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EXAMPLES.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.–VII.

FRENCI. PRONUN. ENGLISH FRENCH, PRONUN.
SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continuod). Bûche Bush Log of wood. Dů Du

Due.
Brûlable Bru-labl

Flute
III. NAME AND SOUND OF THE VOWELS.

That is to be

Flute Flute. burnt. Fut

Fu

A cask. 43. O, 0.—The o has, in French, three different sounds: short, Brulot Bru-lo Fireship. Mure Mure Ripe.

Bruler as in cob; broad and prolonged, as in cord; and full, as in

Bru-lay To burn. Sûreté Sur-tay Safety.
Crů
Kru Growth,

Sur Sure Certain. coat. The short sound, as in cob, is the most common one. The

SECTION XIV.-PLAN OF THE EXERCISES IN COMPOSING o has a broad and prolonged sound, as in cord, when followed

FRENCH. by an r, thus-castor, encore, etc. The full sound, as in coat,

Hitherto the student has been occupied exclusively in acis always given to the o when it has a circumflex accent over it.

quiring facts, forms, and principles, and in translating, by the It is also full when final, as in coco, loto, etc., and when

aid of these, French into English, and again, English into followed by a mute consonant, as in mot, dos, etc.

French. Following still the plan of the work, let him now EXAMPLES OF THE SHORT SOUND.

undertake the higher business of endeavouring to compose in

French. With this intent, let him take some of the words FRENCI. PRONUN. ENGLISH FRENCH. PRONUX. ENGLISH.

given for this purpose in the following lists, and seek to incorBloc Blok Block, Gobelet Gob'-lay Cup.

The words taken Bodine Bo-deen

porate them in sentences entirely his own.
Keel.
Locale Lo-kal

Local.
Botte Bot

Boot.
Mode Mod

Fashion.

from the lists are to be used merely as things suggestive of Crosse Kross Crosier. Morale Mo-ral

Moral. thought. The form which, in any given case, the sentence may

assume, should be determined by the models found in the EXAMPLES OF THE BROAD, PROLONGED SOUND. sections preceding; for every sentence which the pupil has once FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRONUX. ENGLISH.

mastered in the regular course of the sections, is, or should be, to Castor Kas-tor Beaver. Essor Es-sor

Flight, him, a model on which he may at pleasure build other construcButor Bu-tor Bittern. Port Por

Port. tions of his own. Indeed, this constructing sentences according Encore Aun-kor Again, Bord Bore

Shore. to models—that is, shaping one's thoughts according to the Corde Kord

Cord. | Corridor Kor-ree-dor Corridor. forms and idioms peculiar to a foreign tongue-is the true and EXAMPLES OF THE FULL SOUND ACCENTED.

only secret of speaking and writing that language well. The

pupil, therefore, as he passes along in the ordinary course of the French, PRONUN. ENGLISH. FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH.

sections, should frequently be found applying his knowledge in Cite Kote

Hill
Prévot Pray.ro Provost,

the way of actually composing independent sentences; and thus Depot Day-po Storehouse. Role Role

Part. Dime Dome Dome. Róti

he will soon acquire a facility and accuracy in the language,

Ro-tee (trill Roast-meat. Drüle Drole (trill Rogue.

ther)

which is hardly otherwise attainable at all.
the r)
TS

Soon.

LIST OF WORDS FOR EXERCISES IN COMPOSING. Notre Notr

Trône Trone

Throne.
Pole Pole

Pole.
Votre Votr

Yours,

The words in the following lists are given as suggestive of EXAMPLES OF THE FULL SOUND UNACCENTED.

thought. In conducting the exercise a particular word is

selected, as relieur (bookbinder), and the student is required to FRENCH. PRONUX, ENGLISH | FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH, compose a French sentence containing this term. He is duly Mot Mo Word. Zéro Zay-ro

Zero.

notified that he is at liberty to take any thought suggested by Dos Do Back. Lot

Lot. Repos

the word, and to produce a sentence of any form found in any R'po Repose.

0 Os

Bone.

of the sections; regard being had all along to all the rules, notes, 44. U, u.- Name, U, u; sound, like the letter u in the English exceptions, etc., that may bear upon the case. Thus, adopting word brunette.

as a model the sentence, Votre marchand est bien obligeant The sound of this vowel is peouliar, and very diffionlt for(Sect. XVI., Résumé), or, Le Danois a-t-il quelques pommes? (Sect. Englishmen to obtain. We have no sound in the English lan XVII. 7), etc. etc., let him endeavour to produce others of the guage which exactly corresponds to it. The nearest approach like kind. to it is the sound of u in the word brunette,

A little practice will render the exercise both easy and in

teresting. It will soon come to be easy to incorporate not only EXAMPLES.

one, but two, three, or more of the words taken from the lists. FRENCH, Prostx. ENGLISH, FRENCH. PRONUN, ENGLISH. But Bu Aim. Tribu Tre-bu Tride.

1. PROFESSIONS ET MÉTIERS.—PROFESSIONS AND TRADES. Elu Ay la Elect, Tribune Tre-bune Gallery, Acteur, m., actor.

Fruitière, f., fruit-woman. Justice Zhus-teess Justics, t'ne

One. Apothicaire, m., apothecary. Gantier, m., glover. Lune Lune Woon, Cnits ['-nee-tay Crity. Artiste, m., artist.

Graveur, m., engraver.
Xature Na-turo Nature Crne true

t'rn,
Aumonier, m., chaplain.

Horloger, m., clock and watchmaker. Plus Plu

More
Vertu Ver-ta

Virtua
Auteur, m., author.

Instituteur, m., institutrice, f., 45. U. Û CIRCUMFLEX.–Name, L', u; sound, like the letter

Barbier, m., barber.

schoolmaster, mistress. Bijoutier, m., jerceller.

Imprimeur, m., printor. u in the English word brunette.

Blanchisseuse, f., sasherconan, Joaillier, m., jeweller. It must be acknowledged, however, that the English letter u Boucher, m., butcher.

Maçon, m., mason, bricklayer.' does not represent the correot sound of the French th, which is a Brasseur, m., drever.

Naitre d'école, m., schoolmaster. combination of sounds not recognised in our language. Still, Brodeuse, 1., embroiderer.

Manouvrier, m., day-labourer. we must use it as the representative of the sound of the French Charbonnier, m., coalman.

Marehand-de-chevaux, maquignon, #, for the want of a better one

Charlatan, m., quack.

m., horse-dealer. The following rule has also been given, and found useful :

Charretier, m., cartran,

Maréchal ferrant, m., farrier, Chandronnier, m., coprersmith.

shecing-smith, The sound of the French u is based upon that of English e. Pro

Chirurgien, m., suren.

Maréchal, m., blacksmith, nounce the English letter & as naturally as possible, observing at

Cordier, m., ropem cier.

Moissonneur, m., reaper. the same time the position of the internal organs of the mouth.

Corroyeur, m., earrier,

Musicien, m., musician. Now keep these organs in the same position as nearly as pos- Coutelier, m., cutler.

Naturaliste, m., naturalist. sible, protrudo the lips as if to whistle, drawing them nearly Couturière, f., seamnster,

Orateur, m., orator. together at the same time, and then try to pronounce the Couvreur, m., slater, tiler,

Orfèvre, m., gold and silver smith. English e again, which will give you the correct sound of the Cune, m., ticar.

| Pape, m., pope. French .

Dentiste, m., dentist.

Pitre, m., shepherd, herdsman. Practise often aloud, according to the directions of this rule,

Drapier, m., draper.

Perruquier, m., hairdresser.

Ecelsiastique, m., dergyman. | Philosophe, m., philosopher. and suggess will crown your efforts. The rule has never yet

Epicier, m., gmert. failed rt the correct sound of the French' u in this

| Poissonnier, m., poissonnière, I., Fréque, m., beskop

fishmonger. unded by the patient, persevering, and deter Fauchenr, m., T ET,

Prédicateur, m., preacher. wupil.

Fripier, m., a declar in old clothes, Prétre, m., priest

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Rafinear de sucre, de sel, refiner Sellier, m., saddler.

Il n'a pas autant de ceux-ci que de He has not so many of these as 61 of sugar, of salt. Serrurier, m., locksmith.

ceux-là ?

those. Rsno oneur de cheminées, m., chim Tapissier, m., upholsterer,

En a-t-il moins que votre frère ? Has he less of them) than your ney-exceeper. Teinturier, m., dyer.

brother?
Relieur, m., bookbinder.
Tisserand, m., weaver.
Il en a tout autant,

He has quite as many.
Saretier, m., cobbler.

Tonnelier, m., cooper.

Vitrier, m., glasier.
Sculpteur, m., sculptor.

VOCABULARY.
Bleu, -e, blue.

Fer, m., iron. | Manuscrit, m., manu2. L'HOMME.—MAN.

Courage, m., courage. Fromage, m., cheese. script. [smith. Ancêtres, m. pl., ancestors. Gendre, m., son-in-law.

Davantage, more. Hollandais, m., Dutch-Maréchal, m., black. Arrière-petit-fils, m., great-grandson. Grand-père, m., grandfather.

Drap, m., cloth.

man.

Modestie, f., modesty. Bean-fils, m., son-in-law, step-son, Grand' mére, f., grandmother.

Ennemi, m., enemy. Italien, -ne, Italian, Soie, f., silk, Beau-frère, m., brother-in-law. Jeune homme, m., young man.

Espagnol, -e, Spaniard. Jardin, m., garden.

Très, very. Beau-père, m., father-in-law, step Jeune fille, f., young woman, girl.

Estampe, f., engraving. Manteau, m., cloak. | Verre, m., glass, father. Jeunesse, f., youth.

EXERCISE 25.
Belle-fille, f., daughter-in-law, step-Jumeau, m., jumelle, f., tuin,
daughter.
Marraine, f., godmother.

1. Êtes-vous aussi content que votre frère ? 2. Je suis aussi Belle-mère, f., mother-in-laro, step Mari, m., husband.

content que votre frère. 3. Votre père a-t-il autant de courage mother. Naissance, f., birth.

que de modestie ? 4. Il a moins de modestie que de courage. Belle-scar, f., sister-in-law. Nourrice, f., nurse.

5. Lo libraire a-t-il autant de manuscrits que d'estampes ? 6. Biatieul, m., great-grandfather. Nouveau marié, bridegroom.

Il a plus de celles-ci que de ceux-là. 7. A-t-il autant d'amis Bru, f., daughter-in-law.

Nouvelle, mariée, bride.
Descendants, pl., descendants. Orphelin, m., orpheline, f., orphan.

que d'ennemis ? 8. Il a plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. 9. A-t-il Enfance, f., childhood. Parrain, m., godfather.

autant de pain que de fromage ? 10. Il a tout autant de celuiEpoor, m., épouse, f., consort. Petit-fils, grandson.

ci que de celui-là. 11. Le maréchal a-t-il plus de chevaux que Pamille, 1., family. Petite-fille, granddaughtør.

votre frère ? 12. Il en a plus que mon père et plus que mon Femme, f., woman, wifo. Veuf, m., widower.

frère. 13. N'avez-vous pas froid ? 14. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai Hançailles, f. pl., betrothal. Veuve, widow.

pas froid, j'ai très chaud. 15. Avez-vous deux manteaux de Finne, n., fiancée, f., betrothed. Vieillesse, f., old age.

drap? 16. J'en ai un de drap et un de velours bleu. 17. N'avez

vous pas plus de verres que d'assiettes ? 18. Nous en avons SECTION XV.- COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES, ETC.

davantage.* 19. Le maréchal a-t-il plus de fer que d'acier ? 1. Adjectives and adverbs are always compared in French, as 20. n n'a pas autant de celui-ci que de celui-là. 21. Il a moins they often are in English, by means of adverbs.

de celui-ci que de celui-là. 22. Les Hollandais ont-ils de beaux Plas beau, plus souvent, Handsomer, oftener.

jardins ? 23. Leurs jardins sont très beaux. 24. Les jardins

des Italiens sont plus beaux que ceux des Espagnols.
2. The comparative of equality is expressed by aussi —que,
es, or as much-03, before an adjective, an adverb, or a pronoun.

EXERCISE 26.
Aussi aimé que son frère,
As much loved as his brother.

1. Are you more attentive than your sister? 2. I am not so

attentive as your brother. 3. Have you more courage than my Autant de-que de, as much, or as many-as, before a sub

brother ? 4. I have quite as much. 5. Has the blacksmith as stantive.

much money as iron? 6. He has more of the latter than of the Antant de crayons que de plumes, As many pencils as pons.

former. (Sect. VIII. 5.) 7. Has he moro modesty than the Antsat de science que de modestie, As much science as modesty.

Spaniard ? 8. He has more. 9. He has more than your friend's 3. The comparative of superiority is expressed by plus-que, sister. 10. Are you not cold, Sir? 11. No, Sir, but I am afraid are-than, before an adjective, an adverb, or a pronoun.

and sleepy. 12. Has the Dutchman more cheese than the

Italian? 13. He has more cheese and more money. 14. Have Il est plus docile que son frère, He is more docile than his brother,

you as much English silk as Italian silk ? 15. I have more of Plus de—que de, more-than, before a noun.

this than of that. 16. Who has more friends than the Spaniard ? Ilus de bonté que de jugement, More goodness than judgment.

17. Your friend has more. 18. Has the Spaniard as much of 4. The comparative of inferiority is expressed by pas si ; pas

your money as of his ? 19. He has less of mine than of his.

20. Have we more silk cloaks than cloth cloaks ? 21. We surdi; moins--que, not so; not so ; less-than, before an adjec

have more of these than of those. 22. Have you good cloaks? tire, an adverb, or a personal pronoun.

23. Yes, Sir, I have good cloaks, good hats, and good leather Vous n'êtes pas si grand que votre You are not so tall as your sister. shoes. 24. Have you more plates than dishes ? 25. I have not Seur,

more plates than dishes, but I have more glasses than plates, Dext moins poli que son cousin, He is less polite than his cousin.

26. Are you not very cold? 27. No, Sir, I am neither cold nor Pas tant de; pas autant de; moins de que de, not so much, warm. 28. Has your carpenter wood ? 29. Yes, Sir, he has Or 80 many ; less ; fewerthan, before a substantive, a demon. wood, money, cheese, and meat. 30. Who has more money than strative, or possessive pronoun.

the carpenter ? 31. The Dutchman has more. 32. Who has Il n'a pas tant de courage que de He has not so much courage as

more engravings than books ? 33. The bookseller has more of patience, patience.

these than of those. 34. Are you as attentive as your friend? Da moins d'argent que de viande, He has less money than meat. 35. I am more attentive than my friend.

5. Tont autant-que is used for quite as many-as; as much,
just as much, or as many.
J'en ai tout autant que vous, I have quite as many as you.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-IV.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

PARSING AND COMPOSITION. árez-vous antant de livres anglais, Have you as many English books as

By parsing is meant the telling of the parts (pars, Latin, a part) que de livres italiens ?

Italian books?

of speech of which a composition consists. Parsing, besides J'en ai tout autant. I have just as many.

assigning the parts of speech, states the condition in which J'ai autant de ceux-ci que de I have as many of these as of those. the words are, and the relations in which they stand. In its ceux-là.

complete form, parsing cannot be done until the student is Il est aussi heureux que vous. He is as happy as you.

acquainted with the entire grammar. But he may parse as he Avez-vous plus d'assiettes que de Have you moro plates than dishes ?

goes, and as far as he goes. Viewed in this light, parsing is a J'ai plus de ceux-ci que de ceux-là. I have more of these than of those.

sort of practical review made by the student of what he has Est-il plus complaisant que ses Is he more obliging than his brothers ?

done at each step of his progress. Such a practice, if pursued

to the end, leads to a system of complete parsing. And such a de Français a-t-il moins de légumes Has the Frenchman ferer vegetables practice will greatly conduce to a thorough familiarity with the que de fruits ?

than fruits? La moins de livres que de manu. He has fewer books than manuscripts. * Davantage means more. It can never be placed before a noun. scrits.

| It may be used instead of plus at the end of a sentence.

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stw The great difficulty with young writers is to find materials. LESSONS IN FRENT

In consequence, historical subjects are most suited to them. SECTION I.-FRENCH PRONUN

be for But in historical subjects, mere copying is easy, and hence it is

musly apt to be substituted for original composition. It is, then, danIII. NAME AND SOUND Or

w the gerous to entrust boys with mere historical subjects. As, 43. 0, 0.—The o has, in French, thr:

susidered however, I write for young men and young women, I shall as in cob; broad and prolonged, en

Marsing, supply historical subjects; and, in order that the source of coat.

information may be accessible to all my scholars, I shall take The short sound, as in cob, ist?

su already some of these subjects, at least at the first, from the Bible. o has a broad and prolonged sou

e successive

And narrative being the easiest form of composition, I shall by an r, thus-castor, encore, ete.

want. I will begin with supplying you with subjects for short narratives. is always given to the o when it h:

Here, then, is your first
It is also full when final, as

HISTORICAL THEME.
followed by a mute consonant, a

God made the world.
parts of speech, I

Now this is the method you are to observe.
EXAMPLES OF TH

Read carefully,

and as often as necessary, the account given in the commenceFRENCH. PRONUN. ENGLISH.

CATE.

ment of the book Genesis of the creation of the universe. Bloc Blok Block.

When you have impressed the record on your mind, close the Bodine Bo-deen Keel.

www and give as full an

Bible, and, taking slate and pencil, write down as much as
Botte Bot

Boot.
Crosse Kross
Crosier.

possible in your own words, and in simple sentences, the subdhe human an, which has the

stance of the account. Look over what you have written and EXAMPLES OF THE Bi.

eunis beginning with a

correct it. Having corrected it according to the best of your FRENCH. PRONUX.

da consonant.

own judgment, compare it with the original. Compare it first ENGLIE

word mind; it comes in relation to the facts ; if in respect to the facts your report is
Castor Kas-tor Beaver.
Butor Bu-tor

Bitters
sunt valour, the conduct | not correct, make it co

not correct, make it correct. Compare it next in regard to the Encore Aun-kor Again

spelling, and correct your spelling by the spelling of the Bible. Corde Kord

Cora
with its adjective virtuous | Again compare it as to the words. You have one word, the

Bible has another. If your word is positively inaccurate, strike
EXAMPLES OF TI.
ause it avers or declares

it out, and put in its place the scriptural word. But a deviation FRENCH. PRONUN. ENGI: dry, it constitutes the predi.

in word on your part is desirable rather than not, for it shows Côte Kote Hill which is stated of the subject,

that you have comprehended the meaning of the passage, and Dépôt Day-po Stor.'

that you possess, instead of a mere slavish imitation, a power of Dôme Dome

Don

ubject to the verb dislikes. The Drôle Drole (trill Rou

reproduction which may in time enable you to write truly the r)

original compositions. If, therefore, your word is only someNôtre Notr Oui es por PARSING.

what legs appropriate than the word in the sacred page, let it Pole Pole Polet The language of truth is plain.

stand; but at the same time ask yourself, and endeavour to EXAMPLOS O t ory is the food of vanity. The smiles of ascertain, why your word is less suitable. Should you, as you

tanoy in friendship denotes a generous can hardly fail to do, at least as your mind grows and your FRENCH. PRONUN. E from love. Ope vice is more expensive taste improves, meet in the Scriptures with forms of expression Mot Mo

is never sullen. The proper test of which seem to you specially happy or specially forcible, tranDo

number of offenders lessen the disgrace scribe them into a little note-book, kept in the pocket, ever at Repos R'po

name of God with a song. Go to the ant, I hand to receive memoranda, or things deserving to be remembered, 44. U, u.-Name,

heart will receive commandments. The things requiring explanation, things illustrative of important 14.0, U. Name, to the upright. A soft answer turneth word brunette. 3* quietly submits to the yoke. The love

truth, etc.; and having transcribed them, look at them from The sound of this evil. T anar, wiwara little for the

time to time until you have made them permanently your own. Englishmen to obta we have no sound in the English lan-a

s what may be called domestic history, out of which you guage which exa responds to it. The nearest approach like kind. nt supply of useful and interesting materials. to it is the sea word brunette.

A little practice I mean the occurrences and events of your teresting. It will sbeir humblest details. Here you may find

one, but two, three, or as a
PRONUX ENGLISH
Tre-bu Tribe,

1. PROFESSIONS ET 120MESTIC THEME.
Gallery.
Acteur, m., actor.

history during a day.
One.

Apothicaire, m., apothecary. te every minute particular, such as Unity. Artiste, m., artist.

you took, where you took them, Aumonier, m., chaplain.

house, where you went to, what Auteur, m., author.

whom you conversed, what was Portator Barbier, m., barber.

?s and pleasures are closed and ster | Bijoutier, m., jeweller.

ot commit the folly of thinking Blanchisseuse, f., washerwoman. *Boucher, m., butcher.

ir notice. You are learning to tysseur, m., breuer.

ell only by beginning with that to deuse, f., embroiderer.

you are poetically inclined, you Jarbonnier, m., coalman. Tarlatan, m., quack.

walk. karretier, m., cartman.

me alone for a while; it is audronnier, m., coppersmith.

r sounds. It is good sense nirurgien, m., surgeon, umirdier, m., ropemaker.

ct English that I want to lead rroyeur, m., currier.

purpose practice in prose is Larutelier, m., cutler. 09/suturière, f., seamster.

Cery rigid with yourself ; pass touvreur, m., slater, tiler.

O as particular as if you were Suré, m., vicar.

Pi, according to the best of
Dentiste, m., dentist.


Drapier, m., draper.

Peorrect, copy it out into an
Ecclésiastique, m., clergyman.

Phito receive your attempts at Epicier, m., grocer.

Pois as neatly and as well in 48 Evêque, m., bishop.

fisition to neatness, which I DrFaucheur, m., mouer.

Prédie attainment of accuracy. Fripier, m., a dealer in old clothes. Prête in looking back on you

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irtue

Bathinking persons are y deepest.

minert . Siwon hrough the exercises in parsing,

may draw a consta de

By domestic historypty
well acquainted with the pre-
the end of each successivo

own home, even in ti?

| themes enough. Tako
a short composition out of

you may choose as your
$ given you to parse, and
well as you can. At first, Write down on your slan
or never mind that your the time you rose, the meals
er mind that your thoughts the times at which you left there
rite something, and let that you did, whom you met, with det
you wanted a lesson in spell. said, eto, until the day's dution
branscription would be right. you retire to your bed. Do na

tion. Composition in the such a subject unworthy of yoi EU

und then put down what inform yourself, and can begin w Ey
fur own thonghts. with which you are familiar. If
ials for composition, if may narrato
Ins. Suppose that the

A morning
write is this proposi. But begin with prose; let rhy

vary easy to tag together simila

and good feeling expressed in corre y eirtues.

you to, and for so important s

indispensable.
hd the import of the

But whatever your therr
no error; correot all pr'
writing for the pre
your ability,
essay-book
composit
every

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earlier efforts, and comparing together your power of execution. It may be useful to beginners to see the same thought exas it was at different periods.

pressed in simple propositions—that is, propositions or sen. It may be desirable to show you in an example how an tences, not having more than one subject and one object. humble there may be well treated in composition. I take for

BAKING.The same in simple sentences. the purpose one of Pestalozzi's “Paternal Instructions.” It is

Baking is a fruit of civilisation. Indeed, all cooking is a fruit of en the domestic business of

civilisation. The savage knows of no preparation for his food. The BAKING.

savage eats everything raw. The brutes eat everything raw. The Baking, like all cooking, is a fruit of civilisation. The savage brutes also eat with greediness. With similar greediness does the knows of no preparation for his food; he eats everything raw, like the savage take his food. Art may be employed in preparing food. In a brutes; and accordingly he eats it like them, with brutal greediness. proper diet food is prepared by art. Baking, therefore, is an imporA proper diet is possible only when the food is prepared by art. ' tant business. Indeed, cooking in general is an important business. Baking, therefore, and every other sort of cooking, is a far more impor. Cooking is thought to be important. Still more important in reality tant business than at first sight it appears to be. By baking we is baking. By baking we procure the most wholesome of all nutri. procure the most wholesome of all nutriment--that bread which, as a ment. By baking we obtain bread. Bread is a common necessary of cammor necessary of life, we daily ask of God in the most comprehen. 'life. We daily ask bread of God. We ask bread of God in the most sire of all prayers.

comprehensive of all prayers.

COPY-SLIP NO. 20.—COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS 1, i, t.

mult

COPY-SLIP NO. 21.-COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS m, u, t.

COPY-SLIP NO. 22.-COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS t, i, m.

mult

COPY-SLIP NO. 23.--COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS m, i, 1. LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.–VII.

| tating the copies we have placed before them, if they tried to

copy capital letters at this stage of their instruction. The reason OUR readers, who have accompanied us thus far in our lessons is this, that the letters which the pupil has hitherto been copying in Penmanship, finding that they are now beginning to form consist, for the most part, of a straight stroke, while there is letters composed of the bottom-turn, the top-turn, and the top. not a single capital letter that is not formed of sweeping curves, and-bottom tuin, with comparative ease, may be wishing to which cannot be made in a sufficiently graceful manner, unless basten on a little more rapidly, and to be trying their hand at the learner has obtained that pliancy of wrist, freedom of exewriting capitals as well as the small letters. This is a laudable cution, and command over his pen, which can only be acquired wish, without doubt, and one which will be gratified in due by constant practice on the simpler letters. If he were time; but, for the present, our learners must be content to now to try to trace out the curves, that form the letter A advance slowly, remembering that slow progress is the curest he would find that his hand would begin to shake, and his and safest method of attaining proficiency in any art, as the down-stroke be crooked and ragged throughout, owing to the pupil is thereby saved from the danger of hurrying on from one change of direction in which he is compelled to turn his pen; point to another, for the sake of novelty, before he is thoroughly and when he returned to the easier letters, he would further grounded in the rudiments of the art that he is seeking to acquire. find that the check he has received had rendered him less Many who now find themselves able to make a thick down-stroke able to write letters that he had previously formed with ease. of uniform breadth throughout, such as is found in the letter For this reason we continue our copies in large text, as I would lose much of the facility with which they are now imi- | exhibited above.

11. To multiply by 5.-Annex 0 to the multiplicand, and LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.–VII.

divide by 2. ABRIDGED METHODS OF MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

To divide by 5.-Multiply by 2 and cut off the last figure, half (continued).

of which will be the remainder. 6. To divide by 10, or any power of 10.

To multiply by 15.--Annex 0, and to the result add its half. If the dividend have more ciphers for its right-hand figures To divide by 15.-Multiply by 2, cut off the last figure, and than occur in the power of 10 by which it is to be divided, we divide by 3; prefix the remainder so obtained to the figure cut need only take away from it the number of ciphers in the divisor off ; half the number so formed will be the true remainder. to obtain the quotient. Thus, 873000 divided by 100 and 1000 EXAMPLE.-To divide 327 by 15: respectively, gives quotients 8730 and 873. But suppose that

2 x 327 = 654 the dividend has no ciphers for its right-hand figures. Take,

3) 65,4 for instance, the case of 87346 divided by 100. Cut off the two right-hand figures-viz., 46—from the dividend; then 873 will

21 quotient, be the quotient and 46 the remainder. This is evident by

Leaving 2 as remainder from 65. exhibiting the process analytically, thus :

Putting this 2 before the figure cut off-viz., the 4—we get 24, 87316 = 87300 + 46

which divided by 2 gives 12, the full remainder. = 873 x 100 + 46

To multiply by 75.-Annex two ciphers to the dividend, and Therefore 873 is the quotient, and 46 the remainder.

subtract from it its fourth part. The same rule applies to dividing by any power of 10.

To divide by 75.-Multiply by 4, cut off two figures, and 7. Next, suppose the divisor to be not a power of 10, but to divide by 3. Place before the two figures cut off the remainder have ciphers for its extreme right-hand figures ; for instance, to got by dividing by 3, and divide the number so obtained by 4; divide 2764 by 300. There being two ciphers in 300, cut off this will give the whole remainder. the two right-hand figures-viz., 64—from the dividend, and

Thus, to divide 2351 by 75, we have divide the 27 by 3; this gives 9, which will be the quotient,

2351
and the 64 will be the remainder. This is evident by exhibiting
the process analytically, thus :-

3) 94,04
2764 = 2700 + 64
= 9 x 300 + 64

31 for quotient,
Therefore 9 is the quotient, and 64 the remainder.

With remainder 1 from the 94. 8. In this last case there is no remainder after dividing 27 | Prefixing this 1 to the 04 cut off, we have 104. which divided by 3. But suppose we have 2964 to divide by 300:

by 4 gives 26, the full remainder. Proceeding as before, cutting off the one

of 64 and dividing 29 by 3, we get a quotient

To multiply by 125.--Annex three ciphers, and divide by 8. 300) 2964

To divide by 125.-- Multiply by 8, and cut off the three right9 and a remainder 2. But evidently this

9—264 remainder. hand figures. These three figures divided by 8 give the reremainder is in reality 2 hundreds, or

mainder, the other figures being the quotient. 200; and therefore, since 64 is also left over, the whole

The truth of these processes will be better understood after remainder will be 264. Hence, in this case, any remainder

e 264. Hence, in this case, any remainder the learner has read the chapter on Fractions. which is left must be prefixed to the figures cut off, in order to give the whole remainder. The process is exhibited analytically

EXERCISE 14. as follows :

1. Work the following sums in division by means of the 2964 = 2900 + 64

artifices shown above := 2700 + 200 + 64

1. 6035 4 5.

7. 3875 – 125.

13. 7853 + 55. =9X 300 + 264

2. 32561 – 5.

8. 1125 – 75.

14. 4860 • 25. Hence 9 is the quotient, and 264 the remainder.

3. 1256 – 15.

9. 3825 • 225.

15. 94880 • 25. 9. We subjoin one other example:

4. 3507 45.
10. 8450 – 5.

16. 25426 - 125. To divide 25329483 by 723000.

5. 2350 + 25.
11. 43270 + 5.

17. 2876 – 175.
6. 42340 + 25.
12. 2673 - 35.

18. 8250 • 275. Cutting off three figures, viz., 483, from the dividend-since there are three ciphers in the divisor--we divide 25329 by 723, 1.

| 12. To multiply by a number represented by any number of by the common process of Long Division. This gives a quotient

nines repeated. 35, and a remainder 24. Hence the required quotient is 35, and

Annex as many ciphers to the multiplicand as there are nines the whole remainder will be got by prefixing the 24 to the

in the multiplier, and from the number so formed subtract the figures 483 cut off from the dividend. Hence the whole re

original number. Thus, to find 49276 x 99 — mainder is 24483. The process is analytically exhibited as

4927600 follows:

49276 subtract
25329483 = 25329000 + 483
= 35 * 723000 + 24000 + 483

4878324 Answer.
= 35 * 723000 + 24483

EXERCISE 15.
Hence the quotient is 35, and the remainder 24483.

1. Work the following examples in multiplication :
EXERCISE 13.

1. 4791 99. I 2. 7301 × 999. / 3. 6034 999. | 4. 463 x 9999. 1. In one pound there are ten florins; how many pounds are there in 200 forins ? In 340 florins ? In 560 florins?

13. To multiply in one line by a number erpressed by tro 2. In one metre there are 100 centimetres; how many metres are there in 65000 centimetres ? In 765000 centimetres ?

To the product of any figure in the multiplicand, multiplied In 4320000 centimetres ?

by the units' figure of the multiplier, add the product got by 3. Work the following sums in division :

multiplying the figure next on the right of the figure first men

tioned by the figure in the tens' place of the multiplier. Write 1. 26750000 – 100000. 1 3. 582367180309 – 100000000. 2. 144360791 - 1000000. 4. 3360000 – 17000.

down the units' figure of the number obtained by this process,

and carry on the other (or others) as in common multiplication. 4. How many vehicles at 70 pounds apiece, can you buy for EXAMPLE.—To multiply 5768 by 73 in one line :7350 pounds ?

5768 5. How many barrels will it take to pack 36800 pounds of

73 pork, allowing 200 pounds to a barrel ? 10. We do not go into a detailed explanation of the following

421064

Thus, we sayartifices, which are often useful in performing calculations with ont writing, or in mental arithmetic, as it is called. The truth

3 x 8 = 24; write down 4 and carry 2 of them will readily be seen by any one who has mastered the

3* 6 + 2 = 20; 2) + 78=76; write down 6 and carry 7

3 * 7+7= 28; 28 + 7 x 6 = 70; write down 0 and carry 7 previous processes, and their explanation will be a useful exer 3 x 5 +7= 22; 22 + 7 7 = 71; write down 1 and carry 7 cise for the student.

7 * 5 + 7 = 42, which write down.

figures.

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