throne of royal stāte, which fär

Outshōne the wēalth of Ormus and of Ind;
Or where the gorgeous ēast with rīchest hānd,
Showers on her kīngs barbāric pēarls and gold,
Sātan exālted sāt.

EMPHASIS. 1. Emphasis is that peculiar stress of voice given to a word or words in a sentence, in order to express the energy and meaning of the writer or speaker.

2. It is an impulsive agent and representative of meaning, as well as the distinguishing characteristic of a good reader or speaker. The little child and the adult talker use it with eloquent effect, while the reader often totally disregards it. The cause of the difference seems to be, that talkers generally give expression from the heart, and readers, too often, from the mouth only.

3. Emphasis is of two kinds, Absolute and Relative. It is absolute when given on account of the importance of the word

itself; but relative, when two or more words in a senteuce, expressed or understood, are placed in contrast.

4. Emphatic clauses are those in which every word is emphatic.

EXAMPLES.

Absolute Emphasis. 1. He buys, he sells, he steals, he KILLS for gold.

2. I WARN you do not DARE to insult me thus, thou slave, thoa WRETCH, thou COWARD! I will not endure this, never, NEVER, NEVER!

3. Has the gentleman done? has he COMPLETELY done!
4. Risk, fellow men, 't is ROME demands your help.
6. We must fight; I repeat it, sir, WE MUST FIGHT I

Relative Emphasis. 1. We were born to live, as well as die, 2. The sun sets in the west, not in the east. 3. We must cultivate the voice for reading, as well as singing.

Emphatic Clauses. 1. WHY

WILL - YE - DIE? WHY - STAND - WE – HERE - IDLE I 2. By – THAT - DREAD - NAMF, we wave the sword on high,

3. If – ROME – MUST – FALL, heaven and earth will witness that we are innocent.

QUANTITY.

1. Quantity consists in giving voice, swell, and prolongation to vocal elements in enunciation,

2. It bears the same relation to Elocution as to vocal music, giving great beauty and dignity to expression. Fullness and quantity of voice should be given to the expression and delivery of dignified, solemn, grand, and devout sentiments.

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