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1. Tremor is a stress of voice on a vocal element, 80 repeated as to produce a tremulous movement.

2. It is the natural indication of deep and exciting emotion. The tremor gives a thrilling force to the expression even of opposite passions, as joy and sorrow. It should never be used in speech, unless the passion be very agonizing or exciting. It may be used with great effect in song and instrumental music. It is said that the Irish fifers, by the use of the tremor, render some of their performances very exciting.

3. That the voice may be cultivated in tremor, it should be strongly exercised in the tremulous movement, in both the rising and falling inflections, on the table of vocal elements.

4. Tremor may be properly applied to the letters or words in italics in the following


1. O, my offence is rank, it smells to heaven. 2. O, thou blasphemed, yet indulgent Lord God. 3. She mingled her tears with the torrents that froze as they fell. 4. O thou disconsolate widow and mourner on the shores of time.

5. Talk not of parqon there revealed;

No, not for me—it is too late ;
Too late! too late! these tidings come,

There is no hope.
6. Come back, come back, he cried in grief

Across this stormy water;
And I'll forgive your Highland chief:-

My daughter ! O, my daughter !

CLIMAX. 1. Climax in Elocution implies an increase or decrease of voice, energy, animation, and pathos in expression, corresponding with the degree and nature of the climax. It has two divisions-Climax and Anti-Climax.

2 It is a well-settled principle of delivery, that the voice and action must coincide with the nature of the thought and emotion.




Climax. 1. What a piece of work is man; how noble in reason; how infinite in faculties; in form and moving how express and admirable ; in action how like an angel; in apprehension-how like a God !

2. It is a crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds; it is the height of guilt to scourge him; little less than parricide to put him to death;—what name, then, shall we give to the act of crucifying him? 3. The cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces,

The solemn temples,-yea, the great globe itself. 4. I will ascend into heaven; I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will be like the Most High!

5. Clarence has come, false, FLEETING, PERJURED Clarence.

6. If I were an American, I would noť lay down my arms—never, NEVER, NEVER!

Anti-Climax, 1. We had a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all-to pieces.

2. I am to exchange my kingdom, subjects, scepter, palace, jew els, and name, for a LITTLE, little, obscure grave. 3. Receding now, the dying numbers ring

Fainter and fainter, down the rugged dell:-
And now—'tis silent all-enchantress, fare thee well.



1. The subject matter of Reading and Speaking is divided into two departments, the Grammatical and Rhetorical. 2. These may be included under the

GRAMMATICAL. 1. Narrative,

1. Comic,
2. Didactic,

2. Persuasive,
3. Argumentative, and 3. Pathetic, and
4. Colloquial Style. 4. Sacred Style.


1. The Grammatical department has regard, mostly, to the sense of what is delivered. It is to be performed in a natural tone of voice, with a distinct articulation, and always with a direct reference to sense, and not emotion. This style is dry and inanimate, yet it is applicable to most of the transactions of human life, notwithstanding it is the lowest department in the province of Elocution.


1. Man is designed for action. Nature has so constituted him, that both body and mind require daily exercise to develop their powers.

2. America was discovered in the year 1492, by Christopher CoTumbus, a native of Genoa-an expedition having been fitted out for that purpose, at his most earnest solicitation, by the Spanish government.

3. A good articulation consists in a clear and distinct utterance of the different elements of which words are composed.

Narrative Style. He advanced toward the light, and finding that it proceeded from the cottage of a hermit, he called humbly at the door, and ob. tained admission. The old man set before him such provisions as. he had collected for himself, on which Obidah fed with eagerness and gratitude.

Didactic Style.

Do you imagine that all are happy who have attained to those summits of distinction toward which your wishes aspire? Alas! how frequently has experience shown, that where roses were supposed to bloom, nothing but briers and thorns grew. Reputation, beauty, riches, grandeur, nay, royalty itself, would, many a time, have been gladly exchanged by the possessors, for that more quiet and humble station with which you are now dissatisfied.

Argumentative Style. If sensibility, therefore, be not incompatible with true wisdom, what just reason can be assigned, why the sympathetic sufferings which may result from friendship, should be a sufficient inducement for banishing that generous affection from the human breast!

Colloquial Style. Mrs. Credulous. Are you the fortune-teller, sir, that knows everything!

Fortune-Teller. I sometimes consult futurity, madam, but I make no pretensions to any supernatural knowledge.

Mrs. C. I have come all the way from Boston to consult you, for you must know I have met with a dreadful loss.

F. T. We are all liable to losses in this world, madam.


Rhetorical delivery has a higher object then the Grammatical, and calls into action higher and cultivated powers. It is not applicable to composition destitute of emotion, beauty, or sublimity. It not only expresses the thoughts of an author or speaker, but it demands that they be delivered with the force, variety, and beauty which emotion requires.


1. By Heaven! ye shall not die.

2. The accusing spirit flew to Heaven's high chancery with the oath-blushed as she gave it in, and the recording angel, as he wrote it down, dropped a tear on the word, and blotted it out forever.

3. Flag of the free hearts' only home!

By angel hands to valor given;
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome,
And all thy hues were born in heaven.
Forever float that standard sheet;
Where breathes the foe but falls before us 1-
With freedom's soil beneath our feet,
And freedom's banner streaming o'er us.

Comic Style.

Ladies and Gentlemen : You all have probably heard of Sam. Foote, the comedian. If you have not, it is out of my power to tell you anything about him, only, that he had one leg, and his name was Samuel; or to speak more poetically, one leg he had, and Samuel was his name.

Persuasive Style.

I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission! Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none: they are meant for us; they can be meant for no other.

Pathetic Style.

1. I long to lay this painful head

And aching heart beneath the soil
To slumber in that dreamless bed,

From all my toil.

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